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Augustus Caesar

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Augustus Caesar of Rome was born with the given name Gaius Octavius. He took the name Gaius Julius Caesar after the death of his great uncle and adoptive father Julius Caesar. Caesar made Octavia the heir and willed his properties to him.

Marcus Antonius also called Mark Anthony was Julius Caesar’s top lieutenant. Mark Anthony, Caesar Octavian, and another Roman General, Marcus Lepidus, formed the second Triumvirate. Mark Anthony took Caesar’s possession of his papers and assets and expected that he himself would be the principal heir. He refused to hand over Caesar’s funds, forcing Octavian to pay the late dictators bequest to the Roman populace. In 40 B.C, Anthony married Octavia, Octavian’s sister, and later left her for Queen Cleopatra in Egypt. When Anthony gave Roman provinces to his children by Cleopatra, Octavian declared war on Anthony. This is because, his children with Cleopatra were non-Roman citizens. The Roman Navy under Agrippa defeated the combined fleets of Antony and Cleopatra, and within a year, both had committed suicide. This battled was called the battle of Actium.

In 42 BC, Octavian and Anthony matched towards the East to revenge Caesar’s death. After Caesar died, his two assassins, Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus fled to the East. They had a great army and a legion. The second Triumvirate declared this war to avenge Julius Caesar’s assassination in 44BC. The battle consisted of two engagements in the plain west of the ancient city of Philippi in Macedonia. Brutus forces faced Octavian, while Cassius forces faced Anthony. Cassius was defeated by Anthony, and committed suicide after hearing a false report that Brutus had also failed. The battle between Octavian and Brutus was essentially a draw. After a second encounter, Octavian finished off Brutus's forces, and he committed suicide in turn, leaving the triumvirate in control of the Roman Republic. This battle was called the battle of Philippi.

Also, during the reign of Octavian, the legendary king, Jesus, was born. He was born in Bethlehem, Jerusalem. The three kings, who are also called the three wise men, came from the East being led by the stars. King Herod feared for his position and ordered all new born babies of Jerusalem to be killed. The three wise men brought gifts for the new born baby Jesus. These distinguished foreigners who were led to Bethlehem by the stars brought gifts of Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh. Fortunately, King Herod didn’t succeed in killing the baby Jesus because, his parents heard the news and fled away with him.

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