Free Essay

Autism and Mental Retardation

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By nason
Words 1257
Pages 6
1. List the primary features of autism. Some of the primary features of autism would be:" The individual’s lack of responsiveness, including extreme aloofness and lack of interest in other people, has long been considered the central feature of autism." (Comer, R. J. 2005) the typical autistic child does not like to be held and will wiggle and sometimes fight from being held. Language and communication problems are an issue with the autistic child, many times they are non-verbal or will repeat words. "Autism is also marked by limited imaginative play and very repetitive and rigid behavior." (Comer, R. J. 2005)Sometimes the autistic child have movements that do not appear normal to others, but it is the repeatedly behavior that the autistic child will do to calm themselves. Sensory issues to materials, sounds, and stimuli. "Sometimes the individuals seem over stimulated by sights and sounds and to be trying to block them out, while at other times they seem under stimulated and to be performing self-stimulatory actions.". (Comer, R. J. 2005)
2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? There are a few explanations for autism, which are no longer considered valid. At first, theorists thought that family dysfunction and social stress were the primary causes of autism. . (Comer, R. J. 2005)At one time, it was thought that autism could have been caused by social and environmental stress." Investigators who have compared children with autism to children without the disorder have found no differences in the rate of parental death, divorce, separation, financial problems, or environmental stimulation." (Cox et al., 1975). (Comer, R. J. 2005) (Comer, R. J. 2005)Some theorists state that it could be caused by central perceptual or cognitive disturbance that would make normal communication impossible. There is not a concrete biological explanation for autism. "Perhaps all relevant biological factors (genetic, prenatal, birth, and postnatal) eventually lead to a common problem in the brain—a “final common pathway,” such as neurotransmitter abnormalities, that produces the cognitive problems and other features of the disorder."(Comer, R. J. 2005)

3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? There are several treatments for the person with autism. Early intervention is the best beginning for the person with autism. Treatments of particular help are behavioral therapy, communication training, parent training, and community integration. "In addition, psychotropic drugs and certain vitamins have sometimes helped when combined with other approaches."(Volkmar, 2001; Tsai, 1999) (Comer, R. J. 2005)Behavioral therapy is used to teach appropriate behaviors, including speech, social skills, classroom skills, and self help skills, while reducing negative, dysfunctional ones. This is to teach the desired behavior and guide people with the disorder to imitate it the appropriate behavior. Communication therapy, parent training and community integration can help make a functioning autistic person function in society.
4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: In addition to a low IQ score of 70 or below with poor commutations skills and unable to adapt to "normal" living skills can put a person in the category or mental retardation. "According to DSM-IV, people should receive a diagnosis of mental retardation when they display general intellectual functioning that is well below average, in combination with poor adaptive behavior. (APA, 2000, 1994).(Comer, R. J. 2005)

5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. When the test is given to those that have been raised in the upper socioeconomic it can become biased to children that are not raised with the same socioeconomic level. "The tests rarely measure the “street sense” needed for survival by people who live in poor, crime-ridden areas—a kind of know-how that certainly requires intellectual skills."(Comer, R. J. 2005)The test can become bias and declare a person to be mentally retarded when in fact the test could be at a disadvantage due to the cultural differences or discomfort with the testing situation.

6. Of the four levels of mental retardation, into which category do most people with mental retardation fall? There are four levels of retardations the mild, moderate, severe and profound. "The mild retardation is where most people fall. "Some 85 percent of all people with mental retardation fall into the category of mild retardation (IQ 50–70)."(APA, 2000) (Comer, R. J. 2005)

7. What are the main types of biological causes of mental retardation? There are a number of biological causes of mental retardation.
"The primary causes of moderate, severe, and profound retardation are biological, although people who function at these levels are also greatly affected by their family and social environment." (Hodapp & Dykens, 2003; Bruceet al., 1996). (Comer, R. J. 2005)Chromosomal Causes has gotten more attention by the media, by adding children with "down's syndrome into popular TV series." The most common of the chromosomal disorders leading to mental retardation is Down syndrome, named after Langdon Down, the British physician who first identified it." (Comer, R. J. 2005)"Metabolic Causes, are caused by the pairing of two defective recessive genes, one from each parent. Prenatal and Birth-Related Causes, fetal alcohol syndrome or by "Poisonings, serious head injuries caused by accident or abuse, excessive exposure to X rays, and excessive use of certain drugs pose special dangers."(Comer, R. J. 2005)

8. What is the only way to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome?
Simple, Do not ever drink alcohol when you are pregnant to becoming pregnant.

9. What are normalization and mainstreaming? Normalization is encouraging those with mental retardation to take risks and function independently .Mainstreaming is placing them in classes with other children.
10. What is your opinion about mainstreaming and normalization for children and adults with autism or mental retardation?

My opinion of mainstreaming and normalization of children and adults with autism or mental retardation could think of as a bias. I have two grandsons that are autistic, one grandson that is severely autistic and is non-verbal. The other grandson, which is high functioning and verbal. Other than being the apple of grandma's eye. I believe that all autistic and mental retardation should be able to mainstreamed into society. In everyday life, we need to be more open to people who have everyday struggles. Kids without autism/ mental retardation do have an easier time socializing and behaving correctly in given situations. These autistic and children with mental deficits' need to be structure into society and to learn positive social skills. Because the normal kids/ adults know the special needs people are different, and (kids being kids sometimes adults being adults), find a way to amuse himself or herself at the expense of the different child/adult. A common problem that occurs is the normal children or adult realize the special needs child/ adult will copy them it is a very basic way in which many autistic children/adult attempt to interact. Therefore, the normal children and some adults go out of their way sometimes maliciously, sometimes not, the result is the same regardless of motive to get the autistic child/ adult to copy some inappropriate behaviors. Kids are kids, just as adult are adults and will behave in as they are taught. If the staff is able to teach all of the children/ adults the appropriate behavior all of the children/ adults can have a positive approach to the child/adult that was being mainstreamed.

References

Comer, R. J. (2005). Fundamentals of abnormal psychology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Worth.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Autism and Mental Retardation

...Autism and Mental Retardation Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder. It influences a person's ability to communicate and how they interact and socialize with others. Those with mild forms of autism can be high-functioning and can live on their own, while others with severe cases may remain non-verbal and function on a very limited basis. 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? Thimerisal in children’s vaccines does not cause autism. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? Special education class’s area available for autistic children, structured-behaviorally based programs that are geared toward the patient’s developmental level, parental education on behavioral techniques, and therapy for both parents and the autistic child. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: Thorough neurologic and psychiatric evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of a mental retardation. 5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. All cultures do not develop their children at the same speed and level as other. So when a patient from an under developing sociocultural is being tested the diagnoses may reflect mental retardation, when it is not the case at all. 6. Of the four levels of mental retardation, into which category do most people with......

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Autism and Mental Retardation

...University of Phoenix Material Appendix F Autism and Mental Retardation Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. A. The primary feature of Autism are the language problems, communication problems, the lack of responsiveness, rigid behavior, unusual motor movements, limited imaginative play, overstimulation’s, and under stimulations as well. 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? The explanation for autism that is no longer valid and does lack research support is the sociocultural theory which states that autism is from parents being distance their children, but it has not been able to be proven through any research they have done. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? The form of treatment that are helpful for a person with autism would be behavioral theory, and communication training and community integration as well. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation The criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation are below average general intellectual functioning as well as poor adaptive behavior. 5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. Sociocultural would have to do with environmental conditions as well as social status and based on that people may not be able to understand that even in the perfect environment......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Autism and Mental Retardation

...Autism and Mental Retardation Kelly Maag PSY/270 August 24, 2014 Cathy Matresse Autism and Mental Retardation This paper is about Autism and Mental Retardation. I will be telling you about the features, treatments, how mental retardation is diagnosed, and the explanation is no longer considered because of the lack of support for it as well as several other things about each of these diagnoses. I hope it will give a person a better understanding about these conditions and maybe help educate people more about what these people go through as well. Autism Primary Features There are several primary features of Autism that a person will show. Some of the different features are, being “extremely unresponsive to others, uncommunicative with others, repetitive, and rigid” (Fundamental of Abnormal Psychology Ch. 14 p.448). Children with autism have a hard time making friends and socializing appropriately with them. They may have an eye to eye gaze when they are being talked to and may not have much of an imagination when it comes to playing. They may hardly talk and the best thing parents can do for a child they have that had autism is to treat them normal and help them find a way to communicate with others. Explanations of Autism There are many different explanations for why a child is how they are. When it comes to autism cognitive limitations and brain abnormalities are the primary causes of autism. “Theorists once thought that family dysfunctions and social......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Autism and Mental Retardation

...Autism and Mental Retardation PSY/270 August 2, 2013 Autism and Mental Retardation 1. List the primary features of autism. The primary features of autism are; a) Social Skills: Children or people diagnosed with autism show signs of delayed social development. Many people with autism make very little or no eye contact; show little interest in making or establishing friendships, and few seek out play mates or engage in make believe play. People with autism are easily upset whenever there is a change in their routine, and any minor disruption can cause them to go into an outburst. b) Language: Autism influences a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others in social atmospheres. Autistic children are usually set back when it comes time to learn to speak. Many people with autism speak in an abnormal fashion; some may speak in robotic tones or sing their words and phrases. They may even often sound like a broken record, -- repeating words over and over again. They may even act as though they are deaf, refusing to respond when their names are called. c) Behavioral: Most autistic children and adults will avoid any physical contact. They may respond better to a slight touch, but any other type of affection such as cuddling or hugging they try to avoid. Some autistic people will fixate themselves to certain objects like oscillating fans, spinning tops. They may sometimes display repetitive movements, such as rocking their body’s back and......

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Autism and Mental Retardation Check Point

...Autism and Mental Retardation Check Point Roberto Castro PSY-270 07/29/2011 Professor Andrew Graham LPC Autism and Mental Retardation Check Point Autism and Mental Retardation Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. The basic features in early childhood autism are social isolation, mental retardation, language problems and stereotyped ritualistic behaviors such as rocking back and forth, lining up toys over and over again. 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? Causes no longer considered by researchers are socio-cultural causes where claims of family dysfunction and social stress (environmental stress) were the primary cause psychological factors are also not the cause for autism, malnutrition, food allergies, immune deficiency, or watching television. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? Behavioral therapy, communication training, parent training, community integration and psychotropic medication and certain vitamins has helped when combined with other approaches. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: The Criteria for diagnosis Mental Retardation according to the DSM-IV is a) Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning; an IQ of approximately 70 or below on an individually administered IQ test (for infants a clinical judgment of significantly sub-average intellectual functioning). b) Concurrent......

Words: 793 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Genetic Disorders

...Child Psychology Final Project Spring 2012 Jordan Lair Disorder #1: Mental Retardation Key Characteristics: Children that have Mental Retardation sometimes have poor memory, they’re slow learners, have attention problems, have problems generalizing what they already learned, and they lack motivation. Frequency of Occurrence: According to nichcy.org (2011), Mental Retardation occurs in approximately 6.5 million people in the United States. Resource #1: Medscape Reference website http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/289117-overview * This website provides the following information: overview of the disorder and all the different causes. * Something I found to be very interesting on this website was how many different causes to Mental Retardation there are. * This website listed about 16 causes to Mental Retardation, but it also says that there are some unknown causes as well. I chose this website because it describes all of the different ways Mental Retardation is caused and I feel that will help parents out to determine what exactly caused their child to have it. Resource #2: Education.com http://www.education.com/reference/article/characteristics-children-mental-retardation/ * This website provides the following information: characteristics of the disorder, self-care and daily living skills of people with the disorder, social development, and some positive attributes of people with this disorder. * The thing I found very interesting on...

Words: 3015 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Educating Special Needs Students

...paper is to define and identify the causes of mental retardation, autism and severe disabilities. In addition, it will discuss the areas of the curriculum which is necessary for students with these severe disabilities. Mental Retardation is defined, when a person has a certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of themselves and social skills. The cause of mental retardation according to doctors is genetic conditions, in which this is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents. Some examples of this are genetic conditions of Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome and phenlketonuria (PKU). Mental retardation is not a type of mental illness, there is no cure for it (The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NDCCD), 2004). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines mental retardation as, “significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, which adversely affects a child's educational performance (2004)”. NDCCD identifies mental retardation as “a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. Some of these limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk,......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Austism and Mental Retardation

...Assignment: Autism and Mental Retardation CUT AND PASTE THIS ASSIGNMENT TO SUBMIT IT Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. • Unresponsive to others • Uncommunicative • Repetitive • Rigid • Pronominal Reversal Language and communication problems 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? Theorists first believed that autism was due to family dysfunction and social stress. Kanner thought that particular personality characteristics of the parents caused an unfavorable climate for development and contributed to the child’s disorder. Research has been unable to support this theory. Another theory that was not supported is a high degree of social and environmental stress. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? There is no treatment that reverses the autistic pattern, but behavioral therapy, communication training, parent training, and community integration are very beneficial. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: People tend to be diagnosed with mental retardation when they display general intellectual functioning that is well below average also have poor adaptive behavior. 5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. Intelligence test are biased due to the fact that middle and upper socioeconomic class have an advantage. 6. Of the four levels of mental retardation,......

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Autism

...Autism and retardation List the primary features of autism. Impaired social interaction and communication are the primary features of autism, with restricted and repetitive behavior occurring in many patients. Information processing is impaired in the brain, and the condition is life-long. 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? That autism is caused by vaccines. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? Early behavioral and cognitive intervention helps autistic children improve their social and communication skills, and some move on to become independent as adults, but this isn’t the norm. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: IQ below 70, evidence that the limitations were apparent in childhood, and significant limitations in two or more areas of adaptive behavior, such as social skills, memory skills, problem solving ability and self care. 5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. IQ testing has come under the gun as being socioculturally biased and therefore causing some children to be labeled retarded when they didn’t speak the language at a level that would demonstrate their true IQ. 6. Of the four levels of mental retardation, into which category do most people with mental retardation fall? Mild level – IQ from 50-70 7. What are the main types of biological causes of mental...

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Autism Discussion

...Autism and Mental Retardation Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. Rigid, communicative, behavior with everything going on. 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? With all it is really slacking some kind of help for any of the autism program (Comer, 2011) If we could describe autism as to attending a developed through our on parenting and our caregiver response for those children who has autism by giving them rejecting to the child and the rigid witch mean this is no good for us.. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? I would have to say communication training, and Behavioral theories is (Comer, 2011) another one as well with community integration and most of all parenting training would be a good on to. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: Intellectual function would be one or having the disabilities would be like having a poor (Comer, 2011) adaptive behavior as another thing to have. 5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. I believe with most of the individuals they can only receive the (Comer, 2011) diagnosis partly only, because they would have least flows and their cultural differences can be very discomfort when you are been testing. 6. Of the four levels of mental retardation, into which category do most people with mental retardation fall? I believe......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Article Critique

...Running Head: AUTISM, ATTACHMENT AND PARENTING 1 Article Critique on Autism, Attachment and Parenting Jennifer L. York Liberty University AUTISM, ATTACHMENT AND PARENTING 2 Abstract This paper examines Rutgers et al.’s research article regarding autism, attachment and parenting. It is a comparison of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Mental Retardation (MR), Language Disorder (LD), and non-clinical children. This article addressed the issues of autism, attachment security, and parenting among the clinical and non-clinical groups. The author’s attachment security research was conducted using a variety of both screening questionnaires, and several parental self-report questionnaires assessing their parenting styles, parental efficacy, experiences of daily hassles, social support and psychological problems. Through the use of these questionnaires, observations by pediatric psychologists, and a follow-up at approximately four years of age, it was demonstrated that the children with ASD were rated less securely attached than both other clinical and non-clinical groups. Also, the parents of children with ASD reported a less authoritative parenting style and felt they received less social support than the parents of non-clinical children. This paper will delve deeper into their research and consider the results as it applies to the discipline. AUTISM, ATTACHMENT AND PARENTING 3 Article...

Words: 1160 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Educating Special Needs Students

...teaching of special needs students magnifies the importance of these traits even more so. Mental retardation, autism, severe and even multiple disabilities, while posing additional impact and challenges on the education process for students, these issues are in no way insurmountable. Well thought out curriculum plans implemented through special policy, services, and programs are necessary to ensure that any student has every opportunity available to them for a successful education experience that will carry through beyond their student years. Mental retardation is descriptive of a disability that includes both intellectual as well as behavioral problems and until recently, was often used as a blanket statement to cover a wide variety, if not all, disabilities. In 2006, The American Association on Mental Retardation changed its name to The American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAID, 2009) to reflect a change in this attitude. They state that “intellectual disability is one that is characterized by significant limits both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills (AAID, 2009). While a number of the causes of intellectual disabilities are still being studied, fetal alcohol and Down’s syndromes, and fragile X all have connections to mental retardation (Prevention News 1997). Autism is defined as a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first......

Words: 1284 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Wk3 Stereotypes

...Stereotypes Donna Wolfe PHI 103 Informal Logic Instructor: Carol Parker August 12, 2013 Stereotypes The first stereotype I would like to look at is older workers. Many employers believe it is not worth the time and expense of hiring older people as workers. When referring to ‘older people’ I am speaking of people over or very close to the age of 60 years. It is a waste of time to hire them, spend money to train them, just to have them get sick, not be able to handle the job or retire. The argument for not hiring older workers is based in profits. Older people have shorter time to work before they will be leaving an employer, either to retirement or due to health reasons, older people get sick more often than younger people do, and older people cannot use new technology. In an article entitled Older workers: an exploration of the benefits, barriers and adaptations for older people in the workforce we find the following: “Negative stereotypes of older workers included that they are resistant to change, lack energy and enthusiasm, are unable to adapt to new technology and reluctant to undertake training” (Frasier, L. et al 2009 pg 3 para 1) There are many misconceptions in this thinking. Older workers are more experienced, which benefits a company – they don’t need as much training or one on one working with a mentor. They are more likely to be able to do their work without the shadowing of another employee. They are more likely to be stable in their work ethnics,......

Words: 1084 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Neurobiology

...and nerves are all involves in neurological disorders. Neurological disorders are wide ranging, it has various causes, complications, and outcomes. There are several cases of neurological, according to first sign organization the most common neurological disorder is mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder considered as the second most common disorder. Mental retardation occurs during childhood. This disorder is considered as a disability. It limits our intellectual functioning and adaptive skills. It affects the development of communication, conceptual skills, social skills, self-care, home living, social skills, self-direction, community use, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work. The intervention strategies are to promote the development, education, interest, and personal being. As well as providing distinctive supports can improve personal functioning, promote self-determination, social inclusion, and personal well-being of a person with mental retardation. According to Autism Society, Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex developmental disability. It appears during early childhood before 3 years old. Some of the specialists can identify the warning of a child having autism spectrum disorder. It is also referred as “Persuasive Development Disorder”. This disorder affects people differently and in differing...

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Developmental Disorder

...Developmental Disorders   Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Diagnosis The first diagnosed case of ASD was in 1938 by American psychiatrist Leo Kanner. A diagnosis of ASD can be made accurately before the child is 3 years old but the diagnosis of ASD is not commonly confirmed until the child is somewhat older. The ages of diagnosis can range from 9 months to 14 years however the mean age of diagnosis is 13 months. On average each case of ASD is tested at 3 different diagnostic centers before confirmed. Early diagnosis of the disorder can diminish familial stress, speed up referral to special educational programs and influence family planning. In the brain The cause of ASD is still uncertain. ASD is a disorder of the cortex, which controls higher functions, sensation, muscle movements, and memory. What is known is that a child with ASD has a pervasive problem with how the brain is wired. The distribution of white matter, the nerve fibers that link diverse parts of the brain, is abnormal. An ASD child’s brain grows at a very rapid rate and is almost fully grown by the age of 10. Symptoms Signs include impairments in social interactions, communication and repetitive or restricted patterns of interest or behaviors. There are also different symptoms at different ages based on developmental milestones. Children between 0 and 36 months with ASD show lack of eye contact, seem to be deaf, lack of social smile, doesn’t like being touched or held, unusual sensory behavior,...

Words: 1907 - Pages: 8