Free Essay

Aviation Security

In: Business and Management

Submitted By bgerardo
Words 3337
Pages 14
Invasive Security: Does it Work

Bruno Gerardo

Introduction to Canadian Aviation (MOS 1022F)

Dr. Suzanne Kearns

23 November, 2011

On September 11, 2001, the world watched in terror as America was under attack. As a result of these events, the aviation industry was restructured to improve reliability and security of commercial air travel. Although the new security changes have improved the overall safety of air travel, concerns have been raised that the changes introduced are invasive to privacy, and are an infringement of individual rights. Biometric and advanced imaging technology have been criticized for this reason, however, they have been effective at preventing further terrorist attacks. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the security measures that have been introduced as a result of September 11th 2001, and evaluate the effectiveness of the changes and how they impact both safety and privacy. Keywords: Biometrics, Advanced imaging technology, September 11

Invasive Security: Does it Work
On September 11, 2001, the world watched in terror as America was under attack. Early that morning, four commercial airliners departed from Newark and Boston with arrivals at San Francisco and Los Angeles were taken over by nineteen hijackers (National Commission, 2004). Two of these aircrafts collided with the Twin Towers in New York City resulting in the destruction of both buildings. An additional aircraft flew into the Pentagon in Washington D.C, and the final aircraft was over taken by passengers that crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania (National Commission, 2004). These events caused 2,996 causalities and affected the lives of countless individuals across the world (National Commission, 2004). As a result of the events of September 11th, 2001, major safety concerns have been addressed in regards to the reliability and security of commercial air travel.
Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, critical flaws were exposed in the aviation industry that required an in-depth analysis of airport security (National Commission, 2004). It has become a major priority to evaluate and improve the security of air travel around the globe. The effects of September 11th, 2001 have not only affected the airlines in United States, it also changed the aviation industry on a national level (Blunka, Clarka, & McGibany, 2006). Airline companies experienced a significant financial loss because travellers were choosing alternative methods of transportation, as they were fearful of additional terrorist attacks (Blunka, et al., 2006). In order to increase the number of air travellers, the industry needed to regain their confidence in the security provided by the airline industry so that passengers would feel safe and protected (Gonzales, 2002). Security changes needed to be reviewed as the system failed and caused countless deaths of innocent lives. Countries throughout the world, especially in the western hemisphere, quickly developed new security regulations. Some of these regulations included new security measures, biometric technology, and advanced imagining technology (AIT). Although these regulations served to improve the safety of air travel, they also raised concerns of invasion of privacy (Campbell, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the security measures that have been introduced as a result of September 11th 2001, and evaluate the effectiveness of the changes and how they impact both safety and privacy.
Airport Security Flaws Prior to 9/11 The 9/11 Commission Report conducted in 2004, revealed weaknesses in aviation security prior to September 11, 2001 (National Commission, 2004). The al Qaeda terrorists responsible for the attacks were able to exploit these weaknesses in order to complete their mission (National Commission, 2004). The flaws uncovered in the system included that the pre-screening process did not focus on detecting potential hijackers; rather it focused on detecting potential aircraft bombers (Elias, 2005). The rules in regards to checkpoint screening and small knives were negligent (Elias, 2005). The overall in-flight security measures were inadequate as flight decks were easily accessible, and air marshals were nonexistent (Elias, 2005). An industry-wide strategy regarding how to comply with hijackers in a non-confrontational manner had not been developed. In addition, the protocols for executing coordinated military action did not address multiple or suicidal hijackings (National Commission, 2004). The 9/11 Commission Report (2004) also identified areas of change and made recommendations to improve security in order to reduce the likelihood of a future terrorist attack in the United States.
Security Changes Post 9/11 After September 11, 2001, the United States security system was restructured and many changes were introduced (National Commission, 2004). One of the changes was the Transportation Security Act, which was implemented in the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in order to centralize security of the airport system, and create a federalized means of screening passengers at airports (Leo & Lawler, 2004). TSA officials increased from 16,000 in 2001 to 44,000. Furthermore, TSA increased the amount of funding for passenger screening and baggage screening (Leo & Lawler, 2004). Prior to September 11th, 2001, metallic detection portals and hand wand detectors were used as a primary source of screening (Elias, 2005). These tools were flawed as they had limited abilities, and could not detect non-metallic objects and plastic materials, which could be used as a weapon. The Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System II (CAPPS II), which was previously implemented, was also upgraded to improve airline passenger profiling and to review security risks (Leo & Lawler, 2004). Several security changes were introduced after September 11th, 2001 that improved security and did not invade the privacy of passengers. One of the changes introduced was the list of prohibited items in carry on bags. In 2006, the Transportation Security Administration announced the 3-1-1 rule that restricts the quantity of liquids, gels, or aerosols allowed on the aircraft (Mead, 2002). It became a requirement that all liquids must be 3.4 ounces or less, 1quart size plastic zip-top bag, and that 1 bag per passenger was allowed (Mead, 2002). In addition, many changes were implemented that improved security on the aircraft itself. These changes included that flight deck doors were secured in order to prevent unauthorized access, as previously, passengers had access to the flight deck (Mead, 2002). As well, the number of air marshals present on domestic flights increased, and pilots now have the option to carry a gun if they are properly trained on how to operate it (Leo & Lawler, 2004). All passengers are required to show valid photo identification issued by the government prior to boarding an aircraft (Campbell, 2005). This change was implemented because the 9/11 hijackers boarded the aircrafts with improper identification. Finally, restricted areas in airports were introduced such as ramps and operational spaces now require special authorization to enter (Mead, 2002).
Privacy Concerns Although the new security measures have improved the overall safety of air travel, concerns have been raised that the changes introduced are invasive to privacy, and are an infringement of individual rights. Human Rights activist groups and watchdogs such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), believe that the government is violating the Fourth Amendment by implementing new measures such as, biometrics and advanced imaging technology (American Civil Liberties Union, 2002). The Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution states: “The right of the people to be secure in their per- sons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreason- able searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized” (U. S. Constitution.).
Although these groups raise legitimate concerns in regards to privacy, there are numerous advantages to biometric and advanced imagining technology that outweigh the disadvantages as they serve to protect the society as a whole.
After the terrorist attacks, the government of United States implemented the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Act which requires all individual’s entering the United States of America to eventually have travel documentation that uses biometric identifiers. Biometrics is described as, “the automatic identification or verification of living human beings based on behavioral or physiological characteristics.” (Campbell, 2005). It consists of identifying an individual based on biometric measurements of hand geometry, fingerprints, deoxyribonucleic acid patterns and eye iris scans which are stored in government databases (Campbell, 2005). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis is currently the most reliable biometric measurement available. Eleven of the fifteen countries in the European Union are using national identification and radio frequency identification technology (RFID) on their passports (Campbell, 2005). This system helps to identify individuals in a manner that is quick, reliable and allows government agencies to access criminal records and perform background checks. Currently, the United States utilizes digital fingerprints and photographs, which are, standardized measurements suggested by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (Woodward, 2000). According to ICAO, they recommended facial recognition as a standard biometric measurement (Woodward, 2000). ICAO also suggests that each country should be free to add a second biometric of its choice (Woodward, 2000). There are several important privacy concerns regarding the use of biometric technology. A major threat to personal privacy is known as, “function creep” (Campbell, 2005). In this process, the original purpose of collecting the data is broadened to include other purposes. Data can be used and collected for other purposes without the informed consent of the person providing the information (Campbell, 2005). For instance, in the United States, law enforcement agencies are allowed in twenty States to use DNA samples collected by biometrics for research studies (Campbell, 2005). In addition, certain companies and organizations are interested in gaining access to genetic date. In some cases, insurance companies would benefit from biometric data that indicates whether an individual will develop a disease (Campbell, 2005). Since biometric databases contain extensive amounts of personal information, it is likely that data will be used for reasons other than airport security (Campbell, 2005). This raises a number of ethical issues about the use of this information and questions whether these databases are being appropriately monitored. Other concerns relate to the tracking abilities of biometric technology. Members of the public fear that biometrics are used by the government of the United States to monitor their activities and invade their privacy (Woodward, 2000). Massive databases that contain detailed personal information make it difficult for individuals to maintain their anonymity (Woodward, 2000). A major disadvantage of biometric technology is that it cannot be used solely to determine terrorist behavior. Most scientists believe that since biometric technology does not consider the interaction between genes and the environment, it is not a reliable source of predicting behavior (Campbell, 2005). Therefore, if the airport security system relies solely on biometric technology, it will not be able to fully protect the public. Overall, the use of biometrics raises a number of ethical issues and privacy concerns. Although there are a number of disadvantages to this type of system, according to the Department of Homeland Security, biometrics have proven to make entry and exiting the United States more efficient and safe (McCormick, 2008). The implementation of the NEXUS card allows travellers to quickly bypass lines at airports and border crossings without sacrificing safety (McCormick, 2008). The biometric identifier is very difficult to steal or replicate and therefore, provides a higher level of security (Campbell, 2005). Travel documents cannot be duplicated which reduces the ability to perform identity theft (Campbell, 2005). Campbell (2005) stated that biometric has successfully identified many terrorists and has prevented further attacks. In 2004, the United States, implemented the National Security Entry Exit Registration program in which male citizens over the age of 16 from certain countries are required to give photographs and fingerprints when they enter the United States (Campbell, 2005). This program has successfully identified 11 individuals linked to terrorism and has provided evidence for terrorism related charges (Campbell, 2005).
Advanced Imaging Technology In 2007, TSA implemented Advanced Imagining Technology (AIT), as a result of the need for increased security, and numerous complaints regarding the aggressive nature of personal searches (Homeland Secruity, 2010). There are two methods of AIT known as backscatter and millimeter wave. “Backscatter (AIT) uses a narrow, low-energy x-ray beam that scans the surface of the body at a high speed. This method has been introduced as an alternative to personal searches because it is less intrusive since technology can penetrate through clothing in order to reveal concealed weapons. Millimeter wave technology bounces harmless electromagnetic waves off the body to create the same generic image for all passengers” (Homeland Secruity, 2010). This technology is currently used in 90 airports throughout the United States of America and can be found in many locations in the world such as Canada, France, Netherlands, Nigeria and the United Kingdom (Homeland Secruity, 2010). These machines are able to quickly detect security risks that may arise at a security checkpoint. The media has caused a public perception that AIT increases the risk of cancer, especially for pilots, flight attendants, and frequent flyers. According to TSA, the technology is safe and does not pose a health risk to the public because the x-ray dose produced is very low and is not harmful to human beings (Homeland Secruity, 2010). The backscatter and millimeter wave produce a 0.10 micro Sievert, which is equivalent to the amount of radiation an individual receives in seventeen minutes from the natural environment (Homeland Secruity, 2010). This technology also raises concerns of invasion of privacy as the scanners reveal detailed images of the individual’s anatomy. Viewing these images violates confidential medical information (Hindman, 2010). For instance, the images expose if an individual has a medical condition, uses specialized medical equipment, or is transgendered. These images are stored in large databases and have been leaked to organizations (Hindman, 2010). Travellers also fear that their images will be leaked out, which can cause stress and anxiety in air travel (Rothman, 2010). As well children are required to go through security checkpoints and therefore their images are also being stored. This is a breech of child protection laws that prevent the storage of nude images of children under the age of 18 (British Broadcasting Corporation, 2010). Although there have been concerns about the system violating privacy rights, overall, there has been positive feedback from the public regarding the AIT in airports. A poll conducted by the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) indicated that four out of five Americans support the use of this technology at airports throughout the United States (Homeland Secruity, 2010). Recently, TSA has reacted to public concern, by upgrading their software system to enhance passenger privacy (Homeland Secruity, 2010). The new and improved software system is more effective by creating generic outlines of a person and has the ability to automatically detect threats. The implementation of AIT has allowed visible minorities to pass security without having to remove turbans, hijabs, burqas, casts, prosthetic limbs, or loose clothing. Visible minorities are able to pass through the security system without facing harassment or discrimination as the technology is able to screen all types of clothing (American Civil Liberties Union, 2002). TSA is continuously striving to improve the technology in order eliminate health risks, improve privacy, and increase security measures.
Several recommendations are made in order to address public concerns regarding privacy and also maintain a high level of security in the aviation industry. Firstly, education to the public is required regarding how the data collected by biometric technology is utilized to reduce fear and anxiety of travellers. Secondly, it is important that the sole purpose of monitoring is to track potential terrorists such as travel patterns. The use of any other information collected by biometric or advanced imaging technology should require informed consent. Thirdly, informing the public of the advantages of advanced imaging technology systems as well as dispelling myths about health risks will help to regain travellers confidence. Finally, it is necessary to develop legislation that ensures images are stored properly, that databases are secured to prevent unauthorized access, and that images are stored in compliance with child protection legislation. It is recommended that the government take the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution into consideration when developing security measures. Overall, these recommendations will assist to reduce public fear and anxiety regarding privacy concerns.
In conclusion, the events of September 11, 2001, were extremely devastating, however, they caused many valuable changes to the airport security system. Prior September 11, 2001, there were major flaws in the security system including an inadequate screening process, weak in-flight security measures, and protocols that did not address appropriate hijacking response techniques. The 9/11 Commission Report made important recommendations in order to improve security and prevent future terrorism attacks. New security measures were introduced, such as prohibited items, increased presence of air marshals, and valid photo identification. In addition, biometric and advanced imagining technology was also introduced. Although these systems have proven to be effective, they have also been criticized for invading the privacy of the public. Human rights and watchdog groups support this view and indicate that the security system violates the Fourth Amendment of the American Constitution. These groups raise important concerns, however, there are numerous advantages to the security measures that have been implemented. Since September 11th, 2001, there has not been any terrorist attacks using aircrafts and the skies have been a safer place for passengers. Although there have been terrorist attempts, protocols have proven to be effective in preventing an attack. Furthermore, as terrorists can adapt to new security measures, it is crucial that the aviation industry to continue to explore and develop advanced technology in order to remain one step ahead of the terrorists. For this reason, passengers may have to sacrifice personal privacy for freedom and safety.
American Civil Liberties Union. (2002, June 12). American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved October 31, 2011, from ACLU:
British Broadcasting Corporation. (2010, January 5). Airport body scanners to get code of conduct. Retrieved October 31, 2011, from BBC News:
Campbell, L. M. (2005). Rising Government Use of Biometric Technology: An analysis of the United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Prgram. International Society for the Reform of Ciriminal Law , 99 - 106.
Elias, B. (2005). Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission . New York City: Congressional Research Service.
Gonzales, J. V. (2002). Flying While Arab: Passenger Profiling in the Aftermath of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks. International Travel Law Journal , 76.
Hindman, S. A. (2010). Full-Body Scanners: TSA’s New “Optional” System for Airport Searches . Issues in Aviation Law and Policy , 10 (2), 337-368.
Homeland Secruity. (2010, October 4). Fact Sheet: Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT) Health & Safety. Retrieved November 5, 2011, from Transportation Security Administration:
Jennifer G. Leo, J. P. (2007). A Study Of Passenger Perception And Sensitivity To Airport Backscatter X-Ray Technologies. International Business & Economics Research Journal , 6 (7), 11-17.
McCormick, C. (2008). North American Review: Congestion Charging, Delayed Funding Approval, Security, Passenger Processing and the Environment. Airports International , 41 (2), 14-19.
Mead, K.M. (2002a) Challenges Facing the TSA in Implementing the Aviation and

Transportation Security Act, Report Number CC-2002–088, Office of Inspector

General, Department of Transportation, Washington DC.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (2004). The 9/11 Commission report including executive summary: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Rothman, W. (2010, November 16). Leaked U.S. Marshal body scan images revealed. Retrieved October 31, 2011, from MSNBC:
Scott S. Blunka, D. E. (2006). Evaluating the long-run impacts of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on US domestic airline travel. Applied Economics , 34 (4), 363-370.
Woodward, J. D. (2000). Facing Up to Terrorism. Biometrics Consortium Conference (pp. 3-11). Arlington: RAND publications.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Aviation Security

...Aviation Security Since the September 11th 2001 attack, aviation security has become a main focal point of national security. Air travel is one of the most frequently used forms of transportation within the United States and is supported by over 400 airports across the country. During this attack, terrorists utilized the weakened state of security in airports to fulfill one of our nation’s most devastating events. Due to these events security measures have increased dramatically over the last ten years to include new technology and security programs to reduce possible terrorist threats from boarding plans. I would like to understand if the correlation between the increased aviation security measures and the deterrence of terrorist utilizing this form of transportation in a terrorist plot. Understanding whether or not aviation security measures are effectively deterring terrorist threats could help shape the future of transportation security within the United States. If effective then some form of these security programs can then be applied to other forms of transportation such as railways or buses. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) states We use layers of security to ensure the security of the traveling public and the Nation's transportation system that include intelligence gathering and analysis, checking passenger manifests against watch lists, random canine team searches at airports, federal air marshals, federal flight deck officers and more......

Words: 1350 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Aviation Security

...Airport Security Cade Andrew Howe Embry riddle University Airport Security Aviation security is the techniques and methods used to provide safety to passengers at airports across the globe. Millions of people pass through various airports every day. This can lead to imminent terrorist strikes that can kill hundreds of people. The ability to use a hijacked plane as a weapon is something terrorists aim to achieve. This act of terrorism was accomplished on September 11, 2001 when several terrorists successfully hijacked three commercial planes in America. Since this day, the Transportation Security Administration implemented different layers of security throughout the country to ensure this act of terrorism never happens again. The main goal of the TSA is to reassure the traveling public that they are safe and to protect airports. Airports have changed mainly to government run enterprises. Therefore roads, bridges and other transportation related projects being funded by the government have done the public good. However, privatizing an airport through security and management has its benefits as well such as lowering the government’s budget and improving efficiency and competition. Private management can reorganize the airports costs and revenues thus funding more for security, increasing revenue and cutting costs. With government owned aviation security privately owned airports has been found to be a better solution to government controlled. After TSA’s takeover in......

Words: 710 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Aviation & Transportation Security Act

...Aviation Aviation and Transportation Security Act Abstract The passage of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) in 2001 changed the way the aviation industry operated and how passengers travel. The ATSA forced the US Government and aviation to change its security culture to ensure protection of passengers and employees from future attacks like those that occurred on September 11, 2001. The ATSA was passed and signed into law in direct response to the security vulnerabilities that surfaced during the 9/11 attacks. This paper will demonstrate how the ATSA affected how US Government agencies and aviation industry upgraded security processes in an effort to prevent terrorists from attacking the US in the future. Aviation and Transportation Security Act After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the United States Congress turned its focus towards tightening airport security by voting to standardize airport security nationwide. Before 9/11, airport security was the responsibility of airports and contracted security services utilizing unskilled passenger and baggage screener personnel. Screeners where overworked and received a minimum wage average salary. Many mistakes caused by inadequate employee security training created numerous security vulnerabilities throughout the aviation industry. After the 9/11 attack, a federal government controlled, stricter, and more sweeping passenger and baggage screening replaced this flawed system. With the......

Words: 2440 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Aviation Security

...AVIATION TERRORISM Thwarting High-Impact Low-Probability Attacks TERRORISME AÉRIEN Contrecarrer des attaques improbables à impacts élevés A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Graduate Studies of the Royal Military College of Canada by Jacques Duchesneau, C.M., C.Q., C.D. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy April 2015 ©Jacques Duchesneau © This thesis may be used within the Department of National Defence but copyright for open publication remains the property of the author. ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF CANADA COLLÈGE MILITAIRE ROYAL DU CANADA DIVISION OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH DIVISION DES ÉTUDES SUPÉRIEURES ET DE LA RECHERCHE This is to certify that the thesis prepared by / Ceci certifie que la thèse rédigée par JACQUES DUCHESNEAU, C.M., C.Q., C.D. AVIATION TERRORISM Thwarting High-Impact Low-Probability Attacks complies with the Royal Military College of Canada regulations and that it meets the accepted standards of the Graduate School with respect to quality, and, in the case of a doctoral thesis, originality, / satisfait aux règlements du Collège militaire royal du Canada et qu'elle respecte les normes acceptées par la Faculté des études supérieures quant à la qualité et, dans le cas d'une thèse de doctorat, l'originalité, for the degree of / pour le diplôme de PHILOSOPHIÆ DOCTOR IN WAR STUDIES Signed by the final examining committee: / Signé par les membres du comité......

Words: 155225 - Pages: 621

Free Essay

Term Paper

...NATIONAL AVIATION UNIVERSITY Air Transportation Management Department TERM PAPER On discipline“Basis of systems theory and management” Topic: «Airport as a complex system on the example of Boryspil» Kyiv 2012 NATIONAL AVIATION UNIVERSITY Department of air transportation organization TASK for course paper preparation student Roksolana Novytska Topic of the term paper: “Airport as a complex system”_______________________ 1. Period of term paper preparation: since ________2012 year till_______2012 year. 2. Stages of term paper preparation: * … 3. The task was given by________________________________(_______________________) (signature) (name) “______”____________2012year. 6. The task taken for solving _____________________ (signature of student) The term paper grade ______________________________________ The head of the commission: ________________________________________________”___”__________2012 year. Members of the commission: ___________________________________________________________ Abstract Total volume of course work is 37 pages. Contains 22 figures and 5 references. The aim of the thesis is to investigate Boryspil airport in terms of Systems analysis course. The work includes theoretical studies of all......

Words: 9002 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Hospitality Management

...Air Transpor 1069917 5 May 2011 SFT 1007-1011 Introduction to air transport The impact of recession in air transport(passengers demand, economic cycles, current developments) The reports covers the entire aviation industry and will include the recession aspect and its consequences on the passengers demand, the economic cycle and also on the current developments. 1.0 Introduction One of the biggest international industries, the air transport, has the largest sensitivity on the economic crisis. That crisis hit and still continues to effect the populations, industries and economic growth in developed and developing countries. Every sector has been effected by the crisis, every industry has had a reaction and an immediate research for solutions. Instability of revenue and expenditure in the airline industry was effected from the global change. That for is easy to deduce that these reactions are different from each other. This in according to available founds, resources and differences in management. 2.0 Impacts on demand The demand aspect, is a factor that shows us the relationship between population and economic crisis. In fact, the perception of crisis brings different fears and uncertainty in people. Thus leading to an increase of the overall savings, with consequences under the economic factor, with less expenditure incurred by each person. This is one of the things that influenced more directly the airline industry, with a sharp drop in......

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Business Environment

...might have a highly positive cross elasticity of demand with the market for cars? Describe its impact on the market for cars. (12 marks) 2. Describe and show the effects on equilibrium market price and output in the weekly market for newspapers of the following: (a) a decrease in printing costs (b) an increase in consumer income. (c) a substantial reduction in the price of iPads (6 marks each) 3. Why are cigarettes taxed so heavily? Explain using demand curve analysis. (8 marks) Part B (50%) The Aviation Industry: Annual Data The data file gives the figures for aviation in the UK from 1980 to 2010 * Air Transport movements: the number of aircraft take-offs and landings [ measured in thousands] * Terminal Passengers: the number of passengers arriving and departing UK airports [measured in thousands] The data can be found in the excel file labeled BMAM700 assignment 1 Aviation data available on blackboard. Required: Using the data set described above 1) Derive the value of the correlation coefficient between “air transport movements” and “terminal passengers”. 2) Derive a scatter graph to show the relationship between the two variables; terminal passengers and air transport movements. 3) Determine the coefficient of determination and the regression equation linking “air transport movements” and “terminal passengers” 4) Use your regression...

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Aeronautical Term Paper

...Name: Jacob ZumBrunnen Date: December 8, 2014 M8 Module 8 – Aviation National and International Laws and Regulations, and Environmental Issue LOB 4 Explain the impact of environmental issues and environmental laws in the aviation industry Web Support link: Minimizing the industries environmental impact. The aviation community has led the way in promoting advances aimed at reducing its environmental footprint for many years. Aviation emissions only make up a fraction of all of the transportation emissions, while business aviation makes up an even smaller fraction of that. As an example of something to reduce emissions and optimize aircraft performance and flight range over a decade ago winglets were introduced into general aviation. This equipment also contributed to more efficient fuel burn and is now in place on a large number of general aviation aircraft. In addition, the industry continues to reduce engine emissions by applying new technologies, which means that today’s aircraft engines are cleaner, quieter, and more fuel-efficient than ever. Operational improvements advanced by business aviation also have resulted in national airspace system efficiencies that help the environment. Over two years ago, NBAA members began equipping aircraft, at their own cost, with cockpit technology allowing for reduced vertical separation minimums (RVSM), effectively doubling the system’s airspace capacity. In......

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ethical Basis

...International Aviation I. Answer at least one of the following discussion questions in the respective thread of the Module 8 - International Aviation Discussion Board forum. * Topic 1 – NextGen and Unmanned Air Vehicles Describe the advantages of NextGen Technology and why it is important that it be implemented in our National Airspace. * Topic 2 - Treaties Discuss one of the primary Conventions, Protocols, or Treaties that affect international aviation today. * Topic 3 - ICAO Explain the purposes and accomplishments of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). II. Read and comment on the answers posted by your classmates. You are only required to answer one of the two discussion questions, but please do read the thoughts of your classmates on both topics and engage one another in lively discussions. The ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was a result of the Chicago Convention becoming officially in 1947. The mission statement of the ICAO was to its aims and objectives are to develop the principles and techniques of international aviation and to foster the planning and development of international air transport, to as to meet the needs of the international civil aviation community. The ICAO has different purposes: 1) Safe and orderly growth of civil aviation 2) Aircraft design and operation for peaceful services 3) Development of airports, airways, and air navigation facilities for international civil......

Words: 412 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Marketing Segmentation

...Embraer and Cessna Market Segmentation Embraer is a Brazilian aerospace company that produces commercial, military, executive, agricultural aircraft and provides aeronautical services. The Cessna Aircraft Company is an American general aviation aircraft manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas. Best known for small, piston-powered aircraft, Cessna also produces business jets. Market Segmentation Cessna Aircraft are sold to private businesses, governments, individuals, freight airlines, charter airlines, and air taxi companies. Cessna has several competitors domestically and internationally in various market segments. Cessna’s aircraft compete with other aircraft that vary in size, speed, range, capacity and handling characteristics on the basis of price, product quality and reliability, product support and reputation. Embraer (ERJ) operates in the following four major business segments: commercial aviation, defense and security, executive jets, and agricultural aircraft. Commercial aviation is Embraer’s largest business segment, contributing about 52% of the company’s total sales. Applying the concepts of determinants of service quality by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry (1985) to Embraer and Cessna Reliability: Cessna’s Promise “Safety is the top priority for Cessna when designing and manufacturing aircraft.. Combining both active and passive safety features ensures that every new aircraft is designed and equipped to deliver...

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Impact of Civil Aviation on the U.S. Economy August 2011 Contents 3 4 6 6 8 12 18 18 19 19 20 20 25 26 28 30 32 36 38 38 40 40 42 44 48 Foreword Overview Introduction Economic Impact of Civil Aviation Highlights Current Outlook Impact of the Recession on U.S. Airlines, Coping Strategies and Future Outlook National Impact of U.S. Civil Aviation Methodology Types of Economic Impacts Measures of Economic Impacts Update Results Aviation’s Contribution to Gross Domestic Product Real Change from the Previous Year Manufacturing General Aviation FAA Spending Overview Enabling Impact Passenger Expeditures Freight Flows Freight Exports Domestic Air Freight Conclusion Appendix – Supplemental Tables Glossary of Economic Terms Foreword Look around. In today’s ever-changing and innovative world, aviation provides a vital link to economic opportunities at home and abroad. In the wake of global economic and financial uncertainties, runways have become the new main streets for cities and towns to get down to business and soar once more. In 2009, civil aviation supported over 10 million jobs, contributed $1.3 trillion in total economic activity and accounted for 5.2 percent of total U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Civilian aircraft engines, equipment and parts also contribute $75 billion toward the U.S. trade balance. Civilian aircraft engines, equipment and parts have been the top net export for the past decade. Our economic success clearly depends on the success of aviation. So......

Words: 17539 - Pages: 71

Free Essay

Manaager's Perspective; Aviation Maintenance

...Aviation Maintenance from A Manger’s Perspective Lisa A. Williams Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Management 203 Christopher Urdzik April 26, 2015 Abstract This paper explores aviation maintenance from a Manager’s perspective. There are various governing bodies that control or oversee how maintenance is performed on a routine basis for commercial aircraft. The main governing body that is discussed here is the FAA. Also discussed is the required training of the Airframe and Powerplant mechanic and how management can be assured that mechanics are qualified to release aircraft after performing maintenance certifying these aircraft are safe to fly. Also, in this paper, the attempt is made to show where mechanics need ongoing training to assure management that the mechanic is trained on new technologies that are developed and used in commercial and corporate aviation. The answers are not mapped out by the FAA or training programs so it is up to the company to be sure that the mechanic is made aware of these new technologies through FAA study groups that managers can attend and brief technicians on new developments. Human error cannot be eradicated it is indispensable fact of the human behavior (Maddox, 1998). Although, aviation maintenance managers have acquired high levels of technological skills training related to their profession, the above statement from Dr. Michael Maddox is true in regards to human error. Research in the......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Air Charter Business Proposal

...Air Charter Business Proposal i Air Charter Business Proposal from an Information Technology Perspective. Steven R. Marcum, Steven Cross and Jeffery Prendergrast Introduction to Management Information Systems MGMT 221 Professor Ira Strauss January 15, 2011 Air Charter Business Proposal ii Abstract The objective of this project is to develop a business proposal for an air charter company that caters to the tourism trade from an information technology standpoint operating in the Hawaiian Islands. The technologies that will be discussed will range from hardware and software requirements for weather, flight planning, crew scheduling and maintenance operations. To begin we will examine the flight planning system known as Jeppesen Flite Star IFR which is considered one of the world's leading desktop flight planning technologies. It includes advanced features and innovations such as Vector Plus mapping technology and vector chart themes, which offer low and high altitude en-route chart emulations as well as user-customizable charts which includes all of the complexities involved in the planning of a typical commercial airline flight from the aspect of the flight operations dispatcher. Next as we continue we will turn the discussion to crew scheduling which will lead us to Flight Pak which provides management with aircrew scheduling in both local and ZULU times. The discussion will point to how the system will provide more accuracy in the......

Words: 3428 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Crew Resource Management

...MITIGATION OF ERROR by Michael Raynard Mayberry A Paper Submitted to the Worldwide Campus In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Aeronautical Science Corporate Aviation Operations ASCI 622 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide Campus November 2011 Abstract Crew Resource Management (CRM) has been a great asset to flight safety by properly using resources for pilots and aircrew. The use of CRM have been effective with other training tools to help encourage better communication and to improve decision making skills. CRM is a valuable asset to companies training program if the technical skills are utilizes in the proper manner. CRM errors will never be eliminated, but the use of effective CRM skill can prevent a substantial amount of errors from ever occurring. Keywords: aviation, CRM, error, human error, decision making, safety Mitigation of Error Crew Resource Management (CRM) has been a great asset to flight safety by properly using resources for pilots and aircrew. Not all researchers accept the concept of CRM to manage error because of its import from other airlines and other training organizational. Other culture and situations could have been worse and not justified use in the United States due to its culture and environment. The researcher will discuss the ability of CRM to eliminate some error; although error can never be completely eliminated, the skills of CRM are an exceptional source that was......

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Imapact of General Aviation

...Air Transportation Management The Impact of General Aviation General aviation is considered one of the three main segments of the aviation market. The other two being commercial aviation and military aviation. General aviation operations are anything other than military and common carriage. Without general aviation, the industry would suffer in countless ways, possibly even collapse. General aviation includes, literally, every other civilian job except for the few related to the airline sector. What I consider the most important ones are aerial firefighting, flight instructing, pipeline patrol, corporate, bush piloting, agricultural, and test piloting. Flight instructing is one of the most important jobs that there is in the aviation industry. It is where pilots obtain the proper training and skills necessary to be safe and adequate. I believe flight instructing is most likely the most underrated and underpaid job in the aviation industry. Without this job, all pilots would have to come from the military, which would cause a severe shortage of pilots. Pipeline patrol requires pilots to fly aircraft at very low altitudes over varying terrain to observe pipelines and check for any problems or vandalism within the lines. Another type of this job is for pilots to patrol the U.S. borders in search for illegal activities. Without either of these general aviation jobs, more resources and man hours would be required to check oil pipelines and secure our borders. Corporate......

Words: 631 - Pages: 3