Premium Essay

Bacteria And Bacteria Similarities

Submitted By
Words 1059
Pages 5
Bacteria are one of two types of Prokaryotic cells; the other being Archaea. The term “Prokaryotic” is Greek for “before nucleus”; therefore, bacteria are types of cells with no official nucleus. Cells with a nucleus came later on as life progressed, those being the Eukaryotes. Archaea and Bacteria are often confused together as they have very similar physical characteristics. They both have the same shape, size, and appearance, along with no membrane-bound organelles, but they have different ancestral origins and Archaea have more complex RNA polymerases. Each bacterial cell contains a capsule, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, flagella, pili, ribosomes, and plasmids. The capsule is the outer layer of the cell and is composed of polysaccharides, …show more content…
During conjugation, plasmids on the donor cell are transferred and deposited onto the receiving cell, accepting new genetic information. As the smallest structures in a bacterial cell, finally comes the ribosomes. Ribosomes are spherical, freely floating granules of RNA and proteins. Prokaryotic ribosomes are like eukaryotic ribosomes, except slightly different in composition and molecular structure. Antibiotics tend to inhibit ribosomes along with the cell wall, killing the bacteria and not the eukaryote the bacteria is currently …show more content…
Just because a prokaryote is small, it does not mean its composition is simple and easy to research. In fact, scientists have probably only discovered the smallest fraction of information about bacteria. Bacteria are found worldwide on every single thing humans are composed of and interact with. The small size of the prokaryote leads to it having a larger surface area to volume ratio than to eukaryotic cells, which have a larger volume to surface area ratio. The advantage of having a larger surface area compared to the volume indicates that there is a rapid distribution of nutrients inside the cell, along with an effective way of easily disposing of wastes.
In order to classify a species of bacteria, it must be cultured. Culturing includes one bacteria isolated and matured. Once the bacteria is isolated, morphology characteristics can be determined. Examples of characteristics include growth patterns (aerobic/anaerobic growth), hemolysis, and staining. Anaerobic growth of bacteria does not use oxygen, as it sometimes kills the bacteria or isn’t sufficient in helping the organism

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Bacteria And Eukaryotes Similarities

...proteins that help an enzyme get within a close vicinity of the substrate. When looking at both bacteria and eukaryotes this would be the idea of helping DNA compact and correct placement within the cell. A common anchoring protein in bacteria is racA. This is needed for formation of axial filaments which allows for the anchoring of the origin region to the cell...

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay Writer

...Name Institution Date Bacteria and Archae Bacteria and Archae are two domains of organisms that share a lot of characteristics yet have astoundingly different features that separate them from two distinct classes of organisms. Perhaps the most vivid similarity between the two domains is the fact that they are both Prokaryotes. It means that both bacteria and Archae are single-celled organisms with no real organelles. Their nuclei are not membrane bound and so are their mitochondria. (Berg, Martin, Martin, Solomon, 2014) The single-celled nature of bacteria and Archae does not allow them to reproduce sexually. Instead, they reproduce by way of binary fusion in which one cell spontaneously splits into two cells, each of the two cells split into two, and the cycle continues. Over time, they inexplicably multiply and become numerous. The new cells produced are most of the time a replica of the parent cell. The cell structure of bacteria and Archae exhibits are different kind of formation in comparison to multicellular organisms. Both of the organisms have the cell wall outside the cell. The semi-permeability nature of the cell wall enables them to filter out what goes into the cell or what stays out. Moreover, the cell wall provides the supporting frame for both the organisms. Furthermore, the cell wall has other attachments referred to as the flagella. I t is these structures that enable both the organisms to move and for locomotion. All these similarities are further......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Unknown Report

...such as PCR, Simple and Gram staining, anaerobic growth tests, IMViC, Catalase, Oxidase, selective and differential media to identify an unknown microorganism. The Unknown organism studied was labeled “J” and found to be a gram negative, rod shaped bacteria that does not produce endospores. The selective and differential agars produced no growth on the MSA agar plate showing that the bacteria did not favor a salty environment of the Mannitol salts and showed an acidic by product in the selective and differential media of MacConkey’s Agar. The bacteria showed to metabolize sugars but did not produce any gaseous byproducts. After 16s rRNA was processed and run through a PCR, electricphoresis was used to run the RNA out on a gel in order to sequence the RNA which was then compared in a database. Furthermore, the Unknown J did not produce or metabolize starch. The bacteria did not react with the Citrate, KEY oxidase. When compared to other known bacteria tested, unknown J proved to be Escherichia coli. Introduction: Identifying bacterial causes for certain diseases that have affected the population or identifying growth on old bread is not new to science. Joseph Lister developed one of the first ways to separate the desired unknown bacteria from other bacterial colonies in 1867. Lister’s aseptic technique, used in both science and healthcare, destroys the microbes that are growing on the tools before they are utilized (Carolynm, 2009).This technique applies to...

Words: 2923 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Microbiology Slp 5

...According to the World English Dictionary Bacteria is a very large group of microorganisms comprising one of the three domains of living organisms. They are prokaryotic, unicellular, and either free-living in soil or water or parasites of plants or animal (World English Dictionary, 2011). Most people view bacteria as a germ or an unhealthy parasite. However there are many Bactria's that are health and germ free. Ordinarily, bacteria can be found on your everyday house hold products even in your food. One of the most common bacteria found in food is Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus is an anaerobic bacterium that produces large amounts of lactic acid in the fermentation of carbohydrates. Lactobacillus is often found in yogurt, cheese, wine, chocolate, and other fermented foods. Lactobacillus also lives in human digestive, urinary, and genital systems without causing disease. It's also known for absorbing nutrients, breaking down food, and fighting off bacteria that can cause diarrhea. Lactobacillus is helpful in many ways; on the contrary, there are some side effects. Lactobacillus can cause harm to individuals with weakened immune systems. Thus, people that suffer with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or organ transplant recipients my cause harm to them self. The live bacteria in Lactose's could also assist with the weakening of the immune system. Moreover, Human Immunodeficiency Virus hurts the immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection.......

Words: 393 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Direct and Indirect Staining

...or somewhat colorless, but the edges are distinct and we can see the shapes of the bacteria very well. Direct staining using crystal violet produces bluish or purplish colored bacteria and the shapes are well distinguished also Indirect staining using Congo Red is like the negative film version of direct staining. The bacteria or organism is left uncolored but it can be seen because of the reddish background that surrounds it. Since it leaves the inside of the bacteria untouched, we can see the inside of the cell wall. B. Discuss whether you were able to identify specific bacterial morphologies. Looking at the prepared slides on the Lab Manual, I was able to identify the various bacteria via their shapes. Cocci are round shaped bacteria, while bacilli look to me like medicine capsules or very small submarines. The slides with spiral bacteria seem to have multiple arms sticking out of a round center, kind of like the spokes of a bicycle wheel or a clock with multiple hands. The rest are variations on those shapes C. Explain the difference between direct and indirect staining. Direct staining is the technique of applying a dye that colors the cell itself. This is achieved by applying a dye that has positive ions that is attracted by the negatively charged bacterial cell wall e.g. crystal violet. On the other hand, an indirect stain causes the dye to color the space around the bacteria because it reacts negatively or is repelled by the bacterial cell wall because......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...cells and lead to various complications depending on their target organs. The most common types of pathogens include bacteria, protozoa, fungi and Viruses. The modes of action when the pathogens get into the host organism are similar. They first multiply then start destroying different tissues and cells in the host organism. They may release toxins that make the host environment conducive for their survival. The toxins harm the cells of the host organism, thus leading to different illnesses. The illnesses caused are normally very infectious, and they may lead to epidemics. This paper will compare and contrast the pathogens causing whooping cough and zygomycosis. Causal pathogens Whooping cough and Zygomycosis are some of the infectious diseases caused by different pathogens. In whooping cough, the pathogen infects the respiratory system, causing severe coughing in the victims. It is caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis. Zygomycosis is a broad range of fungal infectious diseases that affect the face; particularly the nasal cavity, and the eyes as well as the skin. It is caused by fungi in the Mucorales and Entomophthorales (Vazquez Para 1). The pathogens causing whooping cough and Zygomycosis have several similarities and differences. Classification Bordetella Pertussis belongs to the Kingdom Bacteria, and it is in the phylum Proteobacteria. The bacteria are in the class Beta Proteobacteria and order Burkholderiales. It belongs to the Alcaligenaceae family......

Words: 1553 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Chapter 17 Study Guide We will focus on only a few key concepts from this chapter. You should already be familiar with many of these concepts from other courses. 1. It is believed that the first organisms appeared on Earth around 3.8 billion years ago. What evidence do each of the following for this occurrence? • Stromatolites -the earliest forms of lfe for which we have clear fossil evidence -a bulbous mass of sedimentary layers of limestone accreted by microbes over years -within the outer layers, microbes grow as a microbial mat (sort of like a biofilm) -outer laters of mat contain oxygenic phototrips that exude bubbles of oxygen -a few mm below surface, red light supports bacteria photolyzing H2S to sulfate which is then reduced by lowe layers of sulface reducing bacteria -fossils formed as layers of phototropic microbial communities grew and died their form filled in by calcium carbonate or silica -accepted to date as eatly as 3.4 Gyr ago -too deformed to reveal the detailed structure of cells and the biological origin of such fossils is questioned by some researchers -mainly in isolated pools whose high salt concentration exclude predators • Microfossils -the most convincing evidence for ealy microbial life is the visua appearance of microfossils which are microscopic fossils in which minerals have precipitated and filled in the form of ancient microbial cells -dated bythe age of the rock formation in which they are found, which is......

Words: 1581 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Biological Classification

...Biological classification Biological classification is the arrangement of organisms into categories that express their PHYLOGENY, or line of descent, based on information such as structure, development, biochemical or physiological functions, and evolutionary history of organisms. The purpose of such a classification is to provide a clear and practical way to organize and communicate information about organisms. Classification can show relationships between different ancient and modern groups, indicate the evolutionary pathways along which present-day organisms may have developed, and provide a basis for comparing experimental data about different plant and animal groups. Organisms included in a group share a common genetic heritage in their DNA, and they must be more closely related to each other than they are to the members of other groups of the same rank. However, classifications of organisms are modified as ideas of their phylogeny change. Taxonomy is the theory and practice of classifying organisms. It is a branch of systematics, the study of the diversity of organisms. The first scheme for classifying animals into logical groupings may have been proposed by Aristotle more than 2,000 years ago. Since that time, many new classification systems have been proposed; none, however, has succeeded in fitting all plants, animals, and microorganisms into a single, completely satisfactory scheme. For example, some taxonomists classify algae with the protista or consider them......

Words: 4122 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Viruses and Cell Walls Unit 1 Note

...population that can breed under natural conditions and produce fertile offspring Hybridization- crossbreeding between species (rare) (ex, liger, mule) Types of Biodiversity * genetic diversity: sexual reproduction cases unique inherited combinations of traits * ecosystem diversity: variety of organisms and their environment * diversity of interactions: interdependence of species = stability * diversity of habitats: structural diversity increases biodiversity Loss of biodiversity -affects food -medicine -economics -carbon cycle ______________________________________________________________________________ Taxonomy (to arrange) - the science of identifying, classifying, and naming organisms - classification based on similarities in structure and function - classifying helps us find/identify and understand Seven Levels Remember Katy Perry's Cat Ordered Fine Guacamole Sunday King Phillip Came Over From Germany, Stinky 1. Species 2. Genus 3. Family - animals end in "-idae" , plants end in " -aceae" 4. Order 5. Class 6. Phylum 7. Kingdom Classification for humans: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapians Binomial Nomenclature: 1. Genus (capitalized) (italics/underlined) 2. Species (not capitalized)(italics/underlined) Ex; Urses maritimus (polar bear) Dichotomous Key: tree diagram that divides by 2 each time - used to identify......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Mouthwash Lab Report Fareeda sanusi Abstract: This experiment was done in order to find out which mouthwash killed the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilus the best. The mouthwashes used were Scope (clean mint baking soda), Listermint with fluoride, Cepacol, Rembrandt, and Therasol. Water was used as a control for the experiment. It allowed students to practice using T -values to determine significance of mouthwash effectiveness. The experiment also determined the active ingredient in the better mouthwash. My own hypothesis was that Scope would work the best on both bacteria. My hypothesis was proved wrong by Bacillus subtilis when Therasol eliminated the most bacteria. As for Staphylococcus epidermis Therasol worked just as well as Scope and Cepacol in killing the bacteria. However, there was significance at the 95% level between Scope and Cepacol. The charts, graphs, and the report below provide more information. Introduction: The battle for better breath is taking place all over the world. With each toothpaste and mouthwash claiming to be the best, how can one possibly determine which one to use? This experiment may perhaps put an end to this particular problem. Five fairly popular mouthwashes were used in this experiment: Scope, Listermint, Cepacol, Rembrandt, and Therasol. The effectiveness of each was tested on two different bacteria: Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilus. Staphylococcus epidermis is a bacterium that is found in the......

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...Name and course section: LeKesha Hinds Title: Bacterial Morphology- Lab #2 Purpose: Being able to observe morphologies by preparing wet mount slides and learning direct and indirect staining techniques. Procedure: First, set up the microscope. View the prepared slides of bacterial morphology. Use each morphological type as a comparative tool for the remainder of the exercise. Disinfect your work area with a 10%-bleach solution using the Procedures in the Preparation of Disinfecting Solution section in the Appendix. Use the marker pencil to make a dime-sized circle on each of the three slides. Use a clean pipet to add a drop of warm water to the circle on the first slide. With the cotton swab vigorously scrape the inside of your mouth and gums. Smear the swab inside the circle on the first slide, transferring as much material to the drop of water as possible. Cover the drop with a cover slip. Use the pipet to add a drop of water to the circle on the second slide. Use the toothpick to scrape a sample of plaque from your teeth. Transfer the plaque from the toothpick to the drop of water, mixing well to dissolve any clumps. Cover the drop with a cover slip. Use the pipet to add a drop of the S. cerevisiae mixture to the circle of the third slide. Cover the drop with a cover slip. Set the cup of yeast mixture and its pipet aside for later use. Second, do the same as for the first slides. When the slides are completely dry, heat-fix each slide with a flame source. Hold......

Words: 1347 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...fine knobs to achieve sharp focus • Adjust light through condenser height and diaphragm • Never use the coarse adjustment knob while using the 40X objective lens Procedure for Storing the Microscope in this Laboratory • • • • • • Turn light OFF Remove slides Raise stage Turn objective to the lowest (RED) power Wrap cord around microscope base Return microscope to appropriate cabinet Systematics • Study of biological diversity • Phylogeny = evolutionary history of a group of related organisms • Taxonomy = branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying biota into categories based on similarities and differences – Based on morphology, embryology, fossils, DNA, RNA, proteins – Taxon s. (taxa pl.) – Binomial nomenclature Taxonomic Classification • • • • • • • • Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • Taxon • Binomial nomenclature • Dynamic Domains (3) • Bacteria, Archae, Eukarya • Based on: – Cell type (eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic) • Cell wall, plasma membrane,...

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pglo Lab Report

...see the effects it has on bacterial growth in presence of the antibiotic, ampicillin. We inserted pGLO DNA into the genome of the bacteria through the use of inoculation loops, Laurel Broth, transformation solution, and procedures such as heat shock and incubation. This experiment involved four bacterial agar plates, two of which we genetically transformed (experimental groups; +pGLO LB/amp/ara and +pGLO LB/amp), and two of which we did not genetically transform and were control plates (-pGLO LB and -pGLO LB/amp/). Out of the two genetically transformed bacteria, only the bacteria containing arabinose sugar (+pGLO LB/amp/ara) initiated expression of the GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) gene, causing the bacterial...

Words: 1796 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...MLT1 – Lab Report 1 Bacterial Morphology Nichole Performed at Home 3/21/13 Bacterial Morphology A. Comparing Observations from Mounting Techniques Four mounting techniques were used during this experiment which included the fresh wet mount, direct staining using crystal violet, and indirect staining using both Congo Red and crystal violet. There was a liquid appearance in the wet mount slides with the cells appearing very similar in color to the liquid from the sample. The cells and their borders in the wet mounts were not as distinct in appearance as in the staining methods. While the bacteria shapes were able to be identified in the yeast wet mount, it was very difficult to determine the shapes in the cheek smear. The next method used was the direct staining using crystal violet. The cells in the direct stained slides were very easy to view, well defined and were a distinct violet color. The indirect staining method using the Congo Red dye appeared to actually stain the cells in the cheek smear rather than the background and area around the cell. In the higher resolution cheek cell slide, the cell was outlined with the Congo Red dye. The yeast cells were easily identified using the indirect method however the cells in the plaque smear were not. There was a large area of dye in one area on the......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gra Gram Negative Bacteria

...Plate B was incubated 25 C and had a cell morphology of beige, cloudy thick lines and some cloudy thick dots. This eliminated the possibilities S. marcescens, B. subtilis, S. lutea, S. epidermidis, M. roseus, M. roseus, and C. sporogenes. S. marcescens colonies are red; M. roseus colonies are orange; S. lutea and M. luteus colonies are yellow; B. subtilis, C. sporogenes, and S. epidermidis colonies appear in white.2 This narrowed the possibilities to A. faecalis, P. fragi, and E. coli. All three species colonies appear to have the beige/ whitish color with both lines and dots. However, A. faecalis had the best similarity to plate B with beige, cloudy, thick lines and dots. Next in the process was making the nutrient agar slants, smears, and then staining....

Words: 701 - Pages: 3