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Bananas

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2012 – 2013 INTEL PHILIPPINE SCIENCE FAIR RESEARCH PLAN Required for All Projects To be Submitted to IRB/SRC before the Experimentation Begins Joshua Garcia Bullago Life Science
II

Name Cluster Category Baguio City National High School

School Fair Division (074) 444 26 45
Cor. Gov. Pack Rd., Baguio City

School Address Tel. No. NEUTRALIZING MIXTURE

Title of Project Mrs. Juliet Herreria-Ilustre

Project Adviser The research plan must include the following: A) Problem/s: 1. General Objective: The study aims to neutralize weak and strong acidic solutions using mixture of ashes of banana leaves, banana peelings and potato peelings. 2. Specific Objectives: a. What is the pH of the weak and strong acidic solutions after incorporating mixture of ashes of banana leaves, banana peelings and potato peelings? b. Which of the following mixture of different amounts of ashes of banana leaves, banana peelings and potato peelings will best neutralize the pH of the acidic solutions? c. How long will the neutralization take effect on the pH of the acidic solutions once the mixture of ashes of banana leaves, banana peelings and potato peelings is incorporated to the solutions?

B) Hypothesis/Objectives: 1. The neutralization of pH of acidic solutions using mixture of different amounts of ashes of banana leaves, banana peelings and potato peelings will significantly differ. 2. The neutralization of pH of acidic solutions using mixture of different amounts of ashes of banana leaves, banana peelings and potato peelings will not significantly differ.

C) Methods/ Procedure (Describe in Detail): 1. Materials/ Equipments:
The following materials and equipments will be used in the experimentation of the study: 12000ml (12L) of pure drinking water, 45 pieces of ripe bananas, 45 pieces of potatoes, 60 pieces of banana leaves, lemon, watermelon, disposable plastic gloves, laboratory gown, laboratory goggles, weighing scale, Standard Wiley mill equipped with 20-, 40- and 60-mesh screens and stainless steel contact points, or a Cyclotec or equivalent high-speed grinder, medium bristle brush, vacuum system, mercury bulb thermometer, furnace, paper bags, Muffle furnace with dual time and temperature control, fume hood, hot plate, porcelain or quartz crucibles 30 mL, Pyrex beakers 50 mL, steel knife, ruler, peeler, plastic bags, oven drier, eight 2-L capacity containers, stirring rod, pipette, pipetol and pH paper. 2. Methods/ General Treatment: SAMPLING- 45 pieces of ripe bananas, 45 pieces of potatoes, 60 pieces of banana leaves, calamansi, watermelons and 12000ml (12L) of pure drinking water. Collected plant tissue is very perishable, requiring special handling to ensure that no loss in dry weight occurs as decomposition will reduce the dry weight, which in turn will significantly affect the plant analysis result (Lockman, 1970). Therefore, fresh plant tissue will be placed in open, clean paper bags, air-dried. Fresh plant tissue will not be placed in closed plastic bags unless the tissue is either air-dried or the bag and contents are kept cool [40° (4.4OC)]. For air-drying fresh plant tissue, the researcher will place the tissue in an open, dry environment for 12 to 24 hours, a procedure that will remove much of the water in the tissue.

STERILIZATION AND SANITATION- autoclaving at 15psi (121 degrees C) for 15 minutes and/or hot-air sterilization at 170 degrees C for 2 hrs. Sanitation of containers and hands.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLES- measure the total weight per sample. Remove the inside of the banana and cut the peelings into 3 inches. Remove the peels of the potatoes by a peeler, cut the potato peelings in vertical position horizontally 2 inches thick. Cut the banana leaves into 3 inches.

OVEN-DRYING SAMPLES- Water is removed from plant tissue to stop enzymatic reactions and to stabilize the sample using oven-drying method. Removal of combined water will facilitate complete particle size reduction, thorough homogenization, and accurate weighing. The researcher will separate or loosen tissue samples and place in paper containers. Place container in oven and dry at 80° for 12 to 24 hours. Quick drying will be accomplished using a microwave oven, provided the samples will be turned often and the drying process will be closely monitored (Carlier and van Hee, 1971; Shuman and Rauzi, 1981; Jones et al., 1991). Measure the total weight per oven-dried sample.

PARTICLE SIZE REDUCTION- Plant tissue samples are reduced to 0.5 to 1.0-rnm particle size to ensure facilitation of organic matter destruction. After drying, samples will be grounded to pass a 1 .O-mm (20 mesh) screen using the appropriate WileyTM mill. A 20-mesh sieve is adequate if the sample aliquot to be assayed is >0.5 g. However, if the sample aliquot to be assayed is <0.5 g, a 40-mesh screen will be utilized (Jones and Case,1990). After grinding, the sample will be thoroughly mixed and a 5- to 8-g aliquot withdrawn for analysis and storage. Using a brush or vacuum system, clean the grinding apparatus after grinding each sample. Most mechanical mills contribute some contamination of the sample with one or more elements (Hood et al., 1944). The extent of contamination depends on the condition of the mill and exposure time (Jones and Case, 1990). Grier (1966) recommended use of stainless steel for cutting and sieving surfaces to minimize contamination. Routine maintenance will be performed on mills to ensure optimum operating conditions. Cutting knives or blades should be maintained in sharp condition and in proper adjustment.

DRY ASHING SAMPLES- Weigh 0.5 to 1.0 g dried (80°C plant samples that has been ground 0.5 to 1.0 mm) and homogenized into a high-form, 30-mL porcelain or quartz crucible or 100-mL Pyrex beaker. Place samples in a cool muffle furnace. Set temperature control of the furnace to allow a gradual increase (2 hours) in the ashing temperature (500 to 550°C) and maintain for 4 to 8 hours. Turn furnace off, open door, and allow samples to cool. Measure the total weight of the ashes per sample and group the peels from the 10 pcs. of banana with the peelings of 10 pcs. of potatoes and 10 pcs. of banana leaf; peels from the 15 pcs. of banana with the peelings of 15 pcs. of potatoes and 20 pcs. of banana leaves; peels from the 20 pcs. of banana with the peelings of 20 pcs. of potatoes and 30 pcs. of banana leaves. Measure the weight of three groups of samples.

EXTRACTION OF ACIDIC EXTRACTS FROM LEMON AND WATERMELON

SET-UPS (DILUTION)- the researcher will set eight 2-L capacity containers divided into two sets (control set-up: 2 containers and experimental set-up: 6 containers). Four containers considered to be the weak acidic solutions (labelled as A1, B1 and C1) will contain 1500ml (1.5L) of pure drinking water diluted with calamansi while four containers considered to be strong acidic solutions (labelled as A2, B2 and C2) will contain 1500ml (1.5L) of pure drinking water diluted with Hydrochloric Acid. The containers will be set at room temperature that will be measured by a mercury bulb thermometer. Incorporate the groups of mixture: 10 pcs. of banana peels with 3 pcs. of potato peelings and 5 pcs. of banana leaf will be incorporated in A1 and A2; 15 pcs. of banana peels with 6 pcs. of potato peelings and 10 pcs. of banana leaves will be incorporated in B1 and B2; 20 pcs. of banana peels with 9 pcs. of potato peelings and 15 pcs. of banana leaves will be incorporated in C1 and C2.

PH ANALYSIS- The pH paper will be used to measure the initial pH of the acidic solutions. pH will be analyzed daily using pH paper.

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY

3. Tortora, Gerard, Funke, Berdell and Case, Christine. 2007. “Microbiology”, Ninth edition;
Pearson Education Inc.; pp. 56, 173

4. Talaro, Kathleen and Talaro, Arthur. (2006). “Foundations in Microbiology”; p. 735

5. RUMEN DEGRADATION OF DRY MATTER AND ORGANIC MATTER OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BANANA PLANT. (1991). Abiliza E Kimambo and H M H Muya.Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development , 3(3): 35-40.

6. Onyegbado, C.O., E.T. Iyagba and O.J. Offor, 2002. Solid soap production using plantain peels ash as source of alkali. J. Applied Sci. Environ. Manage., 6: 73-77 7. D. Mutetikka, F. Bareeba and J. Semakula, 2010. Effect of Type and Level of Supplement on the in vitro Organic Matter Digestibility of Banana Leaf Diets Offered to Ruminants in Uganda. Agricultural Journal, 5: 98-100. 8. Jones, J. B. (1974). Handbook on Reference Methods for Soil Analysis. In Y. P. Kalra (Ed), Handbook on Reference Methods for Plant Analysis (pp. . Soil and Plant Analysis Council Inc.
Ocean Acidification - Cause for Alarm and Action. Sasha Henriques, 2012, Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup, http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/2012/acidification.html

Kupchella, Charles, Hyland, Margaret. 1992. Environmental Science.

Alkaline Ionized Water - Cancer Can't Live in Alkaline Ph-Level. Steven McCain .2010. Ezine Articles. http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steven_McCain

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