Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By scumpire23
Words 1953
Pages 8
Bandura & Social Cognitive Theory
Randy Wayne Rising
Liberty University
Psychology of Personality
341-D06
Timothy Williams
May 07, 2013

Abstract
Years of research has been conducted by Albert Bandura on the Social Cognitive Theory. The practical use of Social Cognitive Theory has an interesting approach to changing or maintaining behaviors. Bandura has researched Social Cognitive Theory and the individual differences that show the flexibility that people have dealing with behavior. The Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication discusses the role that mass media plays in society in regard to influences on behavior within society. The Social Cognitive Theory of Human Agency, by Bandura, which describes the power that people posses to influence their own actions to get the deserved results the individual, desires. Social Cognitive Theory on Gender Development addresses the development of people’s lives according to the gender and the roles that are stereotypical by society in regards to personality and behavior. Health Promotion from the Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory deals with health promotion and disease prevention from social cognitive theory. The approach of changing health practices of social systems rather than the habits of individuals. Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context explains that people adapt to diverse conditions all over the world. Parents from impoverished environments through sacrifices want their children to have a better life. Lastly, Going Global with Social Cognitive Theory: From Prospect to Pay dirt by Albert Bandura describes that goals, aspirations and challenges are a set of guides to motivate individuals globally.

Bandura & Social Cognitive Theory
Dr. Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925, in Mundare Canada, north of Alberta. He was the youngest child and the only boy among six children.…...

Similar Documents

Cognitive Theory

...Cognitive Theory: An Annotated Bibliography History of Education in America Pamela Allen November 12, 2007 INTRODUCTION The study of child development has inspired many theories. Psychologists have tried to understand why there is a difference between a child’s level of intelligence, motivation, social skills, and mannerisms. The cognitive theory helps explain each step of a child’s development with different aspects of each. The study of development of children is important to help parents, teachers and caregivers’ insight in the different ways children grow and learn. Cognitive theory helps explain how senses, environment, and an individual’s brain effect how and what kind of personality develops and possibly predicting a future. If parents believe that intelligence can be strongly influenced by experience, they make special efforts to help them learn, if believed inborn and unchangeable, they are less likely to make any effort. Children have their own internal drives and needs as well as heredity endowments that influence development. The cognitive theory is only a stepladder and there may be different equations added in either direction but we are given a building block foundation. Cognitive theories emphasize the mental aspect of development like logic and memory and focus on Jean Piaget’s theory children are born with an inborn ability to adapt to their environment. STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE TO BE...

Words: 3059 - Pages: 13

Social Cognitive Theory

...The Social Cognitive Theory The social cognitive theory is a view that people simply don’t learn from environmental influences but often learn and behave due to their own personal thoughts, feelings, motivation and actions. Observing others, thinking about the consequences and setting performance goals are a just a few of the examples of the social cognitive theory. This theory can also be split up into three different but equally valid components: observational learning, self-efficacy and self regulation. Observational learning is the process of learning through observing, imitating and reflecting from the behaviour of others. In most cases, observational learning occurs when someone examines the actions of another and reflects upon the person’s consequences. According to the consequences of the actions, the observer will imitate the behaviour if the outcome is positive or reject it if it is negative. Observational learning in some cases can be seen as reinforcement but it is self-reinforcement. Self-efficacy is another component of the social cognitive theory and is the belief that an individual has about their capability to successfully complete a task. Self-efficacy is a cognitive belief and changes according to the task at hand. It is not a stable personal trait but rather is affected by one’s experiences and past successes while performing the specific task. Self- efficacy is also influenced by perceiving others performing the task, verbal persuasion...

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Cognitive Theory

... according to the theorist can learn social intervention and culture through social activities, such as writing, music, counting system, rules, and language. Language is a representation of symbol that enables communication.  Equations concerning the world can be established by the child through language. It is a system that has made thinking possible because it is categorized into the social, inner and egocentric aspects. A child can be able to perform problem solving tasks through independent and assisted performance in the process of learning. Childs learning of culture. Piaget’s believes that the developmental stages of cognitive development of a child are universal. He also acknowledged that the learning process might differ in rate due to factors of social influence and maturity. This means that at different level, a child adopts new skills and thus should not be forced to learn a complex skill beyond his level. Cognitive changes come before linguistic mastering according to Piaget learning is symmetrical which happens in stages one occurring after another. Piaget theory does not consider the role of the child in his thought process this is that certain characteristics do not simply stop at a point in child’s development. Operant conditioning B.F skinner who was a behaviorist was the first to come up with the term operant conditioning which is basically used to explain the influence of a certain behavior’s consequences on the occurrence of that...

Words: 1486 - Pages: 6

Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory

...Bandura & Social Cognitive Theory Randy Wayne Rising Liberty University Psychology of Personality 341-D06 Timothy Williams May 07, 2013 Abstract Years of research has been conducted by Albert Bandura on the Social Cognitive Theory. The practical use of Social Cognitive Theory has an interesting approach to changing or maintaining behaviors. Bandura has researched Social Cognitive Theory and the individual differences that show the flexibility that people have dealing with behavior. The Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication discusses the role that mass media plays in society in regard to influences on behavior within society. The Social Cognitive Theory of Human Agency, by Bandura, which describes the power that people posses to influence their own actions to get the deserved results the individual, desires. Social Cognitive Theory on Gender Development addresses the development of people’s lives according to the gender and the roles that are stereotypical by society in regards to personality and behavior. Health Promotion from the Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory deals with health promotion and disease prevention from social cognitive theory. The approach of changing health practices of social systems rather than the habits of individuals. Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context explains that people adapt to diverse conditions all over the world. Parents from impoverished environments through sacrifices want their children to have a...

Words: 1953 - Pages: 8

Cognitive Theory

.... For homework, I will give him the REBT Self Help Form so he can write down any events that take place before our next session. Why: This will help Joe realize that he can change the outcome of adversity and activities by asking himself, is there evidence to support what I believe, what would be the effect if I thought something else. Intervention # 2 What: According to Cognitive Theory, focuses on how people process information to solve problems, respond to situations, make judgments and decisions, and use ideas to understand social realities. Our thoughts and beliefs influence our interpretations of how we view the world and ourselves (Rappaport, 2013). In the case of Jane, her perception of why Joe does not want to get married is because he does not care about her. Jane feels embarrassed that he will not marry her. How: I will start by explaining the concept of how perception is developed and how we develop distorted beliefs because of what we have seen in the past or what someone has told us. I will ask her to explain what getting marred means to her. I will ask Jane, how she came to her conclusion that Joe refusing to get married means he does not care about her. I will ask Jane, is there anything else that supports her belief that Joe does not care about her. Her homework will be to write down all the nice things Joe does for her. Why: Once, she understands that Joe has different beliefs about marriage her perception should be different...

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

...Theory: Cognitive Dissonance Theory Author: Leon Festinger Year: 1957 Reference: Haney, C., Banks, C., & Zimbardo, P.G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97. “Suppose you had kids who were normally healthy, psychologically and physically, and they knew they would be going into a prison-like environment and that some of their civil rights would be sacrificed. Would those good people, put in that bad, evil place – would their goodness triumph?” Zimbargo Cognitive dissonance is the unconfortable feeling or stress caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a fundamental cognitive drive to reduce this dissonance by modifying an existing belief, or rejecting one of the contradictory ideas. In 1971, psychologist Philip Zimbardo and his colleagues set out to create an experiment that looked at the impact of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. Zambardo, a former classmate of Stanley Milgram (Obedience experiment) was interested in expanding upon Milgram’s research. He wanted to further investigate the impact of situational variables on human behavior. That led Zimbardo to explore the psychological effect of becoming a prison guard or prisoner. The experiment took place in Stanford University, California, and there was 24 male participants. The participants we predominantly white and middle-class. There were originally 70...

Words: 563 - Pages: 3

Bandura

...Week 6: Bandura’s Cognitive Theory American Public University MATRIX: Compare and contrast the difference between associative and observational based learning. Difference between associative and observational based learning. | * Associative learning: our mind naturally links two events that occur in sequence. * Classical and Operant Conditioning | * Observational learning: we learn from viewing others’ experience. * Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a behavior. | Differences:Classical: organism associates different stimuli they do not control and respond to those automatically.Operant: organism associates own behaviors with the consequences of those behaviors.“Most of the significant responses we make in everyday life are examples of operant behaviors, such as reading, writing, driving a car, and eating with utensils. Operant conditioning involves a type of learning in which behaviors are influenced mainly by the consequences that follow them”Similarities:Associative learningInvolve acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, & discriminationInfluenced by cognitive and biological dispositions. | “Albert Bandura developed social learning theory, which combined classical and operant conditioning with observational learning”. Bandura point out: * We imitate because of rewards and punishments received by the model and the imitator. * We learn to......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Cognitive Theory

...The cognitive restructuring theory commands that one’s personal impractical philosophies are precisely responsible for producing dysfunctional feelings and their subsequent behaviors, such as anxiety, despair, and social extractions; and humans can be purged of such feelings and their validities by demolishing the theories that give them life. The cognitive restructuring model is a proven model in addressing behavioral issues concerning stroke victims and adolescents. Team A’s focus will be addressing the perceptions into these interventions. Behavioral changes can be difficult, but for a stroke victim it can be even more challenging due to cognitive deficiencies after a stroke. These changes are not only grueling to accept, but create a challenge due to physical, cognitive and emotional impairments. After a stroke, the ability to return to a consistent routine and activities now depend on the individual’s ability modify behaviors. One of the challenges one may face after a stroke is difficulty relating with others among other behavioral challenges relating to this type of injury. One of the main steps in overcoming this challenge is building a trusting relationship with the stroke victim; this develops throughout the rehabilitation process. Encouraging the patient too understand the benefits of setting goals. This trust is achieved through honesty, caring and regular interaction always trying to achieve realistic expectations. “Other Interventions include developing a...

Words: 1395 - Pages: 6

Cognitive Theory

...Foundations of Cognitive Theory Elizabeth Caldwell Excelsior College Abstract Cognitive-learning theories explore the complexity of the mind from the perspective of how the mind processes information. The paper will discuss the history of cognitive-learning theories and how they shaped the way one perceives, organizes, stores, and retrieves information. The main focus will be on Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, however, it will include theorists such as Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Edward Tolman and Frederic Bartlett. It will start off with the definition of cognitive theory and move on to the history of psychological theorists, ending with the conclusion. Keywords: Defining Cognitive Theory Cognitive theory is an approach to psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes (Fritscher, 2014). The main facet of cognitive theory involves the communications between mental components and the information that is processed through this intricate system. As individuals learn, they vigorously generate cognitive arraignments which determine their perceptions of environment and self. Concepts of Cognitive Theorists Cognitive theorists think that learning consists of the incorporation of events into an operating storage system contained within the organizational structures called schemata. This concept of schemata was introduced by Frederic C. Bartlett in the early 1930’s. We will discuss more about Frederic C...

Words: 2173 - Pages: 9

Cognitive Mind Theory

... theories of cognitive psychologist to assess inferences and philosophies to examine such predictions in regard to human behavior (Willingham, 2007). Since there appears to be no way detecting mental processes precisely, cognitive psychologist proposes such existence established on behavior and its observation (Wilingham, 2007). In respect to Willingham (2007) theory, the difficulties of such undertaking contain the designation of how observable of manipulations would affect the unobservable abstract notions of such theory. When observing behavior experiments, it tends to help cognitivists assess whether predictions and inferences are true and legitimate relationships existence amid the variables unobservable abstract and the abstract concepts (Cherry, n.d.). Willingham (2007) stated the importance that cognitive psychology to use unobservable abstract constructs to determine in what way observable behavior is affected. There are three forms of behavioral studies that serve cognitive psychology counting relational, descriptive and experimental research (Willingham, 2007). These approaches describe experimentation with observation, variables, and relational factors to deliver foundation validity for psychological theories (Willingham, 2007). Conclusion Wisdom is traditionally known to be embraced by each elephants’ parts: his tail, his torso, his trunk, his ears, and lastly his legs, as one can add clear insight within the whole elephant. Likewise, cognitive...

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

Sct Social Cognitive Theory

... formulated by Albert Bandura (1977, 1986) who sensed that, while the theory of social learning is more effective compared to previous theories of human behaviour analysis and provides more efficient methods of behavioural modification, it was confined only to studying environmental influences, ignoring the fact that individuals may also influence their environment. Thus, the notion of cognitive processing was also included in social cognitive theory (Kaplan, Sallis, & Patterson, 1993). According to this, the individual, his/her environment and behaviour interact at the same time, affecting all aspects of their reality. Behaviour is not only the result of the reaction to environmental stimuli but individuals are viewed as capable of thinking and forming an opinion in any circumstance, reflecting on the possible consequences of certain behaviours and then deciding on the best action (McMurran, 1997). Two basic elements are included in social cognitive theory, denoting the cognitive processes that influence a person’s behaviour: self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. The first is related to a person’s belief that they can maintain control over the facts that influence their life and it comprises a general cognitive mechanism which intervenes in the person’s behavioural response to the received stimuli (Marks, Murray, Evans, & Willig, 2000). It refers to the evaluation made by the individual in relation to his/her ability to perform an action in a certain situation. Outcome...

Words: 11696 - Pages: 47

Social Cognitive Theory of Learning

...Social Cognitive Theory of Learning Social cognitive theory of learning is a theoretical perspective that focuses on learning by observing others and eventually assuming control over one’s own behavior (Ormrod, 2011, p.323). Social cognitive theory is a perspective that helps us understand about learning by observing other people doing the same thing. This theory is a blend of behaviorism and cognitive psychology (Ormrod, 2011). Behaviorism theory relates to learning as a stimulus- response relationship and suggests that learning involves a behavior change whereas according to social cognitive theory learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to a behavior change. According to social cognitive theory, people and their environments mutually influence each other (Ormrod, 2011). People learn from the environment they are in, people they interact with, and behaviors they watch. People can learn by observing others and as they become older they can set their goals based on the accomplishments and the results of that learning. People learn by observation is the basic assumption of the social cognitive theory. The person who demonstrates a behavior for someone else is the model for the learner (Ormrod, 2011). According to instrumental conditioning, learning is a process of trial and error (Ormrod, 2011, p.324). Learners observe different behaviors and try to adopt those behaviors, if any of the learned behaviors bring desirable results; those behaviors stay...

Words: 766 - Pages: 4

Social Cognitive Theory

...Social Cognitive Theory Brynn Hill Liberty University EDUC 205-B02 Abstract This paper discusses the development of the Social Cognitive Theory and how it can be applied to education. When applied, this theory can help students stay motivated and focused in class. It can also help gifted learners reach their full potential in a diverse classroom. The Social Cognitive Theory was developed by Albert Bandura in the 1960s. This theory “stresses the idea that much human learning occurs in a social environment.” (Schunk 2012). For instance, if a basketball player wants to be able to improve his free-throw shot, he could do this by observing a coach, or other basketball expert, and imitate his or her free-throw shot. Initially, these principles were applied to social skills, but now can be “applied to the learning of cognitive, motor, social, and self-regulations skills.” (Schunk 2012). Through time, this theory was able to help give teachers the strategies to motivate and help their students reach their full potential. There are three basic conjectures when it comes to learning and behavior in this theory. The first is the idea of triadic reciprocality. This is the idea “that personal, behavioral, and environmental factors influence one another in a bidirectional, reciprocal fashion.” (Benzon, Denler & Wolters 2014). This means that a personals cognitive perspective is influenced by three different factors: behavioral, contextual and cognitive. The second...

Words: 1260 - Pages: 6

Cognitive Theory

...Cognitive Theorist Paper There are many psychologist out there who have their theories when it comes to learning and cognition. Each one has their own thoughts and sometimes they build off one another. One of the well-known people out there is Albert Bandura. One of the theories that he is well known for is Observational Learning Theory. He also has a modeling process that address how people can learn. His theory also takes a role in today’s world and how television, radio and media plays a role in our learning in everyday life. Albert Bandura’s theory was about social learning. “Social cognitive theory states that people learn from role models who behavior they wish to emulate” (Smith, 2002). So, this basically states that people learn from the people they can identify with more. Young children really pick this up when they watch their parents or adults that are in their environments. Often, children will act this out in other environments as well. One of this studies proved that this worked well. One of Bandura’s well known study is the Bobo Study. To sum this study up they put some kids in a spot where they watched adults strike and kick the Bobo dolls around. Later on the children who saw this acted out the same violent actions. This showed that 88% of the kids followed these behaviors, as well 40% of children did this after eight months of watching this behavior. This directs us to Observational learning. There are three basic concepts to this observational...

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Social Cognitive Theory

...Social Cognitive Theory The social cognitive theory was formed in in 1977 primarily from the work of Albert Bandura, initially developed with the purpose of explaining social behaviors. It emphasizes that “learning occurs in a social context, and that much of what is learned is gained through observation” (Anderman & Anderman, 2009, p. 834). This theory has been applied to a wide spectrum of areas of study such as human functioning as career choice, athletics, organizational behavior, and mental and physical health. It has also been used in the areas of behavior in the classroom including motivation, learning, and achievement. The social cognitive theory has five major concepts. The first concept is observational learning. This idea is also known as vicarious modeling because learning is a result of watching behaviors in the environment. According to this theory, observational learning is dependent on attention, retention, production, and motivation (Anderman & Anderman, 2009). Attention is needed because students must first be watching a behavior in order to learn it. Retention is needed in order to transform what is observed into something that can be used for later. Production is necessary in order for students to draw on stored conclusions and perform what they have learned, and motivation is needed in order for students to participate in any of these processes. The second major concept is outcome expectations. These “reflect individuals’ beliefs about what...

Words: 618 - Pages: 3