Free Essay

Bangunan Air

In: Science

Submitted By aikyam
Words 1468
Pages 6
IRIGASI
DAN BANGUNAN
AIR
“Bangunan-bangunan Irigasi”

PROGRAM STUDI S-I TEKNIK SIPIL
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS HALU OLEO
KENDARI
2013

PENGERTIAN TENTANG IRIGASI

Sejak ratusan tahun lalu atau bahkan ribuan tahun yang lalu , Kurnia ( 1996 ) menyatakan bahwa petani jawa barat telah mengenal jaringan irigasi sejak abad ke
– 5 dan di jawa timur pada abad ke – 8. Indonesia yang memiliki iklim tropis atau yang terletak di iklim tropis basah dengan curah hujan yang tinggi pada beberapa bulan musim penghujan dan bulan – bulan kering pada kenyataannya masih sangat membutuhkan adanya sistem irigasi.
Apabila

disebutkan

sistem

irigasi

maka

orang

cenderung

hanya

membayangkan suatu bangunan fisik bendung, dam ataupun saluran yang membawa air untuk mengairi padi atau sawah.Orang sering lupa bahwa bangunan tersebut dapat beroperasi dengan baik dan benar maka diperlukan juga Operasi dan Pemeliharaan yang baik dan benar.
Menurut peraturan pemerintah No. 23 / 1998 tentang irigasi, bahwa Irigasi ialah usaha untuk penyedian dan pengaturan air untuk menunjang pertanian.
Menurut PP No. 22 / 1998 irigasi juga termasuk dalam pengertian Drainase yaitu : mengatur air terlebih dari media tumbuh tanaman atau petak agar tidak mengganggu pertumbuhan maupun produksi tanaman. Sedangkan Small dan
Svendsen ( menyebutkan bahwa irigasi ialah : tindakan intervasi manusia untuk mengubah aliran air dari sumbernya menurut ruang dan waktu serta mengolah sebagian atau seluruh jumlah tersebut menaikkan produksi pertanian.
Berdasarkan cara pengaturan, pengukuran aliran air dan lengkapnya fasilitas yang dimiliki, sistem jaringan dapat dipilahkan menjadi tiga macam, yaitu ;

a. Sistem Jaringan Irigasi Sederhana
Sistem jaringan irigasi digolongkan ke dalam irigasi sederhana karena, fasilitas ( bangunan ) yang ada tidak permanen dan fungsinya masih sangat

sederhana sekali. Apabila sistem irigasi tersebut mengambil dari air sungai baisanya bangunan terserbut terbuat dari tumpukan batu dan batang kayu maka membutuhkan perhatian yang sangat tinggi untuk menjaga kelanjutannya.

Karenanya kasederhanaannya sistem irigasi ini dapat dikelola oleh sekelompok masyarakat tanpa peranan pemerintah. Didalam kinerja pengolaannya tidak efisien karena keterbatasan alat ( fasilitas ) maupun tempat ( daerah ) yang terletak didesa.

b. Sistem Irigasi Semi Teknis
Sistem irigasi semi teknis ini sudah lebih maju karna fasilitasnya sudah lengkap serta bangunanya juga permanen kan tetapi sistem jaringan pembagian airnya masih serupa dengan sistem irigasi sederhana. Dalam sistem irigasi semi teknis ini pemerintah sudah terlibat dalam pengelolaannya, seperti dalam melakukan operasi juga pemeliharan bangunannya.

c. Sistem Irigasi Teknis
Dalam sistem jaringan irigasi teknis ini bangunannya sudah dibuat lebih lengkap agar dapat memenuhi keempat fungsinya. Salah satu prinsip sistem irigasi teknis adalah pemisahan sistem jaringan pembawa dan sistem jaringan pemutus.
Sistem jaringan irigasi teknis ini disebut juga manajemen gabungan antara pemerintah dan petani.Karena pemerintah bartanggung jawab didalam sistem jaringan utama dimulai dari bangunan pengambilan sampai dengan saluran tersier sepanjang 50m di hilir bangunan sadap tersier, sedangkan petani bertanggung jawab atas sistem jaringan di dalam petak tersier.

Beberapa jenis bangunan irigasi yang sering dijumpai dalam praktek irigasi, antara lain:
• Bangunan utama
• Bangunan pembawa
• Bangunan bagi dan sadap
• Bangunan pengatur muka air
• Bangunan pernbuang dan penguras
• Bangunan pelengkap

A. Bangunan Utama
Bangunan utama dimaksudkan sebagai penyadap dari suatu sumber air untuk dialirkan ke seluruh daerah irigasi yang dilayani. Berdasarkan sumber airnya, bangunan utama dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi beberapa kategori, yaitu:
• Bendung
• Pengambilan bebas
• Pengambilan dari waduk
• Stasiun pompa

b. Pengambilan bebas

c. Pengambilan dari waduk

d. Stasiun Pompa

B. Bangunan Pembawa
Bangunan pembawa mempunyai fungsi membawa/mengalirkan air dari surnbernya menuju petak irigasi. Bangunan pembawa meliputi saluran primer, saluran sekunder, saluran tersier dan saluran kuarter. Termasuk dalam bangunan pembawa adalah talang, gorong-gorong, siphon, tedunan dan got miring. Saluran primer biasanya dinamakan sesuai dengan daerah irigasi yang dilayaninya. Sedangkan saluran sekunder sering dinamakan sesuai dengan nama desa yang terletak pada petak sekunder tersebut. Berikut ini penjelasan berbagai saluran yang ada dalam suatu sistem irigasi.
• Saluran primer membawa air dari bangunan sadap menuju saluran sekunder dan ke petak-petak tersier yang diairi. Batas ujung saluran primer adalah pada bangunan bagi yang terakhir.

• Saluran sekunder membawa air dari bangunan yang menyadap dari saluran primer menuju petak-petak tersier yang dilayani oleh saluran sekunder tersebut. Batas akhir dari saluran sekunder adalah bangunan sadap terakhir
• Saluran tersier membawa air dari bangunan yang menyadap dari saluran sekunder menuju petak-petak kuarter yang dilayani oleh saluran sekunder tersebut. Batas akhir dari saluran sekunder adalah bangunan boks tersier terakhir • Saluran kuarter mernbawa air dari bangunan yang menyadap dari boks tersier menuju petak-petak sawah yang dilayani oleh saluran sekunder tersebut.
Batas akhir dari saluran sekunder adalah bangunan boks kuarter terakhir.
Q=
Keterangan:

.

.

Q

: debit rencana (lt/dt)

c

: koefisien pengurangan karena adanya sistem golongan

NFR

: kebutuhan bersih air di sawah (lt/dt/ha)

A

: luas daerah yang diairi (ha)

e

: efisiensi irigasi secara keseluruhan

Gambar 3. Saluran pembawa

C. Bangunan Bagi dan Sadap

Bangunan bagi merupakan bangunan yang terletak pada saluran primer, sekunder dan tersier yang berfungsi untuk membagi air yang dibawa oleh saluran yang bersangkutan. Khusus untuk saluran tersier dan kuarter bangunan bagi ini masing-masing disebut boks tersier dan boks kuarter. Bangunan
Sadap berfungsi memberikan air dari saluran sekunder atau primer ke petakpetak tersier. Umumnya kapasitas pintu ukurnya berkisar antara 50 sampai dengan 250 l/dt. Bangunan sadap tersier mengalirkan air dari saluran primer atau sekunder menuju saluran tersier penerima. Dalam rangka penghematan bangunan bagi dan sadap dapat digabung menjadi satu rangkaian bangunan.

Gambar 4. Bangunan sadap

Gambar 5. Gambar saluran dengan bangunan pengatur dan sadap ke saluran sekunder Bangunan bagi pada saluran-saluran besar pada umumnya mempunyai 3 bagian utama, yaitu.
• Alat pembendung, bermaksud untuk mengatur elevasi muka air sesuai dengan tinggi pelayanan yang direncanakan.
• Perlengkapan jalan air melintasi tanggul, jalan atau bangunan lain menuju saluran cabang. Konstruksinya dapat berupa saluran terbuka ataupun goronggorong. Bangunan ini dilengkapi dengan pintu pengatur agar debit yang masuk saluran dapat diatur.
• Bangunan ukur debit, yaitu suatu bangunan yang dimaksudkan untuk mengukur besarnya debit yang mengalir.
Bangunan ini dilengkapi dengan pintu ukur yang bertujuan untuk mengukur pembagian air dengan teliti, kesaluran-saluran yang dilayani. Salah satu dari pintu tersebut berfungsi sebagai pintu pengatur muka air,sedangkan pintupintu lainnya mengukur debit. Biasanya pintu pengatur dipasang pada saluran terbesar. Bangunan bagi akan memberikan air ke saluran sekunder, dan oleh karena itu harus melayani lebih dari satu petak tersier. Kapasitas pintu ukurnya umumnya lebih dari 0,25 m3/dt. Contohnya adalah Pinti Romijn.
Alat ukur debit Romijn.
Perencanaan Hidrolis:
Q = Cd . Cv. 2/3 .

Keterangan:

g.b.h

Q

: debit (m3/dt)

Cd

: koefisien debit

Cv

: koefisien kecepatan datang

g

: percepatan gravitasi (m/dt2)

b

: lebar normal (m)

h1

: kedalaman air di atas skot balok (m)

.

Gambar 6. Alat ukur debit Romijn

D. Bangunan Pengatur dan Pengukur
Agar pemberian air irigasi sesuai dengan yang direncanakan, perlu dilakukan pengaturan dan pengukuran aliran di bangunan sadap (awal saluran primer), cabang saluran jaringan primer serta bangunan sadap primer dan sekunder.
Bangunan pengatur muka air dimaksudkan untuk dapat mengatur muka air sampai batas-batas yang diperlukan untuk dapat memberikan debit yang konstan dan sesuai dengan yang dibutuhkan. Sedangkan bangunan pengukur dimaksudkan untuk dapat memberi informasi mengenai besar aliran yang dialirkan. Kadangkala, bangunan pengukur dapat juga berfungsi sebagai bangunan pengatur.

Bangunan pengatur mempunyai mempunyai potongan pengontrol aliran yang dapat distel atau tetap. Untuk bangunan-bangunan pengatur yang dapat distel dianjurkan untuk menggunakan pintu (sorong).

Keterangan:

Q

= Debit ( m3/detik )

K μ a

= Faktor aliran tenggelam
= Koefisien debit
= bukaan pintu ( m )

b

= Lebar pintu ( m )

g

= Percepatan gravitasi ( m/detik2)

h1

= Kedalaman air di depan pintu di atas ambang ( m )

Gambar 7. Pintu sorong

Gambar 8. Model pintu sorong

E. Bangunan Pembuang dan Penguras


Bangunan Pembuang

Bangunan drainase dimaksudkan untuk membuang kelebihan air di petak sawah maupun saluran. Kelebihan air di petak sawah dibuang melalui saluran pembuang, sedangkan kelebihan air di saluran dibuang melalui bangunan pelimpah. Terdapat beberapa jenis saluran pembuang, yaitu saluran pembuang kuarter, saluran pembuang tersier, saluran pembuang sekunder dan saluran pembuang primer. Jaringan pembuang tersier dimaksudkan untuk:
• Mengeringkan sawah
• Membuang kelebihan air hujan
• Membuang kelebihan air irigasi
Saluran pembuang kuarter menampung air langsung dari sawah di daerah atasnya atau dari saluran pembuang di daerah bawah. Saluran pembuang tersier menampung air buangan dari saluran pembuang kuarter. Saluran pembuang primer

menampung

dari

saluran

membawanya untuk dialirkan kembali ke sungai.
Rumus debit air pada saluran pembuang, yaitu:
Qd = 1.62 x Dm x A0.92
Keterangan :

pembuang

tersier

dan

Qd

: debit pembuang rencana (lt/dt)

Dm

: modulus pembuang (lt/dt.ha)

A

: luas daerah yang dibuang airnya (ha)

Gambar 9. Saluran pembuang


Bangunan Penguras

Bangunan penguras, biasanya dengan pintu yang dioperasikan dengan tangan, dipakai untuk mengosongkan seluruh ruas saluran bila diperlukan. Untuk mengurangi tingginya biaya, bangunan ini dapat digabung dengan bangunan pelimpah. Gambar 10. Bangunan penguras

F. Bangunan Pelengkap
Sebagaimana namanya, bangunan pelengkap berfungsi sebagai pelengkap bangunan-bangunan irigasi yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya. Bangunan pelengkap berfungsi untuk memperlancar para petugas dalam eksploitasi dan pemeliharaan. Bangunan pelengkap dapat juga dimanfaatkan untuk pelayanan umum. Jenis-jenis bangunan pelengkap antara lain jalan inspeksi, tanggul, jembatan penyeberangan, tangga mandi manusia, sarana mandi hewan, serta bangunan lainnya.

Gambar 11. Jalan inspeksi

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Yoga Sutra Commentary by Swami Brahmananda Saraswati 11-14

...SUTRA 11 Now we are going to discuss smriti, which basically means memory. The sutra says anubhuta vishaya asampramoshah smritih.  Anubhuta is the first wor, and anubhuta is translated as experienced. Experience in Sanskrit is called anubhuti, so anubhuta is called experienced, an experience that you have already experienced. Anu means something that follows or follows upon and bhuta means the element.  So anubhuta means that which follows the matter field when consciousness or your personal awareness interacts with the matter field and is the tangible experience. Experience is a result of consciousness interacting with the matter fields, and that is anubhuta.   Vishaya is an object of the experience that you have, so in general, they are the five matter fields, but they can also be another pattern of intelligence. One samskara can even have another samskara as its object of experience.  Like the drink that I am consuming is a pattern of intelligence, and the personality that’s trying to enjoy it is also a pattern of intelligence. So when you interact with an object, an experience is created out of it.  If you dissect everything and look into it, you will find just five matter fields interacting with five matter fields but in reality there are just two different patterns of intelligence interacting with each other, not necessarily just five matter fields.  . Asampramoshah means kept inside, not letting go or allowing to escape.  That is called smritih,......

Words: 5450 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Bus 518 Assignment 5 Organizational Change and Personal Leadership Development Plan

...Plan http://homeworkfy.com/downloads/bus-518-assignment-5-organizational-change-and-personal-leadership-development-plan/ To Get this Tutorial Copy & Paste above URL Into Your Browser Hit Us Email for Any Inquiry at: Homeworkfy@gmail.com Visit our Site for More Tutorials: (http://homeworkfy.com/ ) Read the case study titled “A Successful Downsizing: Developing a Culture of Trust and Responsibility” before starting this assignment Write a 7-9 Page paper in which you: Describe specific practices that successful project managers apply in exercising their leadership and management roles overall. Evaluate Judy Stokley’s level of success in developing a culture of trust while implementing her drawdown planas Eglin Air Base’s new Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) program director. Provide three (3) specific examples to support the response. Indicate three (3) key learning and behavior modification strategies that Judy Stokley used in order to address AMRAAM’s organizational problems and gain the trust of project team members. Provide three (3) specific examples to support the response. Analyze three (3) actions that Judy Stokley took in order to change the project team’s culture and create a relationship of trust, mutual support, and teamwork between the government and contractors. Support the response with three (3) specific corresponding examples. Create a personal leadership development plan for Judy Stokley so that she may be eligible for future......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Global Economy

...The heavily issue of globalization is made extremely clear in the travels of a T-shirt in the global economy. Pietra Rivoli talks about the politics and human element behind globalization by telling her life story of her t-shirt. Through the story of her t-shirt, Revoli shows how supportive globalization often reduce and unrecognizable issues behind international trade environmental problems caused by factories and industries. Pollution is the introduction of harmful impurities, impure, unclean and polluted substance into the environment. Its existence is created and mostly caused by human actions, and the outcome of this situation can end up in natural disasters. Industrial waste poured into rivers have led to dramatic changes and problems in our societies. Most people use to swim and have a good time in river in their neighborhood, but they cant do all of this again because the water have been polluted with poisonous chemicals wasted in the river. Big companies and industries pour unwanted, poisonous chemicals into rivers to save money for the company. As a result of this, the chemicals end up in neighborhoods and the water starts to smell, block up nose and spots on both adults and children. Employees who work in theses companies are exposed to all kinds of chemicals and the place adhesive smell horrible like burned plastic, which end up in bleeding of noise. The workers who work at these companies sometimes even end up losing their jobs because they cant......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Marketing Management Unit 1 Db

...MKTG305 Unit 1 DB October 5, 2012 GO Green Air Purifiers The product that I choose was Ionic air purifier. Ionic air purifiers are a health risk; because it simply produces ozone, and that is a known human poison. According to the U.S. EPA, ozone can cause several major problem in a huma-begin. These problems consist of severe respiratory problems; vex asthma; substantial short-term decreases in lug capacity of fifteen to over twenty percent in some healthy adults;as well as inflammation of the lung-tissue. It also leads to emergency room visits and hospital admissions; and between ten to twenty percent of all summertime respiratory related hospital visits in the northeastern U.S. are associated with ozone contamination. It will also weaken your body immune response defenses; therefore, making us we the people be more vulnerable to respiratory infections; such as pneumonia and bronchitis (Ozone, 2012). The main focus of a market is simply to promote there products, and to achieve a better outcome then other leading brands. The sad thing is when customer enters a store to buy a product; they instantly think that there getting more for their money; as well as improving there situation. But in fact there making their situation worse by harming the people around them; as well as the environment with all the harsh chemicals that's in the product that the brought.(Green Clean Certified, 2012). We, as the marketer of Ionic Air Purifiers simply need to protect......

Words: 588 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Business Practice Audit

...Current Business Practices Audit Kimberly Johnson, Richard Siemienczuk, Karen Graham, and Chad Smestad MGT/360 December 3, 2012 Vicki Bauer Current Business Practices Audit The learning team conducted an audit of Riordan Manufacturing’s current business practices at its processing plants located in California, Georgia, Michigan, and China. The business sustainability worksheets used to complete the evaluation aided the team in locating common areas of non-sustainable practices relating to land, water, and air pollution. The three non-sustainable practices evaluated further are solid waste, and hazardous waste causing land pollution, hazardous waste causing water pollution, and gaseous waste causing air pollution. These areas are the most harmful to the immediate population, which includes the plant workers and the communities. Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Causing Land Pollution One of the non-sustainable practices is adding to land pollution. Currently, off-spec materials are sent to the landfill (Apollo, 2012). In addition to this, scrap plastic managed as waste goes to the landfill (Apollo). The biggest problem is that plastic is not biodegradable. When plastic and off-spec products are sent to the landfill, breakdown occurs but at minimal rates and these take longer to biodegrade over time. To remain compliant with government regulations, Riordan Manufacturing is required to identify hazardous waste generated each month if it exceeds 2,200 pounds......

Words: 8282 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Kingfisher

...than 80000 Million Rs in debt with very little cashflow. So what went wrong? 1) Addressed the wrong market initially? It targeted the business class initially with fewer economy seats in its planes. Result: Empty business class seats and mounting losses. Under current economic conditions in India, there was more demand for economy coaches and lower cost airline tickets. He failed to understand the mentality of the mass. 2) Acquiring Air Deccan: In order to rectify its position, king fisher acquired a low cost/profitable economy carrier named Air Deccan and re-launched it as Kingfisher Red. This acquisition came at a heavy cost and besides, the CEO of Air Deccan Lt Gopi was set aside and the operating principles/philosophies were changed. As you can see, ever since Air Deccan was acquired in 2007, Kingfisher had 1000+ crores of loss during each year of its operation. 3) There were reports of how overstaffed Kingfisher was and with the addition of Kingfisher Red, it only increased! 4) After acquiring Air Deccan, Kingfisher hiked up ticket prices resulting in more empty seats and higher operation cost. Passengers...

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Current Business Practice Audit

...environment. The subject in this paper is how Riordan Manufacturing will identify their nonsustainable practices, federal regulations, mandatory, and voluntary actions necessary to implement a successful sustainability plan. Nonsustainable Business Practices The business practice audits brought to light three nonsustainable practices. The three practices highlighted by the audit include wasted energy from the plants, the use of toxic cleaning solvents, and spilled ink. These three business practices can be very harmful to the environment. Burning fossil fuels for energy creates gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and volatile organic compounds. These gases cause air pollution. They can cause several kinds of air pollution, particular matter, smog, and ozone (New Energy Alternative, 2008). Air pollution can travel thousands of miles and can harm areas that burn fossil fuels sparingly. The next nonsustainable practice is the use of toxic cleaning solvents. The release of toxic chemicals from the spent cleaners can cause damage to the ozone layer. This contributes to the greenhouse effect that causes global warming. Global warming raises the earth’s temperature and can cause many environmental problems. Some of those are polar ice caps melting, fires, wild fires, increased hurricanes,...

Words: 6823 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Cambodia

...ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………….…..3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………..……...4 INTRODUCTON…………………………………………………………………..…...…5 THE AIR (PREVENTION & CONTROL OF POLUTION) ACT…….…………………7 SALIET FEATURES OF THE ACT……………………………………..……………….9 CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARDS………………………..…...…………11 STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARDS……………………..…………………….13 CONCLUSION………………………………………………….………………….……15 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………….…….16   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to thank my teachers and class mates who have assisted me in successfully completing this project. First of all I thank my professor, Mr. Ashish George for his guidance and support. I thank the librarian for his help in selecting the books and collecting relevant materials. I also thank the University for providing me with the necessary facilities for gathering the information. Finally I thank my classmates who are always approachable with any doubts that I have and also for assisting me in preparing the project.   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This paper focuses on the various aspects of the Air Act, 1981. This paper is non doctrinal research and the various concepts regarding the act have been highlighted especially the need and the authorities under the act. The source of information for this paper is mainly articles as well as books regarding the same. The paper starts with a small introduction about air pollution and the need for a legislation to combat the same. Then it goes......

Words: 2955 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Atmospheric Issues

...subsidence is the extraction of freshwater from the earth. Once the water is extracted, the land below will start to shift, therefore changing the lands natural formation. When this occurs, the ocean in certain regions will rise due to the ground levels dropping lower than normal. Storms such as tornados, hurricanes, avalanches, mud slides and lighting storms that all increasing in regularity and size due to the unstable atmospheric conditions and to the rising of warm moist air being mixed with cold air which causes tropical storms such as hurricanes and tornados. As in the current tornados in Oklahoma that have occurred repeatedly. Warm air in the mountains will cause avalanches and mud slides and promotes other increasing problems for certain cultures. People 50 years ago who lived in the areas where these issues were monitored as possible threats, now worry endlessly sue to the increase and frequent occurrences of such horrific problems on a more regular basis due to global warming temperature rising from air pollutions (Davidson, 2006). Due to greenhouse gases, both natural and anthropogenic meaning manmade, produce harmful vapors such as fossil fuels which...

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Global Warming

...Christopher Burge Global Warming Global warming is a grave issue that is affecting not only the United States, but the whole world as well. Various international strategies need to be implemented so that these issues can be tackled. If taken seriously, the issue of global warming can not only be overcome, it can be prevented as well. Poll conducted in my community- family members, friends, and coworkers- asking if they felt whether or not global warming was a problem or not or undecided: Two examples of how global warming if affecting the life of our communities: * Global warming is already leading to more violent storms and less predictable weather patterns. According to the Pew Center on Global Warming, since 1995, only two years have not had above average hurricane activity. The overall number of tropical storms has not increased, but there are more storms strong enough to be called hurricanes. We will probably continue to get bigger storms, which will do more damage to coastal areas. * Global warming will have drastic effects on local ecosystems. Most plants and animals are adapted for a certain environment. Generally, each species does well when the temperature is in a certain range, and the seasons work in a regular way. As things like temperature and seasonal precipitation shift, less robust plants and animals are not going to be able to adapt quickly enough. This will result in widespread extinction. Three facts that are relevant to......

Words: 596 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Earth Day

...problems we face worldwide is air pollution. Air pollution is the presence in the atmosphere of any substance at a concentration great enough to produce an undesirable effect on humans, animals, vegetation, or materials, or to significantly alter the natural balance of any ecosystem. Air pollutants can be solids, liquids, or gases, and can have local, regional, and global impacts. One form of air pollution is photochemical smog. "Smog" is a contraction of the words "smoke" and "fog," and was originally used to describe air pollution caused by coal burning in London. Urban smog is photochemical because many of the chemicals found in urban air are formed by chemical reactions driven by sunlight. Among the many air pollutants in urban smog that are produced by photochemical reactions, one of the most abundant is ozone, O3 . Ground level ozone and other photochemical pollutants are formed in urban atmospheres by the reactions of oxides of nitrogen (mainly NO and NO 2 ) in the presence of hydrocarbons. In CHE 133 we learned about combustion reactions. A combustion reaction is a type of redox reaction in which a combustible material combines with an oxidizer to form oxidized products and generate heat. In a combustion reaction oxygen combines with another compound to form carbon dioxide and water. Oxides of nitrogen are byproducts of combustion processes. At the high temperatures generated during combustion, some of the N 2 and O 2 in air is converted to oxides of......

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

A Discussion About Organization Chart Features in Eva Air Corporation

...ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR EXTRA CREDIT ASSIGNMENT ZHONGYI ZHANG ID:31062818 25 JAN 2011 A discussion about organization chart features in EVA AIR Corporation Here is the Organization Chart about the EVA AIR Corporation. I have worked in the Cargo Operation Department in EVA AIR Corporation for about one year. As we all know, each air corporation has strict articles and rules. They are made for the safety for each flight procedure. The whole company cannot make any mistakes. If it made, there may cause the death of hundreds of lives and the waste of billions of dollars. So one of my supervisor even told me that the working in the air corporation is not only for economic interests but also for conscience. Let me get down to discuss the features of some key elements in the EVA AIR that the managers use to design their organization chart. The Departmentalization is the first element I want to explain. The EVA AIR is an multinational air corporation in the world. It has three types to departmentalize their division and dept. One is the most popular way by functions performed. In most people's view, air corporation make profits by the passenger services. Before I joined the EVA AIR group, I also believed that it was true. However, after I worked in EVA AIR Cargo, I found that air corporation makes its profits mostly from their cargo services. In order to make the maximum profit of each flight, i.e.,let the plane to carry the maximum weight...

Words: 1256 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

123eeeeeeeeeeeee

...A new economic analysis published in the highly prestigious American Economic Review has made a damming assessment of the costs of pollution from fossil fuel industries, and concludes that coal is doing more harm to the US economy than good – and that doesn't take into account its climate impact. The paper by respected economists Nicholas Muller, Robert Mendelsohn (Yale) and William Nordhaus (Yale), models the physical and economic consequences of emissions of six major pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, fine particulate matter, and coarse particulate matter) from the country's 10,000 pollution sources. It is an update of a previous study concluded in 2009. It concludes that the "gross external damages" (GED) from the sickness and death caused by the pollution, is larger than their value add in several key industries – coal- and oil-fired electricity plants, solid waste combustion, sewage treatment, stone quarrying, and marinas! The most damning assessment is of coal, which is fingered for about $53 billion in damages a year. This estimate does not include climate change and uses a conservative estimate of health risks. The authors say that coal's damages bill ranges from 0.8 to 5.6 times value added. Instead of being cheap and affordable, the study finds coal is likely the costliest source of electricity. Which is not to suggest that it immediately be shut down, they say, but that it should be understood that for every......

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Polluter Case

...federal funds sold (for an entity with banking operations). Suggested Solution -- Case 01 Objectives of the Case This case gives students an opportunity to apply cash flow principles to determine the appropriate classification of various transactions in the statement of cash flows. Applicable Professional Pronouncements ASC 230, Statement of Cash Flows (ASC 230) IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows (IAS 7) Discussion 1 — Purchase of 2012 Emission Allowances What is the appropriate classification in the statement of cash flows in Polluter Corp.’s (the ―Company’s‖) December 31, 2010, financial statements for its purchase of 2012 emission allowances (―EAs‖) from Clean Air Corp.? Accounting Alternatives — Purchase of 2012 Emission Allowances Alternative 1 — The Company should classify the purchase of the 2012 EAs from Clean Air Corp. as an investing cash outflow in its December 31, 2010, statement of cash flows. Proponents of Alternative 1 believe...

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Business Management

...| Environment Management | Furny Kids (Pvt) Ltd. | | Business Ethics and Environmental management Module Higher Diploma in Business Management- 11.2 Batch | * J.A.Thalwattage - HDBM-F-112112 * Chathushka Weerasinghe - HDBM-F-112118 * Anuradha Wijesinghe - HDBM-F-112123 * Nimesha De Silva - HDBM-F-112023 * Shane Revenson - HDBM-F-112095 | National Institute of Business Management, Colombo 07 02nd April 2012 | Introduction to the project Report. The module for Environment Management in Higher Diploma in Business Management was aimed to study about the nature, it’s natural cycles and how the Organization is managing its natural environment in a proper manner to maintain the natural balance of the environment. The primary objective of this project is to encompass an extensive study of “how the organization is managing its natural environment and what are the main techniques that the organization is using to manage natural environment. This project report has evaluated how the organization (FurnyKids) pollutes their natural environment and what are the methods that they are using to overcome these pollutions. When acquiring the appropriate information we have made use of a very inclusive data system, featuring observations, questioners, and detailed discussions with the members of the organization,......

Words: 2364 - Pages: 10