Premium Essay

Bank Processes

In: Business and Management

Submitted By alexg3000
Words 1151
Pages 5
Capital Markets and Investment Banking Process Paper

FIN 402

May 6, 2012

Alger Marable

Capital Markets and Investment Banking Process Paper Investment banking is a crucial part of our global business environment. Investments, banking, and other capital markets now have a valuable role in business and everyone’s daily lives. There are several strategies and methods that can be identified for effective and productive investment banking processes. Choosing an investment bank or firm can depend on the investor themselves. Some processes and guidelines can vary from firm to firm, this would all depend on the investor and the financial experts and their preferences. Portfolio construction is an important task which involved expertise from a financial expert. Investment Banking and IPO Process Investment banking contains enables several functions for be executed, such as: lending and investing assets, providing advice about investments and acquisitions, research and development about securities, capital markets, and bonds. For example, Morgan Stanley provides global currency, precious metals, insurance, and structured investments that are tailored to market trends and specific risk allocated decision making regarding the individuals portfolio. Investment banking also incorporates other important roles such as analysis of financial performance and operations. Financial transactions can be done as well in investment banks from individuals or corporations. Initial Public Offering Process IPO’s begin with a preliminary valuation that is based on the company's financials; the underwriters will prepare a preliminary valuation of the company. All the underwriters will also factor in the assumed growth rate of the company and industry, as well as the multiples (or price/earnings ratio) assigned to...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Memory Summary

...there is a separate sensory memory. These would include vision, hearing, touch and smell as well as others. Visual and auditory senses are studied the most. Visual sensory memory is sometimes called iconic memory because it refers to the short image of an image, or icon. Auditory sensory memory is sometimes called echoic memory because it is like an echo. (D. Hockenbury, 2009; S. Hockenbury, 2009 p. 233-235) According to Baddeley, short-term memory is the center that processes the sensory memory information then “holds that information for about 20 seconds and sends certain information to the long-term memory" (as cited in D. Hockenbury, 2009; S. Hockenbury, 2009 p. 232). It has a limited amount of space for storage of information. In the short term, memory is where old information from a long term memory is retrieved and processed. Baddeley stated that when thinking of the short term memory it is a good idea to think of it as a working memory for all the processes it does within the brain; it processes new incoming information to be transferred to the long term memory then it will retrieve the information as it is needed (as cited in D. Hockenbury, 2009; S. Hockenbury, 2009 p. 232). Long-term memory is the storage of information over a long period. The information retained through long-term memory has no time limit. Memory, both as short as twenty seconds and as long as lifetimes can be considered long-term memory. Three categories of long-term memory are......

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Stochastic Volatility

...kij1 Master Thesis Supervisor: PETER LØCHTE JØRGENSEN Author: QIAN Zhang (402847) Pricing of principle protected notes embedded with Asian options in Denmark ---- Using a Monte Carlo Method with stochastic volatility (the Heston Model) Aarhus School of Business and Social Science 2011 2 Acknowledgements My gratitude and appreciation goes to my supervisor Peter Lø chte Jø rgensen, for his kind and insightful discussion and guide through my process of writing. I was always impressed by his wisdom, openness and patience whenever I wrote an email or came by to his office with some confusion and difficulty. Especially on access to the information on certain Danish structured products, I have gained great help and support from him. 3 Abstract My interest came after the reading of the thesis proposal on strucured products written by Henrik, as is pointed out and suggested at the last part of this proposal, one of the main limitations of this thesis may be the choice of model. This intrigues my curiosity on pricing Asian options under assumption of stochstic volatility. At first, after the general introduction of strucutred products, the Black Scholes Model and risk neutral pricing has been explained. The following comes the disadvanges of BS model and then moves to the stochastic volatility model, among which the Heston model is highlighted and elaborated. The next part of this thesis is an emricical studying of two structured products embbeded with......

Words: 17332 - Pages: 70

Free Essay

Stages of Memory

...STAGES OF MEMORY DWIGHT CALDWELL Aspects of Pyschology-SSCI-1202B-01 Geoffery Hackert AIU May 17, 2012 The mind is designed to process thoughts, emotions and has the ability to maintain and reproduce memories. To fully understand the memory process one must look at how memory starts and how each stage is used to complete the process of memory. The model that this paper will discuss will provide definitions and examples of each stage and how the mind uses each to process each stage. The minds are somewhat like a Central Processing Unit that has the ability to multi-task and complete different assignments at a time. The first stage of memory is called sensory memory. This is when sensory information that comes from our five senses is stored for a brief period of time, which generally for no longer than a half-second for visual and information and 3 or 4 seconds for auditory information. We attend to only certain aspects of this sensory memory, allowing this information to pass into the next stage-short term memory (www.psychology.about.com/2012). An example of sensory memory would be a person smelling or tasting something that they did not like and being able to have a feeling of pleasure from the memory or a feeling of disgust because of the initial contact with the food or odor. Short-term memory also known as active memory, this is the process of information that we are aware of or are currently thinking about a certain thing. In language that is more......

Words: 1042 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Psych

...I have heard that you may be interested in taking a course or two on psychology in college and I would love to give you my thoughts. As someone who is not planning to major in psychology I figured this course to be more of a class of lesser importance. However, I have learned various things throughout the class that would lead me to believe my first impression to be wrong. As you may not have known psychology is the study of the mind. However, since there are no ways to actually observe or touch the mind, we are unable to directly study it. Instead, through the use of studying the behaviors and mental processes we can correlate that with the mind. Let me give you one example of something that is taught in class. Memory is an active system that receives, stores, and recovers information. In order for one to keep a memory for a longer length of time, the memory must pass through the sensory memory, short-term memory, and into the long-term memory. The sensory memory is only able to hold an exact copy of what you may see or hear but only for a couple of seconds. The information stored from a visual memory is called the iconic memory while information stored from hearing is called the echoic memory. However there is a lot of information when you see and hear things. Therefore we have something called selective attention that blocks out what we deem unimportant. An example would be when being in a concert the only thing you may remember is the band; however it would be fairly......

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Teams and Individuals

...Managing the Work of Teams and Individuals Thomas Wingham 8th December 2011 Contents * Introduction * Groupthink * Causes * Remedies * General Group Problem Solving (GGPS) Model * Risky Shift Phenomenon * Causes * Remedies * Conclusion * Recommendations * Reference List * Appendices Introduction In this report there will be an evaluation of Groupthink. Janis eight causes of Groupthink and what the remedies are. Aldag and Fuller’s model of groupthink and how it is different from Janis’s model. There will also be an evaluation of Risky Shift Phenomenon, this will include the causes and the remedies of Risky Shift Phenomenon. Groupthink Irving Janis says Groupthink occurs when “a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of “mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment”” (Janis, pg 9.) Groupthink - Causes According to Janis there are eight causes of Groupthink. Illusion of invulnerability; creates too much confidence that encourages extreme risks. Collective rationalization; members warned about something but do not take any notice. Belief in inherent morality; members believe in their goal and ignore all moral consequences. Stereotyped views of out-groups; negative views of enemy make effective responses to conflict seem unnecessary. Direct pressure on dissenters; members cannot argue with group views without being under pressure. Self-censorship;......

Words: 1761 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Retain

...MEMORY IS LEARNING THAT PERSISTS Why We Forget 1. Negative self-concept: we think of ourselves forgetting things. 2. We have not learned the material well. If something is to be retained, it must be correctly, clearly and forcibly impressed on the mind. We must give it the necessary attention and interest. Self-questioning and spaced or periodic reviews are essential. 3. Psychological reasons: defensive forgetting Generally, unpleasant things are remembered better than pleasant things (especially by pessimists) and both pleasant and unpleasant things are remembered better than materials we are indifferent to. Freudian theory holds that unpleasant things are often barred from consciousness. This is often referred to as active forgetting. 4. Disuse Memories fade away rapidly when not reviewed or used. The curve of forgetting is like a playground slide; we forget most immediately after we learn -in the first 24 hours; then it proceeds slowly. Motor learning seems to be better retained than verbal learning because a motor act has to be completely done to be done at all and so requires a higher degree of organization and competency which involves over-learning. But "forgotten" material can be relearned in less time than is required for the original learning, even after many years' disuse. EVEN MATERIAL THAT WE DO NOT RELEARN HAS UNDOUBTEDLY BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO ATTITUDES AND VALUES THAT FORM THE FOUNDATIONS OF OUR......

Words: 2144 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Memory

...MEMORY Memory is one of the most important concepts in learning; if things are not remembered, no learning can take place. Futhermore, memory has served as a battleground for opposing theories and paradigms of learning (e.g., Adams, 1967; Ashcraft, 1989; Bartlett, 1932; Klatzky, 1980; Loftus & Loftus, 1976; Tulving & Donaldson, 1972). Some of the major issues include recall versus recognition, the nature of forgetting (i.e., interference versus decay), the structure of memory, and intentional versus incidental learning. According to the early behaviorist theories (e.g., Thorndike, Guthrie, Hull), remembering was a function of S-R pairings which acquired strength due to contiguity or reinforcement. Stimulus sampling theory explained many memory phenomenon on the basis of statistical outcomes. On the other hand, cognitive theories (e.g., Tolman) insisted that meaning (i.e., semantic factors) played an important role in remembering. In particular, Miller suggested that information was organized into "chunks" according to some commonality. The idea that memory is always an active reconstruction of existing knowledge was championed by Bruner and is found in the theories of Ausubel and Schank. Some theories of memory have concerned themselves with the nature of the processing. Paivio suggests a dual coding scheme for verbal and visual information. Craik & Lockhart proposed that information can be processed to different levels of understanding. Rumelhart & Norman describe three...

Words: 9956 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Psychology: the Human Memory

...The Human Memory Tracey Percifield American Intercontinental University Abstract Unit 4 IP The human mind is a fascinating instrument that is very complex and even though we know quite a lot about it we still do not know everything. The human memory has three phases of memory interpretation; Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory. Knowing how each of these memories store information is comparison to c computer. The average adult knows anywhere between 50,000 to 100, 00 words. The brain is incredible in protecting itself when injuries occur at times. The Human Memory The Father of Psychology begins with Sigmund Freud and his analysis of Psychoanalysis and the theories he introduced. Freud had many theories that caused controversy throughout his career but in today’s society they are accepted and his findings were true then as they are now without the controversy. In the unconscious mind we absorb many things from learning to traumatic events and information is stored, processed and in some ways affect our lives if we don’t resolve the issues at hand then we carry them with us and they still may affect us as we grow older (IEP, 2010). In 1968 two other Psychologist Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin develop a model of the human mind with the understanding how memory storage is taken in and processed and recalled for later usage. The model is referred to Atkinson-Shiffrin model and is explained as three phases of sensory, short-term......

Words: 1135 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Queuing Theory

...Queuing Theory Queuing Theory • Queuing theory is the mathematics of waiting lines. • It is extremely useful in predicting and evaluating system performance. • Queuing theory has been used for operations research. Traditional queuing theory problems refer to customers visiting a store, analogous to requests arriving at a device. Long Term Averages • Queuing theory provides long term average values. • It does not predict when the next event will occur. • Input data should be measured over an extended period of time. • We assume arrival times and service times are random. • • • • Assumptions Independent arrivals Exponential distributions Customers do not leave or change queues. Large queues do not discourage customers. Many assumptions are not always true, but queuing theory gives good results anyway Queuing Model Q W λ Tw Tq S Interesting Values • Arrival rate (λ) — the average rate at which customers arrive. • Service time (s) — the average time required to service one customer. • Number waiting (W) — the average number of customers waiting. • Number in the system (Q) — the average total number of customers in the system. More Interesting Values • Time in the system (Tq) the average time each customer is in the system, both waiting and being serviced. Time waiting (Tw) the average time each customer waits in the queue. Tq = Tw + s Arrival Rate • The arrival rate, λ, is the average rate new customers arrive measured in arrivals per time period....

Words: 2526 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Human Memory Model, Thinking, and Intelligence

...conversations and more, I’m going to discuss in details the memory system from stimuli into long term memory. We have technical enhance impede flow in every step. Proactive interference and retroactive interference show us how we will contract our effects while studying facilitates the maximum retention into long-term memory and also I’m going to discuss how we can forget things and what other types of forgetting we have. The strategy can improve our memory, consolidation and retrieval. Human Memory processes and stages Human memory is like a computer anything we need or is important we will store them for later; the same thing is with our brain we will encode, store and reuse them from our past, it will gives us power to lean and keep our past experiences, and remembering them we it needed. According to (Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968) processed two human memory models short and long term memories, later they add the third memory model which was the Sensory memory. The processes of human memory are three, Encoding, Storage and Retrieval as I mentioned in my first paragraph...

Words: 2439 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Memory Stages

...follows; Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Sensory Memory The first stage of memory is recognized as sensory memory. Sensory memory handles all information that an individual senses that is going to happen in the present. It registers what an individual smells, feels, sees, tastes, and hears for a very momentary period of time. Then it substitutes the information with new sensory information or interprets it to short-term memory if you comprehend something as important, such as a gorgeous flower bouquet or an unclear address. Normally, visual data is recorded for only about 500 milliseconds before it is lost. Other sensory data is detained for only about one or two seconds before it is replaced. The sensory memory processes huge quantities of information every day, but this information is interpreted. It is like an enormous quantity of raw data that is continuously being handled and replaced ("What Are The Three Stages Of The Memory Process? Read More: What Are The Three Stages Of The Memory Process? | Ehow.com Http://www.ehow.com/info_8413619_three-Stages-Memory-Process.html#ixzz2rrgf69if", 1999-2013). Short-term memory Amongst sensory memory and long-term memory is the stage recognized as short-term memory. Short-term memory lasts somewhat longer. As long as an individual gives thought to something, he or she can keep it in short-term memory. It could be a home address you have been repeating constantly until you can write it down, or the look......

Words: 717 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Memory

...Memory 1. Describe STM and give an example Short-term memory, also known as primary or active memory, is the information we are currently aware of or thinking about. In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious mind. The information found in short term memory comes from paying attention to sensory memories. A good example would be to write down a spoken telephone number before it is forgotten. 2. Describe and give an example of LTM Long-term memory refers to the continuing storage of information. In Freudian psychology, long-term memory would be call the preconscious and unconscious. This information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed. Some of this information is fairly easy to recall, while other memories are much more difficult to access. A good example would be recalling the date of your wedding anniversary or families birthdays’. 3. Describe the multi-store model of memory Multi-store Model of Memory: Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) This model builds on the idea of three memory stores and tries to explain how they work together. Components Sensory Memory stores the incoming information from the senses. The model assumes that these are modality specific that is there is a separate store for each of the five senses. The store is very brief and the vast majority of information is lost here. Only information that is relevant or important is attended to and......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Durian Rinds Paper

...SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPING OF DURIAN RINDS INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Durian is a species of plant species in the genus Durio which producing aromatic fruit that can be eaten. It is very popular in Southeast Asia, where it is called the "king of fruits". Durian have a large size, unique odor, and its contents are protected by the fibrous and spiny skin. The fruit can grow up to 30 cm long and 15 cm in diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms. During the durian season, durian rinds accumulate in high piles as vendors usually remove the rinds for buyers' convenience. In addition only 30% of durian are eatable and the other part are considered as waste such as durian seed and durian rinds. From its fibrous characteristic, durian rinds can be a material for paper making. In the paper making process, pulping process is mainly to increase fibre to fibre bonding in the paper. There are two type of pulping process, mechanical pulping process and chemical pulping process. Using chemical pulp to produce paper is more expensive than using mechanical pulp or recovered paper, but it has better strength and brightness properties. This research are concentrated to chemical pulping which using the Soda-Anthraquinone as a pulping chemical. Soda-Anthraquinone pulping is modified chemical process for wood pulp production with sodium hydroxide as the cooking chemical and anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping additive to decrease the carbohydrate degradation. The......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Paratox

...Leading Ideas: Revisiting the Abilene Paradox: Is Management of Agreement Still an Issue? | |by Kathryn J. Deiss, ARL Office of Leadership and Management Services Program Manager In 1974, Professor Jerry Harvey of George Washington University developed a parable from a real-life experience to describe the issues surrounding how individuals reach agreement, or, more specifically, believe they have reached agreement. Twenty-five years later the lessons and insights his parable generates are still valid and provocative for organizations and the individuals who work together in those organizations. The Parable of the Abilene Paradox1 Four adults are sitting on a porch in 104-degree heat in the small town of Coleman, Texas, some 53 miles from Abilene. They are engaging in as little motion as possible, drinking lemonade, watching the fan spin lazily, and occasionally playing the odd game of dominoes. The characters are a married couple and the wife’s parents. At some point, the wife’s father suggests they drive to Abilene to eat at a cafeteria there. The son-in-law thinks this is a crazy idea but doesn’t see any need to upset the apple cart, so he goes along with it, as do the two women. They get in their unair-conditioned Buick and drive through a dust storm to Abilene. They eat a mediocre lunch at the cafeteria and return to Coleman exhausted, hot, and generally unhappy with the experience. It is not until they return home that it is revealed that none of them really......

Words: 2054 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model (12 Marks)

...Outline and evaluate the working memory model (12 marks) Baddeley and Hitch proposed that memory has 4 components. The central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer. The central executive decides how to share out and direct attention to incoming information. The phonological loop can be thought of as a maintenance rehearsal mechanism for retaining verbal information. It is sub-divided into two other components, the phonological store (inner ear), which holds acoustically coded information, and the articulatory process (inner voice), which allows for sub vocal rehearsal (words you are about to say). Furthermore, the visuospatial sketchpad (inner eye) is responsible for storing visual and spatial information. In other words, it codes information in images and can create and manipulate visual and spatial images. Finally, the episodic buffer. This component takes information from different sources and integrates them together. For example, Baddeley suggested if we imagine an elephant playing ice hockey, we have to draw out images stored in long term memory and combine them into a moving image. The working memory model is good and is an improvement over the multi-store model. It demonstrates how the short term memory works because it explains how we can store information briefly and simultaneously manipulate it, for example, mental arithmetic. This shows that the model has face validity, which means that the test appears to measure what it......

Words: 424 - Pages: 2