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Instructor’s Manual with Test Items

to accompany

Applied Behavior Analysis

Second Edition

John O. Cooper ● Timothy E. Heron ● William L. Heward

All, The Ohio State University

Prepared by

Stephanie Peterson, Idaho State University ● Renée K. Van Norman, University of Nevada-Las Vegas ● Lloyd Peterson, Idaho State University ● Shannon Crozier, University of Nevada-Las Vegas ● Jessica E. Frieder, Idaho State University ● Peter Molino, Idaho State University ● Heath Ivers, Idaho State University ● Shawn Quigley, Idaho State University ●
Megan Bryson, University of Nevada-Las Vegas ● David Bicard, University of Memphis

[pic]

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey
Columbus, Ohio

____________________________________________________________

______________________

Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.
Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

Pearson Prentice Hall™ is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson® is a registered trademark of Pearson plc
Prentice Hall® is a registered trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.
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Instructors of classes using Cooper, Heron, and Heward, Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition, may reproduce material from the instructor’s manual with test items for classroom use.

10. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
[pic] ISBN-13: 978-0-13-142112-7 ISBN-10: 0-13-142112-3

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Definition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis 6
Chapter 2: Basic Concepts 10
Chapter 3: Selecting and Defining Target Behaviors 14
Chapter 4: Measuring Behavior 16
Chapter 5: Assessing and Improving the Quality of Behavioral Measurement 19
Chapter 6: Constructing and Interpreting Graphic Displays of Behavioral Data 21
Chapter 7: Analyzing Behavior Change: Basic Assumptions and Strategies 25
Chapter 8: Analytic Tactics Using Withdrawal, Reversal, and Alternating Treatment Conditions 28
Chapter 9: Analytic Tactics Using Multiple Baseline and Changing Criteria 31
Chapter 10: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Research in Applied Behavior Analysis 34
Chapter 11: Positive Reinforcement 37
Chapter 12: Negative Reinforcement 41
Chapter 13: Schedules of Reinforcement 43
Chapter 14: Punishment by Presentation of a Stimulus 46
Chapter 15: Punishment by Removal of a Stimulus 49
Chapter 16: Motivating Operations 52
Chapter 17: Stimulus Control 55
Chapter 18: Imitation 58
Chapter 19: Shaping 60
Chapter 20: Chaining 63
Chapter 21: Extinction 66
Chapter 22: Decreasing Behavior with Differential Reinforcement 69
Chapter 23: Antecedent Interventions 72
Chapter 24: Functional Behavior Assessment 78
Chapter 25: Verbal Behavior 84
Chapter 26: Contingency Contracting, Token Economy, and Group Contingencies 87
Chapter 27: Self-Management 90
Chapter 28: Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change 95
Chapter 29: Ethical Considerations for Applied Behavior Analysts 100
Test Bank and Answer Keys
Chapter 1 Test Bank 102
Chapter 2 Test Bank 105
Chapter 3 Test Bank 110
Chapter 4 Test Bank 113
Chapter 5 Test Bank 117
Chapter 6 Test Bank 121
Chapter 7 Test Bank 127
Chapter 8 Test Bank 132
Chapter 9 Test Bank 139
Chapter 10 Test Bank 142
Chapter 11 Test Bank 145
Chapter 12 Test Bank 151
Chapter 13 Test Bank 154
Chapter 14 Test Bank 158
Chapter 15 Test Bank 161
Chapter 16 Test Bank 165
Chapter 17 Test Bank 168
Chapter 18 Test Bank 172
Chapter 19 Test Bank 175
Chapter 20 Test Bank 180
Chapter 21 Test Bank 184
Chapter 22 Test Bank 188
Chapter 23 Test Bank 192
Chapter 24 Test Bank 195
Chapter 25 Test Bank 203
Chapter 26 Test Bank 206
Chapter 27 Test Bank 211
Chapter 28 Test Bank 214
Chapter 29 Test Bank 218
ANSWER KEY 221

Preface

Organization of the Manual

On behalf of Pearson Education, we thank you for adopting Applied Behavior Analysis, 2nd Edition! This Instructor’s Manual is designed to accompany the textbook. This manual, as is the text, is divided into 29 chapters. Each chapter of the Instructor’s Manual includes the following sections:

• Chapter Summary: a brief summary of the key elements of the chapter

• Chapter Objectives: the learning objectives of the chapter

• Focus Questions: five or six main questions that are addressed in the chapter

• Key Terms: a list of the key terms from the chapter

• Suggested Readings/Activities: a list of references to journal articles and books relevant to the chapter

Note: There are also PowerPoint slides for each chapter can be found on the Instructor Resource Center for this text. To access these slides and an electronic version of this manual, go to www.prenhall.com and click on the Instructor Support button and then go to the Download Supplements section. Here you will be able to log in or complete a one-time registration for a user name and password. If you have any questions regarding this process or the materials available online, please contact your local Prentice Hall sales representative.

There are guided notes that accompany these PowerPoint slides as well. Your students can download these guided notes from the companion website at www.prenhall.com.

Test Bank and Answer Keys

A test bank to accompany Applied Behavior Analysis, 2nd Edition is also included in this manual. The test bank is divided into the 29 chapter sections, with an answer key provided at the end. This test bank is available in a computerized version as well. The following types of questions are included:

• Multiple-Choice • Matching (when appropriate) • True/False • Short Answer/Essay
Chapter 1: Definition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis

Chapter Summary

The word science has come to mean many things, but when used properly it refers to a systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world around us. Science then has really one overall goal: to achieve a thorough understanding of the phenomena under study. In the field of applied behavior analysis, this means socially important behaviors. There are three levels of understanding that yield different types of knowledge within science: description, prediction, and control. Functional relations only exist when well-controlled experiments revel that a specific change in the dependent variable can reliably be produced by specific manipulations of the independent, and the change was unlikely to be the result of confounding variables.

Science is foremost a set of attitudes that set an overriding set of assumptions and values that guide the work of all scientists. The attitudes include: determinism, empiricism, experimentation, replication, parsimony, and philosophic doubt. Determinism is the attitude upon which science is predicted; the presumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which all phenomena occurs as the result of other events. Determinism provides the framework in the field of behavior analysis that all behavior is the result of specifiable conditions, and once identified, these conditions can be used to some extent to determine the future occurrence of behavior. Other qualities that guide success in science include thoroughness, curiosity, perseverance, diligence, ethics, and honesty.

These principles and attitudes serve as a basis for behavior analysis. Behavior analysis consists of three major branches of study: behaviorism, basic research or the experimental analysis of behavior, and applied behavior analysis or the development of a technology for improving behavior. Behavior analysis can be traced back to John B. Watson with what became known as Watsonian behaviorism or stimulus-response psychology. B.F. Skinner is credited though as being the founder of the experimental analysis of behavior and wrote extensively on the science. This behaviorism differs significantly from prior approaches to the study of behavior, most of which involved mentalism. Mentalism is an approach that assumes behavior is the result of inner causes and hypothetical constructs. Behaviorism aims to explain behavior in terms of measurable and observable events. Skinner’s radical behaviorism incorporates private events into an overall conceptual system of behavior, where as other types of behaviorism do not include private events.

One of the first studies to apply the principles of operant behavior to humans was in 1949 by Fuller. The field of applied behavior analysis grew in the 1950’s and 1960’s as researchers began to apply methods of experimental analysis of behavior to determine if principles of behavior demonstrated in laboratory settings with nonhumans could b e replicated with humans in naturalistic settings. Applied behavior analysis as it is now known can be traced to the word of Ayllon and Michael in 1959. The field began to expand and two significant events marked the formal beginning of contemporary applied behavior analysis in 1968: 1) publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis began, and 2) the publication “Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis by Baer, Wolf, and Risley.

Baer et al. (1968) provided recommendations for applied behavior analysis which later became the field’s defining characteristics. These defining characteristics state that applied behavior analysis should be applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective, and capable of generalized outcomes. As the field of applied behavior analysis continues to grow and approach a wide variety of problems additional characteristics have been suggested, but the original defining characteristics as proposed by Baer et al. (1968) remain the standard.

Chapter Objectives

1. Describe the basic characteristics and goals of science. 2. Explain behavior in accordance with the philosophical assumptions of behavior analysis. 3. Explain determinism as it relates to behavior analysis. 4. State distinguishing features of mentalistic and environmental explanations of behavior. 5. Describe and explain behavior in behavior analytic terms. 6. State and describe each of the dimensions of applied behavior analysis.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is science, its basic characteristics and goals?
2. What is a functional relation?
3. What are the overarching attitudes of science?
4. What is behaviorism and its main branches of study?
5. How did applied behavior analysis get its start, develop over the years, and become known as it is today?
6. What are the different types of behaviorism? How are they similar and different from one another?
7. What are the defining characteristics of applied behavior analysis?

Chapter Key Terms

|applied behavior analysis (ABA) |behaviorism |
|determinism |empiricism |
|experiment |experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) |
|explanatory fiction |functional relation |
|hypothetical construct |mentalism |
|methodological behaviorism |parsimony |
|philosophic doubt |radical behaviorism |
|replication |science |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Ayllon, T., & Michael, J. (1959). The psychiatric nurse as a behavioral engineer. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 2, 323-334.
One of the guiding articles that provide the basis for the foundation of applied behavior analysis, this study employs the use of techniques based on reinforcement theory in a mental hospital. Psychiatric nurses implement a variety of procedures with patients.

Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91-97.
This article serves to provide the original defining seven characteristics in the field of applied behavior analysis that remain the guiding principles of the field today.

Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1987). Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 313-327.
This article serves as a follow up to the authors’ original work in 1968 in which the defining characteristics are reviewed and are argued as being functional within the contemporary field of applied behavior analysis. In addition, new tactics within the field are discussed.

Fuller, P.R. (1949). Operant conditioning of a vegetative human organism. American Journal of Psychology, 62, 587-590.
This study is one of the first to report the human application of the principles of operant behavior. An individual with disabilities learns to make a physical response through operant conditioning.

Risley, T.R. (1997). Montrose M. Wolf: The origin of the dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 377-381.
This piece highlights the work and life of Montrose Wolf and the origins of the defining characteristics of applied behavior analysis.

Skinner, B.F. (1938/1966). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century. (Copyright renewed in 1966 by the B.F. Skinner Foundation, Cambridge, MA).
This book summarizes nearly ten years of Skinner’s research, spanning his years of graduate school through is three years as a member of the Society of Fellows. Skinner defines his basic unit of behavior, the operant, proposes basic datum, and describes his research agenda.

Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden two. New York: Macmillan.
Skinner extends his works in this novel by applying the principles of behavior analysis to a fictional community. The book illustrates a community that is minimally consuming and polluting, egalitarian in the division of work, communal raising of children, and an educational system that teaches patience and the ability to handle destructive emotions.

Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.
This book presents a case for a natural science of human behavior. Skinner examines all human activity from a behaviorist approach, and advocates for the application of scientific method to study human behavior.

Skinner, B.F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Skinner argues that a separate analysis of verbal behavior is necessary because it does not operate on the environment directly. Instead, verbal behavior operates through other people in a verbal community. This book extends the laboratory-based principles of selection by consequences to account for what people say, write, gesture, and think.

Skinner, B.F. (1969). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Knopf.
This book still serves as a controversial piece in which Skinner make his ultimate statement about humankind and society. He argues that we must reexamine and refine our traditional concepts of freedom and dignity, and that the radical behaviorist approach offers a new understanding and solutions to human problems.

Skinner, B.F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York: Knopf.
Skinner continues controversial arguments about humankind and society. This novel mimics topics covered in Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1969), and again approaches examining human problems from a radical behaviorist stance.

Wolf, M.M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203-214.
Philosophical issues that surfaced in early articles in JABA are reviewed. In addition, the stated purpose of JABA is revisited, and the issues of social validity are further explored and illustrations are presented.

Chapter 2: Basic Concepts
Chapter Summary

Behavior analysts study behavior – the activity of living organisms. Although the study of behavior includes single responses, applied behavior analysts are interested in larger sets of socially significant behavior referred to as response classes. A response class consists of topographically similar and dissimilar behaviors all of which have the same effect on the environment. The environment consists of a variety of stimulus events.

Stimulus events can be discussed in terms of their physical, temporal, and functional features along with their relationship to behavior. A group of stimuli that share common features among these dimensions make up a stimulus class. Stimulus changes occurring both before (antecedent) and after (consequence) have one or two basic effects on behavior: (a) an immediate but temporary increase or decrease in the frequency of behavior, and/or (b) a delayed but relatively permanent effect in the frequency of the behavior in the future.

Behaviors of interest include both respondent and operant behaviors. Respondent behaviors are elicited by antecedent stimuli. Respondent conditioning occurs through stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures. Respondent behaviors include reflexes, for example, an eye blink to clean the eye and are considered “ready-made” behaviors where no “learning” is required. On the other hand, operant behavior is any behavior whose future frequency is determined by its history of consequences. Operant behaviors are defined by their effects, not by the form of the behavior.

Operant conditioning is an automatic process that refers to the selective effects of consequences on behavior. Operant conditioning includes both reinforcement, the effect of which is a behavior increase and punishment, the effect of which is a behavior decrease. The term positive refers to the presentation of a stimulus event. The term negative refers to the removal of a stimulus event.

Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior is followed by the presentation of a stimulus event and the future frequency of the behavior increases under similar environmental conditions. Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus event and the future frequency of the behavior increases under similar environmental conditions.

Positive punishment occurs when a behavior is followed by the presentation of a stimulus event and the future frequency of the behavior decreases under similar environmental conditions. Negative punishment occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus event and the future frequency of the behavior decreases under similar environmental conditions.

Consequences – either positive or negative – only affect future behavior. Consequences select response classes, not individual responses. Reinforcing or punishing consequences are most effective when they are immediate. Consequences select any behavior that precedes them whether or not a behavior change tactic is being practiced. Behavior change tactics are the methods derived from one or more basic principles of behavior and utilized by applied behavior analysts. A principle of behavior is a description of the functional relation(s) between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables that has generality across organisms, species, settings, and behaviors.

The study of human operant behavior is complex and includes the analysis of lengthy response chains, verbal behavior, motivating operations, and histories of reinforcement.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define behavior, response, and response class. 2. State examples of behavior, response, and response class. 3. Define stimulus and stimulus class. 4. Define and state examples of positive reinforcement. 5. Define and state examples of negative reinforcement. 6. Define and provide examples of conditioned and unconditioned reinforcement. 7. Define and state examples of positive punishment 8. Define and state examples of negative punishment 9. Define and provide examples of stimulus control. 10. Define and provide examples of establishing operations. 11. Describe a behavioral contingency. 12. Describe the respondent conditioning paradigm. 13. Provide an example of the respondent conditioning paradigm. 14. Describe the operant conditioning paradigm. 15. Provide an example of the operant conditioning paradigm.

Focus Questions

1. Why is it important to distinguish between the terms behavior, response, and response class? 2. What does it mean to say behavior has a function? 3. What effects do reinforcement and punishment have on subsequent behavior? 4. Compare and contrast operant and respondent conditioning. 5. What is a behavior principle and how is it similar or different than a behavior change tactic? 6. What is the three-term contingency and why is it described as the “basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior”? 7. How does applied behavior analysis deal with complex behavior such as verbal behavior?

Chapter Key Terms

|antecedent |operant conditioning |
|automaticity |phylogeny |
|aversive stimulus |positive reinforcement |
|behavior |principle of behavior |
|behavior change tactic |punisher |
|conditioned punisher |punishment |
|conditioned reflex |reflex |
|conditioned reinforcer |reinforcement |
|conditioned stimulus |reinforcer |
|consequence |repertoire |
|contingency |respondent behavior |
|contingent |respondent conditioning |
|deprivation |respondent extinction |
|discriminated operant |response |
|discriminative stimulus (sd) |response class |
|environment |satiation |
|establishing operation |selection by consequences |
|extinction |stimulus |
|habituation |stimulus class |
|higher order conditioning |stimulus control |
|history of reinforcement |stimulus-stimulus pairing |
|motivating operation |three-term contingency |
|negative reinforcement |unconditioned punisher |
|neutral stimulus |unconditioned reinforcer |
|ontogeny |unconditioned stimulus |
|operant behavior | |

Chapter Suggested Readings

Baron, A. & Galizio, M. (2005). Positive and negative reinforcement: Should the distinction be preserved? The Behavior Analyst, 28, 85 – 98.
This conceptual article discusses the “confusion” surrounding the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. The article presents an outline of the initial argument presented in Michael’s 1975 paper.

Flora, S.R. (2004). The power of reinforcement. New York, NY: State University of New York Press.
This book offers readers an in-depth discussion on the role of reinforcement in everyday activities – from education to illness. This book also addresses several of the “myths and misconceptions” about reinforcement.

Michael, J. (1975). Positive and negative reinforcement: A distinction that is no longer necessary; or a better way to talk about bad things. Behaviorism, 3, 33- 44.
This conceptual article presents a discussion about the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. This article presents two main issues: (a) the confusion surrounding negative reinforcement and punishment and (b) changing stimulus conditions versus a presentation-removal distinction.

Michael, J. (1993). Concepts and principles of behavior analysis (revised). Kalamazoo, MI: Association for Behavior Analysis.
This book presents a comprehensive outline of the basic principles of behavior. The book includes a detailed presentation of topics such as: stimulus; response; reflexes; conditioning; experimental arrangements; motivating operations; and verbal behavior.

Pryor, K. (1984). Don’t shoot the dog! The new art of teaching and training. New York, NY: Simon & Shuster.
This trade paperback presents “real world” descriptions of the effects of positive reinforcement across species (e.g., dogs, dolphins, and humans). A detailed description of how to set up training environments for just about any behavior is included. This book includes methods for changing undesirable behavior and shaping desirable behavior.

Wyatt, W. J. (2001). B.F. Skinner from A to Z: Brief quotations on everything from Approval to Zen. Hurricane, WV: Third Millennium Press.
If you are wondering what Skinner had to say in his many published works about topics such as self-control, thinking, and purpose - this text presents citations to Skinner’s works on these topics and more. Wyatt compiled over 145 pages of Skinner references in an A – Z format covering everything from aggression to Zoosemiotics.

Chapter 3: Selecting and Defining Target Behaviors

Chapter Summary

In applied behavior analysis assessment guides the identification of target behaviors and the development of interventions. A variety of methods are used, including direct observation, interviews, checklists, and tests. Assessment begins with a broad scope and uses the information gathered to narrow its focus. Through a process of screening, defining problems or goals, specifying target behaviors, monitoring, and following up on progress, assessment guides all aspects of behavior change.

The four major methods for obtaining assessment information are interviews, checklists, tests, and direct observations. Each of these methods provides a different source of information and is therefore used in conjunction to obtain a more complete understanding of a person’s behavior.

Determining the social significance of behavior is a critical step in the assessment process. Behaviors identified for change must be socially significant to the person and contribute to the quality of their daily life. Some of the ways behavior can have social significance include if it is relevant, if it increases the person’s access to their environment, or if it is age-appropriate.

Typically there is more than one behavior of interest or concern. When multiple behaviors are identified, they must be prioritized for intervention. This can be done by rating the behaviors against key questions related to the behaviors relative danger, frequency, long-standing existence, potential for reinforcement, relevance for future skill development and independent functioning, reduced negative attention from others, likelihood of success, and cost.

Once a target behavior has been identified, it must be carefully and completely defined in observable and measurable terms. A good definition is objective, clear, and discriminative between what is and what is not an example of the target behavior. Well-written target behavior definitions are necessary in order to accurately and reliably measure behavior and to aggregate, compare, and interpret data. Well-written definitions are also necessary to guide ongoing program decisions, apply interventions consistently and accurately, and provide accountability.

In addition to defining the target behavior, the criteria for changing the behavior must also be defined. The criteria must reflect the social significance of the behavior. The outcome criteria should specify the extent of change before intervention efforts begin. Two ways to determine socially valid performance are to assess the performance of people determined to be highly competent and to experimentally manipulate different levels of performance to determine optimal results.

Chapter Objectives

1. Understand and explain the role of assessment in applied behavior analysis
2. Identify the ethical and professional standards of professional applied behavior analysis
3. Describe the four major methods for obtaining assessment information
4. Explain the importance of social validity in regard to selecting target behavior
5. Describe procedures for assessing the social significance of potential target behaviors
6. Discuss criteria for prioritizing target behaviors
7. Define behavior in observable and measurable terms
8. Explain the process for setting criteria for behavior change

Focus Questions

1. Why is assessment a critical component of applied behavior analysis?
2. What factors should be considered when determining which behaviors should be established, strengthened, or weakened?
3. Why is it important to use observable and measurable terms to describe behavior and intervention outcomes?

Chapter Key Terms

|ABC recording |reactivity |
|anecdotal recording |relevance of behavior rule |
|behavior checklist |social validity |
|behavioral assessment |target behavior |
|behavioral cusp |topography-based definition |
|ecological assessment | |
|function-based definition | |
|habilitation | |
|normalization | |
|pivotal behavior | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

1. Three potential target behaviors have been identified for Jackson, a 5 year old boy with developmental disabilities. The three behaviors are a) When walking to the bus with his teacher, Jackson will run across the street towards the bus to touch the wheels, b) When eating lunch, Jackson will chew with his mouth open, allowing some food to fall out of his mouth, c) When playing in the sandbox at recess, Jackson will grab toys from other children and screams when they resist or try to reclaim the toy. Use the worksheet in Figure 3.5 to prioritize these behaviors for treatment.

2. Think of two different behaviors by children or adults that you know. For each behavior, write a function-based definition and topography-based definition. Compare your definitions.
Chapter 4: Measuring Behavior

Chapter Summary

Measurement is the process of applying quantitative labels to observed properties of events using a standard set of rules. Scientists use measurement to operationalize empiricism. Applied behavior analysts measure behavior to answer questions about the existence and nature of functional relations between socially significant behavior and environmental variables. Practitioners use measurement to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and to guide decisions regarding treatment.

There are three dimensional qualities of behavior: repeatability, temporal extent, and temporal locus. Measures of repeatability include count, rate or frequency, and celeration. Duration is used to measure temporal extent. Measures of temporal locus include response latency and interrresponse time. Derivative measures that combine two forms of data are frequently used in applied behavior analysis, including percentage and trials-to-criterion. Topography and magnitude provide useful information about behavior parameters though they are not fundamental dimensional qualities.

Procedures for measuring behavior involve one or more of event recording, timing, and various time sampling methods. Event recording encompasses a variety of procedures for detecting and recording the number of times a behavior is observed. Timing procedures use different timing devices (e.g., stopwatch) and procedures to measure duration, response latency, and interresponse time. Time sampling refers to a variety of methods for observing and recording behavior during intervals or at specific moments in time. Time sampling procedures include whole-interval, partial-interval, momentary time sampling, and planned activity check. Certain behavior can also be measured after it has occurred using permanent products. Computer-assisted measurement has become more sophisticated and easy to use, allowing practitioners to simultaneously record multiple behaviors. Each method will has benefits and will produce its own artifacts due to the way it measures behavior. Therefore measurement methods must be carefully matched to the environmental variables, available resources, and behavior of interest

Chapter Objectives

1. Describe the functions of measurement in applied behavior analysis. 2. Identify the measurable dimensions of behavior. 3. Describe the different procedures for measuring behavior. 4. Explain the procedure for measuring behavior by permanent products. 5. Explain computer-assisted measurement of behavior. 6. Select the appropriate measurement procedure given the dimensions of the behavior and the logistics of observing and recording.

Focus Questions

1. What is the purpose of measurement in applied behavior analysis? 2. What are the measurable dimensions of behavior? 3. What are the different procedures for measuring behavior? 4. How does a behavior analyst select the appropriate procedure for measuring behavior?

Chapter Key Terms

|artifact |momentary time sampling |
|celeration |partial-interval recording |
|celeration time period |percentage |
|celeration trend line |planned activity check (PLACHECK) |
|count |rate |
|discrete trial |response latency |
|duration |temporal extent |
|event recording |temporal locus |
|free operant |time sampling |
|frequency |topography |
|interresponse time (IRT) |trials-to-criterion |
|magnitude |whole-interval recording |
|measurement by permanent product | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Readings
Gardenier, N.C., MacDonald, R., & Green, G. (2004). Comparison of direct observational methods for measuring stereotypic behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25(2), 99-118.
This article compares momentary time sampling to partial interval recording when measuring stereotypic behaviors in children with autism between 2 and 5 years of age. The results showed that the partial interval recording was more accurate in its measurement while momentary time sampling led to over-estimations of the target response.

Hoge, R.D. (1985). The validity of direct observation measures of pupil classroom behavior. Review of Educational Research, 55(4), 469-83.
This article compares different direct observation measurement systems. The techniques described in this article are molar (broad), molecular (specific) measures, and molecular-composite (categorization of specifics). Hoge discusses the validity of these measures and the implications of using them.

Sanson-Fisher, R.W., Poole, A.D., & Dunn, J. (1980). An empirical method for determining an appropriate interval length for recording behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 493-500.
This article discusses the effects of varying interval lengths when recording data on behavior. It suggests that interval length should be individualized for each study; that is, for the most accurate data it is what the investigator is interested in measuring that should dictate the length of the intervals

Skrtic, T.M., & Sepler, H.J. (1982). Simplifying continuous monitoring of multiple- response/multiple-subject classroom interactions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 183-187.
In this investigation the authors used a frequency-within-interval measurement system to code 18 different target responses. The system proved to be reliable, easy to use, and adaptable to different situations.

Thomas, C., Holmber, M., & Baer, D.M. (1974). A brief report on a comparison of time sampling procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 623-626.
This report discusses the accuracy of different time-sampling measurement systems (i.e., ongoing, contiguous, alternating, and sequential time-sampling methods).

Activities

1. Demonstrate the use of different measurement systems by “performing” certain target behaviors in class or by using a videotape of specific target behavior while the class practices using different measurement systems. Discuss the pros and cons of the different systems for the different behaviors being targeted.

2. Demonstrate and practice the use of the time-sampling method of data collection for use with more than one target student.

3. Provide students with completed, raw data sheets and have them summarize (calculate) percentages, cumulative numbers, percentage of intervals, and rate per minute/per second.

4. Assign students an article from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and have each student identify the (a) measurable dimension of the target behavior, and (b) the measurement system. Have students write a brief statement critically evaluating the appropriateness of the selected measurement system. Students should be reminded to base their critique on the material presented in Chapter 4.

Chapter 5: Assessing and Improving the Quality of Behavioral Measurement

Chapter Summary

Most of applied behavior analysis depends on the measurement of behavior. For data to be useful it must be valid, accurate, and reliable. Measurement validity exists when it is focused on a relevant dimension of a socially significant behavior and is obtained under conditions and during times most relevant to the reasons for measuring the behavior. Measurement is accurate when the observed values of an event match the true values of an event. Measurement is reliable when it yields the same values across repeated measurement of the same event.

A variety of factors can threaten the validity, reliability, and accuracy of measurement. Threats to measurement validity include indirect measurement, ill-suited behavioral dimensions, and measurement artifacts. Threats to measurement accuracy and reliability include human error, poorly designed measurement systems, inadequate observer training, observer drift, observer expectations, measurement bias, and reactivity.

Measuring the accuracy of data can help researchers and practitioners determine the usefulness of data for decision making, detect measurement errors, and communicate the trustworthiness of data. Accuracy is measured by comparing the observed measures to their true values. Reliability of data is a measure of the degree to which observers are consistently applying a valid and accurate system. It is assessed using natural or contrived permanent products.

Interobserver agreement (IOA) is the most common indicator of measurement quality in ABA. IOA is the degree which two or more observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events. A variety of techniques exist for calculating IOA depending upon the recording method being used. The techniques vary in their complexity, stringency, and conservativeness. In order to minimize overestimation of agreement, more stringent and conservative methods of IOA calculation should be used. IOA should be collected and reported for all levels of a study. Reporting of IOA can also be combined with indices of accuracy and reliability to provide a more detailed assessment of the quality of the data.

Chapter Objectives

1. State and describe the elements of useful scientific measurement. 2. Identify threats to measurement validity. 3. Describe various threats to the accuracy and reliability of measurement. 4. Identify and explain ways to assess the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement. 5. Identify and explain how to assess interobserver agreement (IOA) for a variety of data sets.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. Describe the relative importance of validity, accuracy, and reliability of behavioral measurement. 2. List and describe the various threats to measurement validity. 3. List and describe the three greatest threats to the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement. 4. Discuss procedures used to minimize the threats to the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement. 5. Identify benefits for obtaining and reporting interobserver agreement. 6. List and describe the criteria for obtaining valid IOA measures. 7. Describe the various methods for calculating IOA. 8. Identify the most stringent method and formula for calculating IOA for the following methods used for measuring behavioral data: event recording, timing, and interval recording or time sampling.

Chapter Key Terms

|accuracy |naïve observer |
|believability |observed value |
|calibration |observer drift |
|continuous measurement |observer reactivity |
|direct measurement |reliability |
|discontinuous measurement |scored-interval IOA |
|exact count-per-interval IOA |total count IOA |
|indirect measurement |total duration IOA |
|interobserver agreement (IOA) |trial-by-trial IOA |
|interval-by-interval IOA |true value |
|mean count-per-interval IOA |unscored-interval IOA |
|mean duration-per-occurrence IOA |validity |
|measurement bias | |

Chapter Suggested Activities

1. Have students calculate IOA using the various methods described in Chapter 5.
2. Give students a variety of data sets and have them select the most appropriate method for calculating IOA.
3. Provide students with a variety of measurement instruments and have students calibrate each instrument to true values.
4. Provide students with a variety of scenarios illustrating the benefits of direct, continuous measurement.
5. Ask students to create a schedule for IOA data collection.
6. Have students create a step-by-step training guide and schedule for observers of various data collection systems.

Chapter 6: Constructing and Interpreting Graphic Displays of Behavioral Data

Chapter Summary

Behavior change is a dynamic and ongoing process. Applied behavior analysts are interested in documenting and analyzing repeated measures of behavior change over time. Graphic displays of behavioral data provide a format from which valid and reliable decisions from raw data are best analyzed. Through the visual analysis of graphic displays of behavioral data, applied behavior analysts are able to answer questions related to the meaningfulness of behavior change.

The primary function of graphic displays of behavioral data is communication.
Graphic displays and visual analysis of behavioral data have several benefits over other displays of behavioral data. First, plotting data immediately following an observation period provides the practitioner with an ongoing and progressive record of participant behavior. Second, graphs are a simple and easily analyzable format for practitioners. Visual analysis of behavioral data is relatively easy to learn, is less time consuming, and does not rely on mathematical or statistical assumptions. Graphic displays and visual analysis help filter out the effects of weak variables and often allow for the identification of robust interventions. In addition, graphic displays of behavioral data encourage applied behavior analysts to draw their own conclusions based on patterns of behavior over time rather than relying on statistical manipulations.

There are several types of graphs used to display behavioral data in applied behavior analysis. The visual format selected depends on the type of raw data collected and the primary purpose of the evaluation. Commonly used graphic displays include line graphs, bar graphs, cumulative records, semilogarithmic charts, and scatterplots. Line graphs are the format most commonly used by applied behavior analysts. The basic parts of a properly constructed line graph include accurately labeled vertical and horizontal axes, clearly placed and connected data points, appropriately placed condition labels, and a descriptive figure caption.

The visual display of behavioral data provides practitioners with tools to evaluate the social meaningfulness of behavior change and make informed decisions about the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Visual analysis allows for the inspection of changes in level, trend, and variability both within and across conditions.

Chapter Objectives

1. State the purpose and list the benefits of graphic displays of behavioral data. 2. List and describe the types of graphs used in applied behavior analysis. 3. Given a set of behavioral data, select the appropriate data display to communicate quantitative relations. 4. Given an unlabeled line graph, provide the correct labels. 5. Describe and state the purpose of semilogarithmic charts. 6. Describe and discuss the proper use of a cumulative record. 7. Describe and discuss the proper use of a scatterplot. 8. Given a set of behavioral data, construct and label a line graph. 9. Given a set of behavioral data select the most appropriate graphic display. 10. Given a graphic display of behavioral data, identify the presence or absence of variability, level, and trends.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What are the benefits of graphic display and visual analysis of behavioral data? 2. What are the fundamental properties of behavior change over time? 3. What are the different visual formats for the graphic display of behavioral data? What are the relative strengths and limitations of each visual format? 4. What are the basic parts of a properly constructed line graph? 5. What is the purpose of visual analysis? 6. How is a visual analysis of behavioral data conducted?

Chapter Key Terms

|bar graph |line graph |
|cumulative record |local response rate |
|cumulative recorder |overall response rate |
|data |scatterplot |
|data path |semilogarithmic chart |
|dependent variable |split-middle technique |
|graph |standard celeration chart |
|independent variable |trend |
|level |variability |
| |visual analysis |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Bailey, J.S., & Burch, M.R. (2002). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Chapter 10 of this book includes guidelines for the design of graphs used in applied behavior analysis. The chapter outlines the guidelines for creating a graph suitable for publication in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

Carr, J.E., & Burkholder, E.O. (1998). Creating single-subject design graphs with Microsoft Excel. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31 (2), 245 – 251.
This article includes a fairly easy to follow and detailed instructional guide on how to create single-subject design graphs using Microsoft Excel. The article includes directions for an ABAB reversal design, a multiple baseline design, and a multielement or alternating treatments design.

Fisher, W. W., Kelley, M.E., & Lomas, J.E. (2003). Visual aides and structured Criteria for improving visual inspection and interpretation of single-case designs. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 387 – 406.
This article presents strategies to improve the accuracy of visual inspection and interpretation of single-case experimental designs. The article includes a discussion surrounding the accuracy of different methods; training to improve the accuracy of visual analysis; and a description of how to train large groups in the interpretation of single-case designs.

Gunter, P. L., Miller, K.A., Venn, M. L., Thomas, K., & House, S. (2000). Self-graphing to success: Computerized data management. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(2), 30-34.
This article explains the process of teaching children how to graph their goals and achievements using the computer. The article references literature on the effects of self-monitoring on student behavior.

Carr, E. G., Halle, J., Horner, R. H., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 165– 179.
This article presents the defining features and quality indicators for single-subject research. The authors present a discussion on the important role of single-subject experimental research designs as a method to conduct educational research. Specifically, Chapter 15 of this text presents information on the elements of a graph, visual inspection of graphs, how to use a graph to analyze data, and strategies for training individuals in visual analysis.

Johnson, J. M. & Pennypacker, H.S. (1993). Strategies and Tactics of Behavioral Research 2nd Edition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
This classic text is a must have for behavioral researchers. Johnson and Pennypacker include an in-depth and detailed description of constructing and interpreting graphic displays of behavioral data.

Kennedy, C.H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
This book is written for individuals learning how-to effectively conduct visual analysis of behavioral data presented within single-case experimental designs.

Michael, J. (1974). Statistical inference for individual organism research: Mixed blessing or curse? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 647 – 653.
This brief, classical article discusses the potential, harmful effects of over utilizing descriptive and inferential statistics in the analysis and interpretation of behavioral data. Michael discusses the importance and influence of graphic displays of behavioral data on the behavior of the researcher.

Parsonson, B.S. (2003). Visual analysis of graphs: Seeing is believing. In K. S. Budd & T. Stokes (Eds.), A small matter of proof: The legacy of Donald M. Baer (pp. 35 – 51). Reno, NV: Context Press.
This chapter offers readers insight into visual analysis of graphed data. The chapter includes discussion of fine-grained visual analysis, statistical analysis, and stimuli that control visual analysis. The chapter offers applied behavior analysis future directions for visual analysis.

Activities

1. Read How to make a graph using Microsoft Excel by Silvestri (2003) online at www.prenhall.com/cooper and create an ABA design line graph on Excel using the following data set:
| |Baseline |Intervention |Baseline |
| | | | |
|Hits per minute (rate) | | | |
| |5 |10 |10 |
| |10 |5 |15 |
| |15 |0 |20 |

2. Go to https://psych.athabascau.ca/html/387/OpenModules/Lindsley/ and complete the online Precision Teaching learning module.
Chapter 7: Analyzing Behavior Change: Basic Assumptions and Strategies

Chapter Summary

The understanding of human behavior stems from the uncovering of functional relationships between behavior and the environment. Although precise measurement of behavior shows change over time, experimental analyses are critical in determining how a given behavior functions in relation to specific environmental events.

Scientific investigations provide three levels of understanding: description, prediction, and control. The goal of experimental analyses in applied behavior analysis is to understand socially significant behaviors. Experimental analyses are conducted to investigate the changes in behavior in relation to environmental events. Experimental control is achieved when a predictable change in the dependent variable (behavior of interest) can be reliably produced by systematic changes in the independent variable (environmental event).

Applied behavior analysts are interested in the behavior of individual organisms and utilize within-subject (or single-subject) methods of analysis with repeated measures over time. In behavior analytic research, variability is isolated and experimentally manipulated to better understand the environmental events creating variable responding. Determinism is a major assumption of behavior analysis.

Single-subject research designs are the most commonly used research design in applied behavior analysis. Components of experiments in applied behavior analysis include the research question, multiple response measures (dependent variables), precise manipulation of the independent variable, careful observation and measurement, and ongoing visual inspection of resulting data patterns. Behavior analysts employ steady state strategy and baseline logic in the evaluation of behavior change over time. Baseline logic includes three elements: prediction, verification, and replication. Baseline levels of responding are established as an objective basis for evaluating the effects of the independent variable. Affirmation of the consequent lies at the heart of baseline logic – an effective experimental design confirms several if A-then-B possibilities.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and give examples of the basic assumptions underlying the analysis of behavior. 2. List and describe the three levels of scientific understanding. 3. Outline how experiments should be conducted to control for various threats to internal validity. 4. Compare and contrast the role of variability in single-subject versus group research designs. 5. List and define the essential components of experiments in applied behavior analysis research. 6. Write a specific research question given a behavioral phenomenon of interest. 7. Define and identify steady or stable rate responding. 8. List and define the three elements of baseline logic. 9. Discuss the value of establishing a steady baseline in applied behavior analysis. 10. Outline guidelines for establishing a steady baseline in applied behavior analysis research. 11. Identify four types of baseline data patterns. 12. Discuss how single-subject research employs the inductive logic known as “affirmation of the consequent.” 13. Systematically manipulate independent variables and analyze their effects on treatment. (Application)

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What are the basic assumptions underlying the analysis of behavior? 2. What are the levels of scientific understanding? 3. What is a functional relationship and how is it demonstrated in behavior analytic research? 4. What is the steady state strategy? 5. What is baseline logic? 6. What are the four types of baseline data patterns? 7. What are the essential components of experiments in applied behavior analysis research?

Chapter Key Terms

|affirmation of the consequent |independent variable |
|ascending baseline |internal validity |
|baseline |parametric study |
|baseline logic |practice effects |
|confounding variable |prediction |
|dependent variable |replication |
|descending baseline |single-subject designs |
|experimental control |stable baseline |
|experimental question |steady state responding |
|external validity |variable baseline |
|extraneous variable |verification |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Bailey, J. S. & Burch, M. R. (2002). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book offers the readers a step-by-step, “how-to” conduct research in applied behavior analysis.

Johnston, J. M. & Pennypacker, H. S. (1993a). Strategies and tactics of behavior research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
This book is a “must have” for individuals interested in conducting single-subject research.

Johnston, J. M. & Pennypacker, H. S. (1993b). Readings for Strategies and tactics of behavior research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Readers should consider using this text as a companion to Strategies and Tactics of Behavior Research for an in-depth understanding of research methods used in behavior analysis.

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Single case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. NY, NY: Oxford University Press.
This text offers readers a detailed description of the various research tactics employed in behavior analysis research. Readers should consider this book as a companion to this textbook (Applied Behavior Analysis).

Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyon and Bacon.
This book provides readers a comprehensive look at the use and application of single-subject research design specifically targeted for educational research questions. This text is a must read for individuals interested in conducting research in applied, educational settings.

Sidman, M, (1960/1988). Tactics of scientific research: Evaluating experimental data in psychology. New York: Basic Books/Boston: Authors Cooperative (reprinted).
This classic text is a must read for any individual interested in behavioral research.
Chapter 8: Analytic Tactics Using Withdrawal, Reversal, and AlternatingTreatment Conditions

Chapter Summary

This chapter focuses on two experimental tactics commonly used in applied behavior analysis research: the reversal design and the alternating treatments design. An outline of the appropriate use of each design and their variations is provided. An explanation of how the elements of baseline logic (prediction, verification, and replication) are incorporated in each design is presented. Advantages and disadvantages for the use of each experimental tactic are described.

Chapter Objectives

1. Analyze the effects of a variety of independent variables using two types of experimental tactics widely used by applied behavior analysts: the reversal design and the alternating treatments design.
2. Select the appropriate experimental tactic based on the research question of interest and the appropriateness of the design.
3. Discuss how the reversal design and the alternating treatments design and their variations incorporate the elements of baseline logic (prediction, verification, and replication).
4. State and describe advantages and disadvantages in using the reversal design and alternating treatments design.
5. Identify practical and ethical considerations in using the reversal design and alternating treatments design.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. Describe the three phases of an A-B-A reversal design.
2. Discuss why reintroducing the B condition is the preferred tactic in demonstrating a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
3. Describe how an A-B-A reversal design incorporates baseline logic (prediction, verification, and replication).
4. Discuss why a B-A-B design might be considered a preferable tactic in applied research.
5. Identify possible limitations that may impact the analysis of a multiple treatment reversal design.
6. State a practical advantage to the use of a noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) reversal technique.
7. State a rationale for using either a DRO or DRI/DRA reversal technique.
8. State a major strength of the A-B-A-B reversal design.
9. Discuss two major limitations of the A-B-A-B reversal design.
10. Describe the characteristics of an alternating treatments design.
11. Describe how an alternating treatments design incorporates baseline logic (prediction, verification, and replication).
12. Discuss how the presence and degree of experimental control is determined when employing an alternating treatments design.
13. Describe variations of the alternating treatments design.
14. List and describe advantages of the alternating treatments design.
15. List and describe possible limitations of the alternating treatments design.
16. Draw a graphic representation of an A-B-A and an A-B-A-B reversal design.
17. Draw a graphic representation of an alternating treatments design.
18. Given graphs illustrating reversal and alternating treatments designs, identify the presence or absence of a functional relationship.

Chapter Key Terms

|A-B-A design |multiple treatment reversal design |
|A-B-A-B design |multiple treatment interference |
|alternating treatments design |NCR reversal technique |
|B-A-B design |reversal design |
|DRI/DRA reversal technique |sequence effects |
|DRO reversal technique |visual analysis |
|irreversibility |withdrawal design |
|multi-element design | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Bailey, J. S. & Burch, M. R. (2002). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book offers the readers a step-by-step, “how-to” conduct research in applied behavior analysis.

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Single case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. NY, NY: Oxford University Press.
This text offers readers a detailed description of the various research tactics employed in behavior analysis research. Readers should consider this book as a companion to this textbook (Applied Behavior Analysis).

Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyon and Bacon.
This book provides readers a comprehensive look at the use and application of single-subject research design specifically targeted for educational research questions. This text is a must read for individuals interested in conducting research in applied, educational settings.

Richards, S.B., Taylor, R., Ramasamy, R., Richards, R. (1998). Single-Subject Research: Application in educational and clinical settings. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Publishing.
This textbook provides information on the basic concepts and issues in applied behavior analysis research.

Tawney, J.W. & Gast, D. L. (1984). Single subject research in special education. Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall.
This textbook provides information on issues in applied behavior analysis/special education research.

Chapter 9: Analytic Tactics Using Multiple Baseline and Changing Criteria

Chapter Summary

This chapter describes the multiple baseline design and the changing criterion design. In a multiple baseline design, simultaneous baseline data is collected on two or more behaviors. After stable responding has been achieved, then the independent variable is applied to one of the behaviors while baseline conditions are maintained for the other behaviors. After change has been observed in the first behavior, the independent variable can be applied sequentially to each behavior in the design. Three basic types of the multiple baseline design are (a) the multiple baseline across different behaviors of the same subject, (b) multiple baseline across the same behavior of different subjects, and (c) multiple baseline of the same behavior of one subject across different settings.

There are two variations of the multiple baseline design, the multiple probe design and the delayed baseline design. In the multiple probe design, intermittent measures are taken at the beginning of the experiment and thereafter each time a subject has mastered one of the behaviors or sequential skills. True baselines are conducted for each behavior prior to instruction. This design is useful for evaluating the effect of instruction on skill sequences when it is unlikely that the subject will master later steps without instruction. It is also useful for situations where a prolonged baseline could have negative effects for the subject or the experiment. In the delayed baseline design, collection of baseline data for subsequent behaviors is begun after baseline for earlier behaviors. This design may be used when a planned reversal is no longer possible, resources are limited, or a new behavior or subject becomes available.

Behaviors of interest must be functionally independent and share a reasonable likelihood of responding to the independent variable. They must be measured concurrently and interventions cannot be applied to the next behavior until the previous behavior change has been established. There should be a significant difference in the length of baseline conditions between the different behaviors and the independent variable should first be applied to the behavior demonstrating the greatest level of stable responding in baseline.

There are four advantages and four limitations to using the multiple baseline design. The advantages include the fact that (a) it does not require withdrawing a potentially effective intervention, (b) sequential implementation of the independent variable parallels the practice of many teachers and clinicians, (c) the concurrent measurement of multiple behaviors allows direct monitoring of generalization of behavior change, and (d) the design is relatively easy to conceptualize and implement. Limitations of the design include the fact that (a) if behaviors are not functionally independent, the design may not demonstrate a functional relationship even though one may exist, (b) because verification must be inferred from the lack of change in other behaviors, the design is inherently weaker than the reversal design at demonstrating experimental control, (c) it is more an evaluation of the independent variable’s general effectiveness than an analysis of the behaviors selected for study, and (d) it requires considerable time and resources. The second experimental design discussed in the chapter is the changing criterion design. This design can be used to evaluate the effects of a treatment on the gradual or stepwise improvement of a behavior already in the subject’s repertoire. After a stable baseline has been observed, the first intervention phase begins. Reinforcement is typically contingent upon performance at a specified level. The design entails a series of intervention phases, each requiring improved performance by the subject. Experimental control is demonstrated by a combination of the length and number of the criterion changes as well as the magnitude of each change. Two advantages of this design are that it does not require withdrawal of a seemingly effective treatment and that it enables experimental analysis with the context of a gradually improving behavior. Two limitations of the design are that the target behavior must already be in the subject’s repertoire and that the necessary features of the design may impede the natural learning rate.

Chapter Objectives

1. Describe the multiple baseline technique 2. Describe the differences between types of multiple baseline designs 3. Describe the changing criterion design technique 4. Identify the advantages and limitations of multiple baseline design and changing criterion design. 5. Identify and explain the practical and ethical considerations in using various experimental designs.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What are the features of the multiple baseline design? 2. What are the features of the changing criterion design? 3. What is the importance of systematic manipulation of independent variables? 4. What practical and ethical considerations do behavior analysts need to consider when selecting an experimental design?

Chapter Key Terms

|changing criterion design |multiple baseline across subjects design |
|delayed multiple baseline design |multiple baseline design |
|multiple baseline across behaviors design |multiple probe design |
|multiple baseline across settings design |visual analysis |
| | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Bailey, J. S. & Burch, M. R. (2002). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book offers the readers a step-by-step, “how-to” conduct research in applied behavior analysis.

Johnston, J. M. & Pennypacker, H. S. (1993a). Strategies and tactics of behavior research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
This book is a “must have” for individuals interested in conducting single-subject research.

Johnston, J. M. & Pennypacker, H. S. (1993b). Readings for Strategies and tactics of behavior research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Readers should consider using this text as a companion to Strategies and Tactics of Behavior Research for an in-depth understanding of research methods used in behavior analysis.

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Single case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. NY, NY: Oxford University Press.
This text offers readers a detailed description of the various research tactics employed in behavior analysis research. Readers should consider this book as a companion to this textbook (Applied Behavior Analysis). Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyon and Bacon.
This book provides readers a comprehensive look at the use and application of single-subject research design specifically targeted for educational research questions. This text is a must read for individuals interested in conducting research in applied, educational settings.

Sidman, M, (1960/1988). Tactics of scientific research: Evaluating experimental data in psychology. New York: Basic Books/Boston: Authors Cooperative (reprinted).
This classic text is a must read for any individual interested in behavioral research.

Chapter 10: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Research in Applied Behavior Analysis

Chapter Summary

This chapter supplements the information of previous chapters with a discussion on issues that require consideration when designing, replicating, and evaluating behavioral research. The main ideas presented are (a) the importance of the individual subject, (b) the value of a flexible experimental design, and (c) the importance of identifying and controlling the variables that contribute to the validity and reliability of research.

Behavioral research has focused on the behavior of individual subjects to identify effective interventions for socially significant behavior. The strength of within-subject experimental research is the convincing demonstration of a functional relationship between the behavior and the intervention. Research designs that present the average performances of subjects, while appropriate in many situations, do not reveal any information about the performance of individual subjects. Yet the most useful information about an intervention is the affect it has on individuals. Systematic and strategic control of relevant variables is more likely to reveal important information about the effects of treatment variables than attempting to cancel out variability through statistical manipulation.

Flexibility in experimental design is important because it allows the researcher to address questions of interest using the most appropriate experimental design rather than attempting to fit all questions into a single design. A good research design is one that manipulates the relevant variables in a manner that produces data to convincingly answer the research questions. Often this may require a combination of analytic tactics. The most effective designs rely on continual evaluation of data from individual subjects as the basis for assessment.

The validity and reliability of a research study are measured by examining the internal, social, and external validity of its treatment and outcomes. Experiments that demonstrate a clear relationship between the independent variable and the observed behavior are said to have a high degree of internal validity. Strong experimental designs are those that demonstrate a reliable effect and eliminate the possibility that the effect was due to factors other than the independent variable. Two measures of internal validity are treatment integrity and procedural reliability, the extent to which the independent variable was implemented as planned. Social validity refers to the social significance of the target behavior, the appropriateness of the procedures, and the social importance of the outcomes. Assessment of social validity typically includes evaluation of consumer opinion. External validity refers to the degree to which a functional relationship from a given experiment will hold under different circumstances. In other words, will a treatment demonstrated to be effective here be effective in other conditions. In applied behavior analysis research this generality is assessed through replication of experiments.

The chapter concludes with a discussion on the importance of evaluating applied behavior analysis research. Evaluation of research is important to establish the quality and value of results. Evaluation of research should include consideration of all aspects of the experiment, from the technological description, to the interpretation of the results, as well as the conceptual framework of the study.

Chapter Objectives

1. Explain the importance of the individual subject in behavioral research. 2. Explain the importance of flexibility when designing experiments. 3. Identify and design systems for evaluating internal validity. 4. Identify and design systems for evaluating social validity. 5. Identify and design systems for monitoring external validity. 6. Explain the importance of evaluating applied behavior analysis research.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. Why is the individual subject of central importance in applied behavior analysis? 2. Why is it important for researchers to be flexible when designing research experiments? 3. How does assessment of internal validity contribute to the strength of a research experiment? 4. What is the importance of social validity in research? 5. How does evaluating the external validity of a study contribute to the field of applied behavior analysis? 6. How does evaluation of research strengthen the field of applied behavior analysis?

Chapter Key Terms

|component analysis |systematic replication |
|direct replication |treatment drift |
|double-blind control |treatment integrity |
|placebo control |type I error |
|procedural fidelity |type II error |
|replication |visual analysis |
| | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Bailey, J. S. & Burch, M. R. (2002). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
This book offers the readers a step-by-step, “how-to” conduct research in applied behavior analysis.

Johnston, J. M. & Pennypacker, H. S. (1993a). Strategies and tactics of behavior research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
This book is a “must have” for individuals interested in conducting single-subject research. Johnston, J. M. & Pennypacker, H. S. (1993b). Readings for Strategies and tactics of behavior research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Readers should consider using this text as a companion to Strategies and Tactics of Behavior Research for an in-depth understanding of research methods used in behavior analysis. Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Single case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. NY, NY: Oxford University Press.
This text offers readers a detailed description of the various research tactics employed in behavior analysis research. Readers should consider this book as a companion to this textbook (Applied Behavior Analysis). Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyon and Bacon.
This book provides readers a comprehensive look at the use and application of single-subject research design specifically targeted for educational research questions. This text is a must read for individuals interested in conducting research in applied, educational settings. Sidman, M, (1960/1988). Tactics of scientific research: Evaluating experimental data in psychology. New York: Basic Books/Boston: Authors Cooperative (reprinted).
This classic text is a must read for any individual interested in behavioral research.

Chapter 11: Positive Reinforcement

Chapter Summary

This chapter provides a definition of positive reinforcement (a stimulus presented, contingent upon a response, which increases the future likelihood of that response). The chapter stresses the importance of immediacy of reinforcement. Specifically, the authors note that even a 1-second response-to-reinforcement delay can diminish the intended effects of a reinforcer.

The chapter reviews a commonly-held misconception that positive reinforcement involves circular reasoning. “Circular reasoning” is defined, and examples of it are given. Reinforcement is not a circular concept because the two components of the response-consequence relation can be separated and the consequence manipulated to determine whether it increases the frequency of the behavior it follows.

The chapter also discusses antecedent stimuli in relation to the effects of reinforcement. Specifically, the chapter defines and describes discriminative stimuli and motivating operations (establishing and abolishing operations). This leads to a technically-correct description of the discriminated operant (the four-term contingency): EO->SD->R->SR+. The chapter notes that behaviors are reinforced automatically (i.e., it is not necessary for reinforcement to be planned in order to occur) and that any behaviors can be strengthened by reinforcement. The concept of superstitious behavior is introduced as a behavior that appears when reinforcement is presented on a fixed-time schedule.

Reinforcers are classified as unconditioned (those that do not require a learning history to acquire reinforcing qualities) or conditioned (stimuli that were initially neutral but acquired reinforcing properties by being paired with other reinforcers). Reinforcers can be classified as edible, sensory, tangible, activity, or social.

Several methods of identifying potential reinforcers are described. Stimulus preference assessments can identify highly preferred stimuli that are likely to serve as reinforcers (however, such stimuli do not always function as reinforcers). The chapter describes single-stimulus presentation preference assessments, multiple-stimulus-presentation preference assessments, and reinforcer assessments, which can be used to verify whether stimuli identified as highly preferred do, indeed, function as reinforcers.

The chapter reviews procedures for demonstrating experimental control when studying positive reinforcer within an experimental research design. Thompson and Iwata (2003) suggested that a noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) reinforcement schedule may be the best choice for the “A” phase of an ABAB reversal design, where the “B” phase involves a positive reinforcement intervention. The advantages and disadvantages of using differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) reinforcement schedules for the “A” phase are discussed.

Finally, 12 guidelines for selecting and using reinforcers are provided, based on the discussion presented in the chapter.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and provide examples of positive reinforcement. 2. Define and provide examples of conditioned and unconditioned reinforcement. 3. Describe and provide examples of the operant conditioning paradigm (i.e., the three-term and four-term contingencies). 4. Identify potential reinforcers. 5. Use appropriate parameters and schedules of reinforcement to identify reinforcers. 6. Use response-deprivation procedures (e.g., the Premack principle) 7. Identify control procedures for positive reinforcement. 8. Use positive reinforcement effectively.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is positive reinforcement and what are different types of positive reinforcers? 2. What are the three- and four-term contingencies and how do they relate to the concept of positive reinforcement? 3. How can positive reinforcers be identified for individuals? 4. Once identified, how can positive reinforcement be implemented most effectively?

Chapter Key Terms

|automatic reinforcement |reinforcer assessment |
|generalized conditioned reinforcer |response-deprivation hypothesis |
|positive reinforcer |stimulus preference assessment |
|Premack principle | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Ahearn, W.H., Clark, K.A., DeBar, R., & Florentino, C. (2005). On the role of preference in response competition. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 247-250.
This article describes a preference assessment that analyzed preference for stimuli that were and were not matched to the hypothesized sensory reinforcement produced by the participants’ stereotypy.

Fisher, W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Hagopian, L. P., Owens, J. C., & Slevin, I. (1992). A comparison of two approaches for identifying reinforcers for persons with severe and profound disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 491-498.
This article describes how to conduct a forced-choice preference assessment (and compares the utility of the forced-choice preference assessment to single-stimulus presentation assessments). This is the “classic” citation for forced-choice preference assessments.

DeLeon, I. G., Fisher, W. W., Catter, V. R., Maglieri, K., Herman, K., & Marhefka, J. (2001). Examination of relative reinforcement effects of stimuli identified through pretreatment and daily brief preference assessments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 463-473.

This article compares the effects of using highly preferred stimuli identified during an initial, time-consuming preference assessment as reinforcers to the effects of using highly preferred stimuli identified during brief, multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments as reinforcers. The study demonstrates that when the two assessments yielded different results, the stimuli identified in the daily, brief MSWO assessments functioned as more effective reinforcers.

Northup, J., George, T., Jones, K., Broussard, C., & Vollmer, T. R. (1996). A comparison of reinforcer assessment methods: The utility of verbal and pictorial choice procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 201-212.
This article compares the effectiveness of stimuli as reinforcers when they were identified via verbal report from children with ADHD versus when they were identified using a forced-choice preference assessment. The results showed that verbal reports were fairly inaccurate in identifying effective reinforcers; however, the forced-choice preference assessment fairly reliably predicted stimuli as reinforcers.

McCadam, D., Klatt, K.D., Koffarnus, M., Dicesare, A., Solberg, K., Welch, C., & Murphy, S. (2005). The effects of establishing operations on preferences for tangible items. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 107-110.
This article demonstrates the effects of motivating operations on the outcomes of paired-stimulus preference assessments.

Paramore, N.W., & Higbee, T.S. (2005). An evaluation of a brief multiple-stimulus preference assessment with adolescents with emotional-behavioral disorders in an educational setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 399-403.
This article provides a nice illustration of the application of a brief multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment for adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems.

Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (1990). Assessing food preferences among persons with profound mental retardation: Providing opportunities to make choices. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 183-195.
This article represents an early study that addressed the difficulties with using caregiver reports of what stimuli might serve as reinforcers. The authors used a paired-choice preference assessment and found it was more effective in identifying functional reinforcers than caregiver reports.

Roane, H. S., Lerman, D. C., & Vorndran, C. M. (2001). Assessing reinforcers under progressive schedule requirements. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 145-167.
This article demonstrates the effects of increasing schedule requirements for identifying preferences for individuals with disabilities.

Wacker, D. P., Wiggins, B., Fowler, M., & Berg, W. K. (1988). Training students with profound or multiple handicaps to make requests via microswitches. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 331-343.
This article describes a very simple way to verify whether or not a stimulus will serve as a reinforcer, even for individuals with very significant disabilities.

Activity
Have students practice administering different preference assessments with each other. Bring in toys, edibles, etc. for students to use as stimuli in the preference assessments. Have them try:
Single-stimulus presentation
Paired-stimulus presentation
Multiple stimulus without replacement
Multiple stimulus with replacement.
Bring in data sheets for the students to practice defining and observing target behaviors as they take data during the preference assessments. Have students graph their results or put their results in a table for interpretation.

Chapter 12: Negative Reinforcement

Chapter Summary

Negative reinforcement can be thought of as positive reinforcement’s compliment. Whereas in positive reinforcement responding increases as a result of stimulus presentation following a behavior, in negative reinforcement, responding increases as a function of stimulus termination following a behavior. This chapter defines negative reinforcement, distinguishes between escape and avoidance contingencies, describes events that may serve as the basis for negative reinforcement, illustrates ways negative reinforcement can be used to strengthen behavior, and discusses ethical issues that arise when using negative reinforcement.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and provide examples of negative reinforcement 2. Identify and use negative reinforcers. 3. Differentiate between escape and avoidance contingencies. 4. Identify the characteristics of negative reinforcement. 5. Use appropriate parameters and schedules of negative reinforcement. 6. State and plan for the possible unwanted effects of and ethical issues in the use of negative reinforcement.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is negative reinforcement and how is it similar to and different from positive reinforcement? 2. What are the 4 components of a negative reinforcement contingency? 3. How is negative reinforcement similar to and different from punishment? 4. How are escape and avoidance contingencies different? 5. What are the characteristics of negative reinforcement, and how can it be used most effectively to promote learning? 6. What are some examples of how negative reinforcement can be used to produce therapeutic effects for individuals? 7. How can negative reinforcement produce undesirable, problem behaviors? 8. What are the ethical issues involved in negative reinforcement?

Chapter Key Terms

|avoidance contingency |free-operant avoidance |
|conditioned negative reinforcer |negative reinforcement |
|discriminated avoidance |unconditioned negative reinforcer |
|escape contingency | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Cipani, E. C. (1995). Be aware of negative reinforcement. Teaching Exceptional Children, 27(4), 36-40.
This is an easy-to-read article that is geared toward teachers. It summarizes the concept of negative reinforcement and provides suggestions for determining whether problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement.

Cipani, E., & Sponner, F. (1997). Treating problem behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 329-342.
This article describes four treatment interventions for problem behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement: (a) functional communication training, (b) behavioral momentum, (c) differential reinforcement of alternate behavior, and (d) errorless learning.

Hineline, P. N. (1977). Negative reinforcement and avoidance. In W. K. Honig & J. E. R. Staddon (Eds.), Handbook of operant behavior (pp. 364-414). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
The chapter authors recommend this book chapter on negative reinforcement for a more in-depth discussion of basic research on negative reinforcement.

Iwata, B. A. (1987). Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: An emerging technology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 361-378.
The chapter authors recommend this article on negative reinforcement for a more in-depth discussion of applied research on negative reinforcement.

Zarcone, J. R., Crosland, K., Fisher, W. W., Worsdell, A. S., & Herman, K. (1999). A brief method for conducting a negative-reinforcement assessment. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20, 107-124.
This article describes an assessment methodology for identifying stimuli that might serve as negative reinforcers for individual children.

Activity
Work with students to diagram real-life examples of negative reinforcement—both escape and avoidance contingencies. Make the activity fun by bringing in cartoons that illustrate the principle of negative reinforcement. Dilbert, The Far Side, Garfield, and Calvin and Hobbes are excellent sources of good cartoons. Begin by modeling the practice with the students and slowly fade modeling until students are engaging in the activity independently. Then, have students generate their own examples, either from cartoons they find or by illustrating examples from their own lives. This can help students begin to see behavioral principles in action and all around them.
Chapter 13: Schedules of Reinforcement

Chapter Summary

A schedule of reinforcement is a rule that establishes the probability that a specific occurrence of a behavior will produce reinforcement. Two schedules of reinforcement – continuous reinforcement and extinction- provide the boundaries for all other possible schedules. With continuous reinforcement (CFR) an individual is reinforced every time a particular behavior occurs. For example, a parent using a continuous schedule of reinforcement would praise their child each time he cleaned up his place correctly after eating a meal. Examples of behaviors that tend to produce continuous reinforcement include pressing the power button on a computer (computer turns on), turning the ignition in a car (car turns on), flipping a light switch (light turns on), and turning a door handle (door opens). The other schedule of reinforcement is called extinction (EXT) because no occurrence of the behavior is reinforced. Between continuous reinforcement and extinction, a large number of environmental arrangements can be developed in which some occurrences of a behavior will b reinforced and other occurrences of the same behavior will not be. A rule that specifies such an environmental arrangement is called an intermittent schedule of reinforcement (INT). A baseball player does not hit the ball each time he swings. A student is not called on each time she raises her hand. A gambler does not win on a slot machine each time she pulls the lever. Intermittent reinforcement occurs when a reinforcer is delivered on a schedule that is not continuous. There are many variations of basic intermittent reinforcement schedules including schedules of differential reinforcement rates of responding, progressive schedules, and compound schedules. Each of these has specific effects on behavior.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define schedule of reinforcement.
2. Define continuous reinforcement.
3. Define intermittent reinforcement.
4. Identify the importance of naturally occurring reinforcement.
5. Identify the two main intermittent schedules of reinforcement.
6. Compare and contrast fixed and variable ratio schedules.
7. Explain the fixed ratio schedule consistency of performance.
8. Explain the phenomena of a post-reinforcement pause.
9. Explain and define a variable ratio.
10. Explain and describe fixed interval schedules of reinforcement.
11. Explain and define variable interval schedules of reinforcement.
12. Be able to define and explain the variables associated with “ratio strain.”
13. Identify 4 variations of basic intermittent schedules of reinforcement.
14. Define concurrent schedules of reinforcement.
15. Define and identify two discriminative schedules of reinforcement.
16. Define and identify two non-discriminative schedules of reinforcement.

Focus Questions

1. What is a schedule of reinforcement, and what are some different schedules of reinforcement?
2. What is naturally occurring reinforcement and why is it important?
3. What are the effects of various schedules of reinforcement?
4. What are concurrent, discriminative, and non-discriminative schedules of reinforcement?

Chapter Key Terms
| |limited hold |
|alternative schedue (alt) | |
|adjunctive behavior |matching law |
|chained schedule (chain) |mixed schedule (mix) |
|compound schedule of reinforcement |multiple schedule (mult) |
|concurrent schedule (conc) |post-reinforcement pause |
|conjunctive schedule (conj) |progressive schedule of reinforcement |
|continuous reinforcement (CRF) |ratio strain |
|differential reinforcement of diminishing rates (DRD) |schedule of reinforcement |
|differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH) |schedule thinning |
|differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) |tandem schedule (tand) |
|fixed interval (FI) |variable interval (VI) |
|fixed ratio (FR) |variable ratio (VR) |
|intermittent schedule of reinforcement (INT) | |

Suggested Readings/Activities

Hagopian, L.P., Contrucci Kuhn, S.A., Long, E.S., & Rush, K.S. (2005). Schedule thinning following communication training: Using competing stimuli to enhance tolerance to decrements in reiforcer density. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 177-193.

This study demonstrated that the introduction of competing stimuli can help to maintain low levels of problem behavior as reinforcement schedules for alternative behavior were thinned.

Neef, N.A., Marckel, J., Ferreri, S., Jung, S., Nist, L., & Armstrong, N. (2004). Effects of modeling versus instructions on sensitivity to reinforcement schedules. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 267-281.
This study evaluated the effects of modeling versus instruction on choices between concurrently available reinforcement schedules. Responding established when modeling was in place produced better sensitivity to subsequent reinforcement schedule changes.

Saunders, R.R., McEntee, J.E., & Saunders, M.D. (2005). Interaction of reinforcement schedules, a behavioral prosthesis, and work-related behavior in adults with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 163-176.
This study demonstrated that an FR schedule of reinforcement was more effective, when combined with a behavioral prosthesis, than VI schedules of reinforcement in increasing on-task and reducing problem behavior in vocational training.

Thompson, R.H., & Iwata, B.A. (2005). A review of reinforcement control procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 257-278.
This article provides an interesting discussion of the reinforcement schedules that should be used to demonstrate experimental control when evaluating the effects of reinforcement procedures.

Tiger, J. H., Hanley, G.P., & Heal, N. (2006). The effectiveness of and preschoolers’ preferences for variations of multiple-schedule arrangements. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 475-488.
This study evaluates the effects of multiple schedules of reinforcement on preschoolers’ recruitment of adult attention when a discriminative stimuli that signaled CRF and extinction.

Activity

Have your students purchase a copy of Sniffy, the Virtual Rat (or some other similar software) from http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/special_features/sniffy.html. After your students shape lever pressing in Sniffy, have them run various reinforcement schedules with Sniffy and observe the effects on his lever-pressing behavior. Have students print the cumulative records from sessions and submit these to the instructor.
Chapter 14: Punishment by Presentation of a Stimulus

Chapter Summary

Punishment teaches us not to repeat responses that cause us harm. Although punishment is often considered bad - an unfortunate counterpart of reinforcement – it is as important to learning as reinforcement. Learning from consequences that produce pain, discomfort, or the loss of reinforcers has survival value for the individual and for the species. As with reinforcement, a stimulus change that serves as the consequence in a punishment contingency an often be described as either of two types of operation: a new stimulus is presented or an existing stimulus is removed. In Chapter 14, Punishment by Stimulus Presentation, we define the basic principle of punishment and distinguish positive punishment and negative punishment base on the operation nature of the response suppressing consequence. The remainder of the chapter focuses on positive punishment; we discuss side effects and limitations of punishment, identify factors that influence the effectiveness o punishment, describe several examples of intervention involving positive punishment present guidelines for using punishment effectively and discuss ethical considerations regarding the use of punishment. In this chapter we define the principle of punishment, discuss its side effects and limitations, identify factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment, describe examples of several behavior change tactics that incorporate punishment, discuss ethical considerations for the use of punishment, and present guidelines for using punishment effectively. In the chapters’ concluding section, we underscore the need for more basic and applied research on punishment and reiterate Iwata’s (1988) recommendation that behavior analysis’s view punishment by contingent aversive stimulation as a default technology when other intervention shave failed.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and discuss the definitions of positive and negative punishment. 2. Define and discuss factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment 3. Identify and explain the potential side effects of punishment use. 4. List examples of positive punishment and describe their respective procedures. 5. Discuss the guidelines for the use of punishment as an intervention. 6. Identify and discuss ethical considerations regarding the use of punishment 7. Explain the current state of knowledge regarding the use of punishment as a treatment intervention.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What influence does punishing stimuli have on behavior? 2. What factors influence the effectiveness of punishment? 3. What are the potential side effects of punishment use? 4. Identify examples of positive and negative punishment. 5. What are the guidelines that should be considered for the use of punishment as an intervention? 6. What are the ethical issues that must be addressed for punishment to be used as an intervention? 7. Explain the knowledge base punishment in the current body of literature.

Chapter Key Terms

|behavioral contrast |positive practice: overcorrection |
|conditioned punisher |positive punishment |
|discriminative stimulus for punishment |punisher |
|generalized conditioned punisher |response blocking |
|negative punishment |restitutional overcorrection |
|overcorrection |unconditioned punisher |

Suggested Readings/Activities

Charlop, M. H., Burgio, L. D., Iwata, B. A., & Ivancic, M. T. (1988). Stimulus variation as a means of enhancing punishment effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 89-95.
This article shows that varying the stimuli used as punishers can make a punishment contingency more effective.

Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Kurtz, P. F., Sherer, M. R., & Lachman, S. R. (1994). A preliminary evaluation of empirically derived consequences for the treatment of pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 447-457.
This article describes a procedure for identifying effective punishers for use in the treatment of behavior problems.

Hanley, G.P., Piazza, C.C., Fisher, W.W.,& Maglieri, K.A. (2005). On the effectiveness of and preference for punishment and extinction components of function-based interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 51-65.
This article demonstrates that punishment often adds to the effectiveness of intervention procedures, such as Functional communication training. In addition, this study found that the intervention containing the punishment procedure was actually preferred over the same intervention without a punishment component.

Lerman, D. C., & Iwata, B. A. (1996). A methodology for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects associated with response blocking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 231-234.
Sometimes it can be difficult to separate whether behavior has been suppressed through a punishment contingency or though an extinction contingency. This article describes a method for distinguishing between these effects.

Lerman, D. C., Iwata, B. A., Shore, B. A., & DeLeon, I. G. (1997). Effects of intermittent punishment on self-injurious behavior: An evaluation of schedule thinning. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 187-201.
This article evaluates the use of intermittent punishment on problem behavior. Previous research has shown that fairly rich schedules of punishment are required to maintain low levels of problem behavior. This study showed that for some participants, schedule thinning resulted in low levels of problem behavior even though leaner, intermittent schedules of punishment were in place. For other participants, however, lean schedules of punishment were not effective in maintaining low levels of problem behavior.

Lerman, D. C., & Vorndran, C. M. (2002). On the status of knowledge for using punishment: Implications for treating behavior disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 431-464.
This article is a literature review that summarizes the basic and applied findings on punishment. The importance of continuing to research punishment in order to develop less intrusive, yet effective, behavior change strategies is stressed.
Chapter 15: Punishment by Removal of a Stimulus

Chapter Summary

In order for any procedure to be considered punishment in terms of behavior, there must be a decreased frequency, duration, or intensity in the future occurrence of the behavior. Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus (reinforcer) is also known as negative punishment or Type II punishment. This type of punishment occurs in two principle forms: time-out from positive reinforcement and response cost.

With time-out from positive reinforcement the individual loses access to positive reinforcement for a specified period of time. Time-out can be implemented by two principle methods, non-exclusion and exclusion. In non-exclusion time-out the individual is not physically removed from the setting. In exclusion the individual is at least partially removed from the instructional environment.

Non-exclusion time-out occurs in four ways: planned ignoring, contingent observation, withdraw of a specific positive reinforcer, and the time-out ribbon. Exclusion time-out can be implemented in three ways; time-out room, the partition time-out, and the hallway time-out. Each method has specific considerations that must be taken into account before beginning the procedure.

In order to effectively use time-out the practitioner must make several decisions prior to, during, and after the time-out application. These decisions include; enriching the time-in setting, specifically defining the behaviors that lead to time-out, deciding which method to use and the duration of time-out, exit criteria, explaining rules, obtaining permission from the relevant parties, and keeping good records to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure. Of these, enriching the time-in setting and evaluating the effectiveness are perhaps the two most critical variables. In other words, in order for time-out to be effective the time-in environment must be reinforcing.

A response cost is when the individual loses a specific amount of reinforcement. Response cost procedures usually involves fines for rules infractions. Response cost has several features that make it desirable to use. These include moderate-to-rapid decreases in target behavior classes, ease of use, and the ability to be combined with reinforcement for alternative behaviors.

With any punishment procedure the practitioner should be aware that there are often several undesirable side effects on behavior. These can include increased aggression, avoidance, collateral reductions in desirable behavior, increased attention to undesirable behavior, and behavioral unpredictability. For these reasons among others, punishment should be thought of as a treatment of last resort.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define negative punishment.
2. Define non-exclusion time-out.
3. Define exclusion time-out.
4. State the procedures for implementing planned ignoring.
5. State the procedures for implementing contingent observation.
6. State the procedures for implementing withdraw of a specific positive reinforcer.
7. State the procedures for using a time-out ribbon.
8. State the procedures using a time-out room.
9. State the procedures for implementing a partition time-out.
10. List the decisions a practitioner must make prior to, during, and after a time-out application.
11. Define response cost.
12. List the undesirable aspects of negative punishment.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is negative punishment (Type II punishment), and how is it related to positive punishment (Type I punishment)? 2. What are the different forms of time-out? 3. What are some considerations you should make when designing a time-out program? 4. What is response cost? 5. What are some considerations you should make when designing a response-cost program? 6. What are some of the possible side effects of negative punishment procedures and how do these impact the ethical considerations involved in using punishment procedures?

Chapter Key Terms

|bonus response cost |partition time-out |
|contingent observation |planned ignoring |
|exclusion time-out |response cost |
|hallway time-out |time-out from positive reinforcement |
|nonexclusion time-out |time out ribbon |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Conyers, C., Miltenberger, R., Maki, A., Barenz, R., Jurgens, M., Sailer, A., Haugen, M., & Kopp, B. (2004). A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 411-415.

This article describes a study that evaluated the effectiveness of both a response cost and a differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) intervention on decreasing the disruptive behavior of 25 preschool children. While both interventions were successful, the response-cost intervention was more effective over time.

James, J. E. (1981). Behavioral self-control of stuttering using time-out from speaking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 25-37.

This interesting article shows how a time-out procedure was implemented to decrease the disfluent speech displayed by an individual with a stuttering problem. Of particular interest is that e participant implemented the time-out procedure himself.

Long, E. S., Miltenberger, R. G., Ellingson, S. A., & Ott, S. M. (1999). Augmenting simplified habit reversal in the treatment of oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 353-365.

This article describes a study that sought to decrease fingernail biting in individuals with mental retardation. The initial intervention was a habit-reversal treatment, which did little to decrease fingernail biting. When additional intervention procedures were added (one of which was response cost and differential reinforcement), however, decreases in fingernail biting were observed.

Rapport, M. D., Murphy, H. A., & Bailey, J. S. (1982). Ritalin vs. response cost in the control of hyperactive children: A within-subject comparison. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 205-216.

This study is interesting because it compared the effects of Ritalin to a response-cost procedure to decrease off-task behavior in elementary-aged boys who had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study found that the response-cost procedure was more effective in maintaining low levels of off-task behavior and, therefore, higher levels of on-task behavior, for both participants.

White, A. G., & Bailey, J. S. (1990). Reducing disruptive behaviors of elementary physical education students with Sit and Watch. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 353-359.

This article describes a study that evaluated a time-out procedure called Sit and Watch. The study was implemented in two elementary physical education classes. One class was a general education class of 30 students, and the other class was a special education class with 14 students. For both groups, the intervention resulted in a decrease in disruptive behavior and was acceptable to parents and school personnel.

Yeager, C., & McLaughlin, T.F. (1995). The use of a time-out ribbon and precision requests to improve child compliance in the classroom: A case study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 17(4), 1-9.

This study describes a time-out ribbon intervention that was implemented, along with precision requests, for a 4-year-old child with disabilities. The time-out ribbon was successful in increasing compliance, but was even more effective when combined with precision requests.
Chapter 16: Motivating Operations

Chapter Summary

Motivating operations (MO’s) play a crucial role in understanding the behavior of organisms. A motivating operation has two main functions: a) it alters the effectiveness of some stimulus as a reinforcer, and b) it alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus. The altering of the effectiveness of some stimulus as a reinforcer is known as the value-altering effect of the motivating operation. The altering of the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus is known as the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation. The manner in which motivating operations are altered can be the result of a) the direct evocative or abative effect of the MO on response frequency and/or b) the indirect effect on the evocative or abative strength of relevent SD’s.

Motivating operations (MO’s) can be classified into to types: unconditioned motivating operations (UMO’s) and conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s). Unconditioned motivating operations (UMO’s) are motivating operations that have value-altering effects that are unlearned, or those with which the organism has no prior learning history. Unconditioned motivating operations (UMO’s) for humans include deprivation and satiation UMO’s, UMO’s relevant to sexual reinforcement, temperature changes, and painful stimulation. Conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s) are motivating operations with value-altering effects that are learned, or are a result of the organism’s learning history. Conditioned motivating operations can be classified into three types: surrogate (CMO-S), reflexive (CMO-R), and transitive (CMO-T). Despite the different categories of conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s), all are motivationally neutral prior to either the pairing with another already established motivating operation (MO) or a form of reinforcement or punishment.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define an establishing operation and provide characteristics of an establishing operation. 2. Discuss the recent movement to the term motivating operation. 3. Describe the difference between motivating operations and discriminative relations. 4. Define unconditioned motivating operations (UMO’s). 5. State various examples of UMO’s as related to the human organism. 6. Define conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s). 7. State the different classifications of CMO’s and how they operate. 8. State various examples of CMO’s as related to the human organism. 9. Name some general implications for the use of motivating operations in the study of behavior analysis.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is an establishing or motivating operation?
2. What are the different effects of motivating operations?
3. What are the different types of motivating operations?
4. How does each of the different motivating operations impact the behavior of an organism?

Chapter Key Terms

|abative effect |abolishing operation (AO) |
|behavior-altering effect |conditioned motivating operation (CMO) |
|establishing operation (EO) |evocative effect |
|function-altering effect |motivating operation (MO) |
|recovery from punishment procedure |reflexive conditioned motivating operation (CMO-R) |
|reinforce-abolishing effect |reinforcer-establishing effect |
|sd related to punishment |surrogate conditioned motivating operation (CMO-S) |
|transitive conditioned motivating operation (CMO-T) |unconditioned motivating operation (UMO) |
|unpairing |value-altering effect |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Catania, C.A. Coming to terms with establishing operations. Behavior Analyst, 16, 219-224.
This commentary criticizes J. Michael's original article on establishing operations because of the introduction of new and potentially inconsistent usages without adequate justification, and because of a tendency to isolate the field of behavior analysis from the findings of other related disciplines. The author examines specific aspects of the original article such as the use of Michael's use of colloquial terms and distinctions between specific types of establishing operations.

Iwata, B., Smith, R.G., & Michael, J. (2000). Current research on the influence of establishing operations on behavior in applied settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 411-418.
This article comments on research pertaining to establishing operations (EOs). The article focuses on three major themes. Methodological issues and suggestions for future research are addressed.

Laraway, S., Snycerski, S., Michael, J., & Poling, A. (2003). Motivating operations and terms to describe them: Some further refinements. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 407-414.
This paper provides an analysis of the term establishing operation (EO) in the field of behavior analysis, and discusses the needed refinement of terminology through the use of motivating operation (MO). Examples of motivating operations and their effects are presented.

Laraway, S. Snycerski, S., Michael, J., & Poling, A. (2001-2002). The abative effect: A new term to describe the action of antecedents that reduce operant responding. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 101-104.
The term abative is proposed in this commentary. The authors discuss the advantages of the term in the field.

McDevitt, M.A., & Fantino, E. (1993). Establishing operations and the discriminative stimulus. Behavior Analyst, 16, 225-227.
This paper is a response to the original article by J. Michael in which the authors note the failure to examine the relevance of the topic with related fields and emphasize the importance of role of the discriminative stimulus.

Michael, J. (2000). Implications and refinements of the establishing operation concept. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 401-410.
This article discusses the steps in the development of the terminology surrounding establishing operations as well as its implications within the filed of applied behavior analysis. In addition, the authors provide additional analyzes of the establishing operations across seven other topics of relevance.

Michael, J. (1993). Establishing operations. Behavior Analyst, 16, 191-206.
The author provides a commentary on discriminative and motivative variables related to operant functional relations. The relevance of and difference between unconditioned establishing operations (UEO’s) and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) are discussed.

Michael, J. (1993). ‘Establishing operations: Response. Behavior Analyst, 16, 229-236.
This commentary is a response to criticisms of the author’s original article. The author provides additional insight on terminology and research areas.

Michael, J. (1982). Distinguishing between discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 149-155.
This article begins debate to refine terminology pertaining to discriminative stimulus and discusses its affects on behavior. The term “establishing operation” is suggested as a general term to refer to the two main effects discussed.

Schlinger, H.D. (1993). Establishing operations: Another step toward a functional taxonomy of environmental events. Behavior Analyst, 16, 207-209.
Commentary responds to the article by J. Michael which originally posed the need to further refine terminology in relation to establishing operations.

Sundberg, M.L. (1993). The application of establishing operations. Behavior Analyst, 16, 211-214.
This article expands on the article originally written by J. Michael to provide ways to analyze topics related to motivation.

Sundberg, M.S., Loeb, M., Hale, L., Eigenheer, P. (2001-2002). Contriving establishing operations to teach mands for information. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 15-29.
This study investigates the need for contriving establishing operations when teaching children with autism to mand “where?” and “who?”. Results are presented and implications are discussed in terms of training of language instructions for children who have difficulty acquiring mands for information.

Chapter 17: Stimulus Control

Chapter Summary

Although operant responses are increased through reinforcement (consequence stimuli provided contingent upon a target response), the stimuli that precede the target behavior also acquire what is known as “evocative” effects on the behavior. When antecedent stimuli acquire this evocative effect, “stimulus control” has been established. Stimulus control can be defined as a change in rate, latency, duration, or amplitude of the response in the presence of specific stimuli. Discriminitive stimuli and motivational functions of antecedent stimuli share two important similarities: a) both events occur before the behavior, and b) both events have evocative functions on the behavior. However, they are different.

A stimulus acquires discriminative control when a target behavior has been reinforced only in its presence (and the target behavior’s occurrence is NOT reinforced in the presence of other stimuli). Sometimes, other stimuli that share similar physical properties with the discriminative stimulus will also acquire stimulus control over the behavior. This is known as stimulus generalization. The stimuli that evoke the same response are known as a “stimulus class.” Stimulus equivalence, on the other hand, describes the emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations.

Several factors may inhibit the development of stimulus control, including lack of pre-attending skills, stimulus salience, masking, and overshadowing. The addition of response prompts (i.e., instructions, modeling, physical guidance) may serve as supplementary stimuli because they may cause a target behavior to occur in the presence of the relevant stimulus. In addition, characteristics of the relevant stimuli can be modified or exaggerated to increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the behavior. These changes to the relevant stimulus are known as “stimulus prompts.” It is important to fade both response prompts and stimulus prompts as quickly as possible, however, so that the stimulus control is transferred from the prompt to the relevant stimulus. For response prompts, this can be done through most-to-least prompt sequences, b) graduated guidance, c) least-to-most prompt sequences, and d) time delay. To fade stimulus prompts, the exaggerated features of stimuli are gradually reduced until the relevant stimulus has been returned to its original state.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and provide examples of stimuli and stimulus classes.
2. Define and provide examples of stimulus control.
3. Define and provide examples of establishing operations.
4. Define and provide examples of stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination.
5. Explain how differential reinforcement is used to establish stimulus control (i.e., discrimination training procedures).
6. Explain how stimulus control and stimulus generalization are used to produce concept formation.
7. Describe how to use response and stimulus prompts to establish stimulus control.
8. Describe how to use response and stimulus prompt fading to transfer stimulus control to the relevant stimulus.
9. Define and give examples of stimulus equivalence procedures.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is meant by the term stimulus control, and how is it established?
2. How is stimulus control different from stimulus generalization?
3. How is stimulus control similar to and different from motivating operations?
4. How are stimulus generalization and stimulus control used to teach concepts?
5. What can one do to increase the likelihood that an individual will engage in the target behavior in the presence of the relevant stimuli so that stimulus control can be established?
6. How is stimulus control transferred from prompts to the relevant stimuli?
7. What is stimulus equivalence?

Chapter Key Terms

|Antecedent stimulus class |Stimulus discrimination training |
|Arbitrary stimulus class |Stimulus equivalence |
|Concept formation |Stimulus generalization |
|Discriminative stimulus (SD) |Stimulus generalization gradients |
|Feature stimulus class |Reflexivity |
|Matching-to-sample |Symmetry |
|Stimulus control |Transitivity |
|Stimulus delta (SΔ) | |

Chapter Suggested Readings

Connell, J.E., & Witt, J.C. (2004). Applications of computer-based instruction: Using specialized software to aid letter-name and letter-sound recognition. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 67-71.
This article provides data that demonstrate the effectiveness of a computer-based instructional program to teach letter naming and letter sounds. The instructional procedure was based on stimulus equivalence training.

Dinsmoor, J.A. (1995). Tutorial: Stimulus control: Part I, The Behavior Analyst, 18, 51-68.
This paper helps discriminate between respondent and operant conditioning when evaluating stimulus control of behavior and further explains the gradients of stimulus control and generalization.

Dinsmoor, J.A. (1995). Tutorial: Stimulus control: Part II, The Behavior Analyst, 18, 253-269.
This paper is a continuation of the one described above. It discusses the importance of the difference between examples and nonexamples as well as the effects of background stimuli. It also discusses transferring stimulus control using fading.

Dymond, S., & Rehfeldt, R.A. (2000). Understanding complex behavior: The transformation of stimulus functions. The Behavior Analyst, 23, 239-254.
This paper reviews the behavioral literature on stimulus transformations.

Leaf, R., McEachin, J., & Harsh, J.D. (1999). Work in progress. New York: DRL Books, LLC.
This book contains instructional programs for teaching attending skills, a prerequisite skill for teaching stimulus discrimination.

Maurice C., Green, G., & Luce, S.C. (1996). Behavior intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
This book contains instructional programs for teaching attending skills, a prerequisite skill for teaching stimulus discrimination.

Piazza, C. C., Hanley, G. P., & Fisher, W. W. (1996). Functional analysis and treatment of cigarette pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 437-449.
This is a very interesting study that demonstrates how pica was brought under stimulus control of a purple-colored card (s-delta). When the participant carried this card, he did not engage in cigarette pica.

Rehfeldt, R.A., & Root, S.L. (2005). Establishing derived requesting skills in adults with severe developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 101-105.
This study shows how adults with disabilities were taught to request preferred items with pictures. Then, they were taught how pictures corresponded to dictated names, and how dictated names corresponded to text. All of the participants were then able to request preferred items using text.

Chapter 18: Imitation

Chapter Summary

It is very important that people possess an imitative repertoire because it assists with the acquisition of many new behaviors. Some children with disabilities need direct instruction in order to develop an imitative repertoire, sometimes referred to as generalized imitation. There has been considerable research on the effectiveness of imitation training, and this chapter describes these procedures.

Imitation is defined by for behavior-environment relations: 1) all physical movements may function as a model for imitation (the model is an antecedent stimulus that evokes imitative behavior), 2) the imitative behavior must immediately follow the presentation of the model, 3) the model and the evoked behavior must “look the same” (i.e., have formal similarity), and 4) the model must serve as the controlling behavior for an imitative behavior. All four of these relations must be considered when evaluating an occurrence of behavior as imitative or non-imitative.

Imitiation training uses many of the teaching procedures already discussed in other chapters of the text: shaping, discrimination training, and prompting/prompt fading. However, Streifel (1974) recommended a specific training sequence that includes: (a) assessing and teaching prerequisite skills, (b) selecting models for training, (c) pretesting, (d) sequencing models for training, (e) performing imitation training. Probing for imitative behaviors (i.e., probes with novel, non-trained models) can be interspersed throughout training or at the end of each training session to check for generalized imitation.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and provide examples of echoics and imitation 2. Discriminate between examples and nonexamples of imitation 3. Describe the imitation process; state what a trainer should do during the training process, based on learner performance.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What are the four behavior-environment relations that define imitation? 2. What are the steps and decision rules involved in imitation training? 3. How can imitation training be used most effectively?

Chapter Key Terms

|Imitation | |

Chapter Suggested Readings

Eikeseth, S., & Nesset, R. (2003). Behavioral treatment of children with phonological disorder: The efficacy of vocal imitation and sufficient-response-exemplar training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 325-337.
This article describes a study in which typically-developing children were taught vocal imitation. The authors found that after the children developed an imitative repertoire of vocalizations, their articulation improved in everyday situations.

Garcia, E., Baer, D. M., & Firestone, I. (1971). The development of generalized imitation within topographically determined boundaries. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 101-112.
This article describes a study that evaluated whether imitation generalized to different response topographies or whether it was topography specific. The findings indicated that imitation generalized to topographies similar to those receiving training.

Holth, P. (2003). Generalized imitation and generalized matching to sample. The Behavior Analyst, 26(1), 155-158.
This article presents a conceptual discussion surrounding many of the terms in imitation training.

Young, J. M., Krantz, P. J., McClannahan, L. E., & Poulson, C. L. (1994). Generalized imitation and response-class formation in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 685-697.
This article describes a study in which a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of imitation training on the generalized imitation of children with autism.
Chapter 19: Shaping

Chapter Summary

Shaping is a very important procedure for teaching new behaviors. Shaping is conducted by reinforcing successive approximations to a desired, terminal behavior. Successive approximations can be either prerequisite skills for the terminal behavior, or they can be a higher order member of the same response topography as the terminal behavior. The participant reaches the terminal behavior when the topography, frequency, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior reaches the criterion level. This is achieved through differential reinforcement, which means that specific behaviors within the response class are reinforced, while other behaviors are not reinforced (i.e., they are placed on extinction). This produces response differentiation between behaviors that are more similar to the terminal response and those that are not. Shaping can be done either across different response topographies—where the form of behavior changes over time—or within a response topography—where the form of the behavior remains the same, but another dimension of behavior changes over time.

Shaping is a very useful, positive teaching procedure. Clicker training is one example of how the shaping process has been applied to animal training. However, shaping is limited by the fact that it can be time consuming to do, and it requires a skilled practitioner to implement it effectively. The shaping process can be made more efficient by combining the procedure with a variety of prompting procedures, including verbal and physical prompts as well as models. To use shaping effectively, one must select and define the terminal behavior carefully, determine the criteria for success, analyze the response class to identify the potential shaping steps, identify the first behavior to reinforce, eliminate distracting stimuli, proceed in gradual steps, and continue to reinforce the terminal behavior after the shaping process has been completed.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and provide examples of shaping. 2. Explain the process of shaping in terms of the behavioral contingencies used. 3. Differentiate between shaping across different and within the same response topographies. 4. Explain ways in which the efficiency of shaping can be increased. 5. State the guidelines for implementing shaping effectively.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is shaping and when would it be appropriate to use it? 2. How is differential reinforcement applied in the shaping process? 3. How is shaping across different response topographies different from shaping within a response topography? 4. How can prompts be used to increase the efficiency of shaping? 5. What are the necessary skills a trainer must have to effectively implement shaping? 6. What are the necessary steps a trainer must take to implement shaping effectively?

Chapter Key Terms

|fading |response differentiation |
|shaping |successive approximation |
|terminal behavior |clicker training |
|differential reinforcement | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Readings
Galbicka, G. (1994). Shaping in the 21st century: Moving percentile schedules into applied settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 739-760.
This article discusses future directions of shaping with respect to percentile schedules and how they could help provide more consistent shaping implementation. This is the article referred to in the text of the chapter.

Ferguson, D. L., & Rosales-Ruiz, J. (2001). Loading the problem loader: The effects of target training and shaping on trailer- loading behavior of horses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 409-424.
This article describes a study that used shaping to teach horses to get into a trailer so that they could be transported. The study used targets that the horses were taught to touch. The targets were moved gradually further and further inside the trailer.

Hagopian, L. P., & Thompson, R. H. (1999). Reinforcement of compliance with respiratory treatment in a child with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 233-236.
This article describes how shaping was used to teach a child with cystic fibrosis to comply with his respiratory treatments.

Pryor, K. (1999). Don’t shoot the dog!: The new art of teaching and training. New York: Bantam Books.
This book is an excellent resource on dog training and describes shaping in a very user-friendly way, providing lots of applied examples.

Pryor, K. (2004). Lads before the wind: Diary of a dolphin trainer. Dorking, Surrey, UK: Sunshine Books.
A good read for those interested in shaping. In this book, Dr. Pryor tells of her days when she was a dolphin trainer at Sea World in Hawaii. She provides a historical context for how she learned about shaping from B.F. Skinner and describes several examples of how she used shaping to train her dolphins to perform tricks in shows and important every-day behaviors (such as coming to the top of the water so that they could receive reinforcement) at Sea World.

Pryor, K. (2005). Getting started: Clicker training for dogs. Dorking, Surrey, UK: Sunshine Books.
This book describes how shaping can be used to train dogs. Dr. Pryor’s goal in getting people to use shaping more effectively is to eliminate or greatly reduce the use of punishment procedures in animal training.

Rea, J., & Williams, D. (2002). Shaping exhale durations for breath CO detection for men with mild mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 415-418.
This article describes a study in which the authors shaped longer durations of exhaling so that participants could be tested whether or not they smoked for smoking cessation purposes. It was necessary to shape longer exhalations because verbal instructions from the experimenters were not successful in eliciting the response.

Activities
Have your students purchase one of the computer-based simulations (e.g., Sniffy the Virtual Rat or The Shaping Game) discussed in the text for learning about shaping and behavioral principles. Require them to shape a specific behavior in their virtual rat and submit the cumulative record of the shaping process.
Note: Shimoff and Catania (1995) states that demonstration copies of Behavior on a Disk (which contains The Shaping Game) can be obtained from CMS Software, P.O. Box 5777, Santa Fe, NM 87502-5777.

Play “the shaping game” with your students. Divide students into small groups of two or three. Tell the students to assume that they are working with a nonverbal child who has significant language delays and does not understand complex explanations of how to perform a behavior. Have one student leave the room while the other students determine a behavior they will shape in the person who left. (A caution: Tell your students that the behaviors they select must be appropriate and not embarrassing to the target student. Take it from experience! If you don’t do this, the students might try to embarrass you or their peers! Give them some examples of appropriate behaviors to shape; for example, standing on a chair, or standing on one foot and turning three circles.) Tell the target students to come back in the room. The other students should then use a clicker or praise (or some other method of providing “reinforcement”) to shape successive approximations to the target behavior. Tell your students they are not allowed to talk to the target student (other than to praise the correct responses) or provide any other prompts so that they are forced to elicit the behavior only through contingencies of reinforcement. After the game, hold a discussion about what they noticed about the process. What was frustrating? What was interesting? What was fun about it? How could they have done better at it? Did anyone accidentally start shaping a behavior that was not closer to the terminal behavior? How did that happen? How could it be avoided?
Chapter 20: Chaining

Chapter Summary

A behavior chain is a specific sequence of discrete response, each associated with a particular stimulus condition. Each response (except for the first and last responses in the chain) serves a dual function: as a conditioned reinforcer for the preceding response and as a discriminative stimulus for the subsequent response. Behavior chains with limited holds must be completed both accurately and within a given time period. Teaching behavior chains is important because behavior chains can contribute to independence (most independent living skills are behavior chains), can help combine behaviors already in a learner’s repertoire into more complex behaviors, and can be combined with other procedures to build repertoires in generalized settings.

Prior to teaching a behavior chain, one must conduct a task analysis, which is a series of sequentially ordered steps that are the smaller, teachable units of the chain. This can be done by observing others complete the task, consulting experts, or performing the task, yourself. This task analysis can be used to assess baseline performance of learners either through a single- or multiple-opportunity method.

Behavioral chaining can be accomplished via forward chaining, backward chaining, total-task chaining, or backward chaining with leap aheads. There are no data to suggest that one form of training is better than another, and the decision to use one over the other should be based on the individual needs of the learner and task.

Some behavioral chains may be inappropriate. Inappropriate behavior chains can be broken using a variety of strategies that involve analyzing the chain and the environment to determine how the chain or environment may be modified to produce better performance.

How well an individual learns a behavior chain is impacted by the completeness of the task analysis, the length/complexity of the chain, the schedule of reinforcement, the schedule of extinction, stimulus variation, and response variation.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and give examples of behavior chains. 2. Identify why behavior chains are important. 3. Conduct a task analysis and select appropriate assessment methods for evaluating performance on task analysis. 4. Identify and define different chaining procedures, and determine when each would be selected for use. 5. Describe how behavior chains can be interrupted.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What are behavior chains?
2. Why are behavior chains important to understand?
3. What is a task analysis?
4. How do I conduct a task analysis?
5. What are appropriate methods for me to evaluate learner performance on task analyses?
6. What are the different types of chaining procedures?
7. Is one type of chaining procedure more effective than another?
8. How can inappropriate behavior chains be interrupted?

Chapter Key Terms

|backward chaining |chaining |
|backward chaining with leap aheads |forward chaining |
|behavior chain |task analysis |
|behavior chain interruption strategy |total-task chaining |
|behavior chain with limited hold | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Readings
Contrucci Kuhn, S.A., Lerman, D.C., Vorndran C.M., & Amp, L.A. (2006). Analysis of factors that affect responding in a two-response chain in children with developmental disabilities Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 263-280.
This article describes a study that evaluated three procedures (extinction, satiation, and unchaining) for breaking behavior chains.

Griffen, A. K., Wolery, M., & Schuster, J. W. (1992). Triadic instruction of chained food preparation responses: Acquisition and observational learning. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 193-204.
This article shows that children learned skills by observing their peers perform complex chains of behavior almost as well as they learned skills via direct instruction of the chain from the teacher.

MacDuff, G. S., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1993). Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules: Maintenance and generalization of complex response chains. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 89-97.
This article shows how picture schedules can be used to teach and maintain complex behavior chains of after school activities.

Schuster, J. W., Gast, D. L., Wolery, M., & Guiltinan, S. (1988). The effectiveness of a constant time-delay procedure to teach chained responses to adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 169-178.
This article shows how constant time delay teaching procedure can be combined with chaining to teach complex behavior chains.

Vintere, P., Hemmes, N. S., Brown, B. L., & Poulson, C. L. (2004). Gross-motor skill acquisition by preschool dance students under self-instruction procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 305-322.
This article describes and analyzes procedures for teaching gross-motor chains.

Werts, M. G., Caldwell, N. K., & Wolery, M. (1996). Peer modeling of response chains: Observational learning by students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 53-66.
This article shows how behavior chains can be learned by observing peers complete the chain and describe it as they complete it.

Activity
Ask students to write a task analysis for a skill (for example, making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich). Give students a limited amount of time for the activity. Select a task analysis and ask a student to come up in front of the class and attempt to perform the task exactly according to the task analysis. (Be prepared with the appropriate supplies you might need for the activity—e.g., bread, peanut butter, jelly, plates, knives, napkins). Discuss modifications that might be necessary to make on the task analysis to make it more useful.
Chapter 21: Extinction

Chapter Summary

This chapter describes how to reduce the occurrence of behavior by withholding reinforcement, a principle known as extinction. Extinction has been demonstrated to be effective in a wide variety of settings, such as homes, schools, and institutions, and with diverse behavior ranging from severe self-destruction to mild annoyances. However, the effectiveness of extinction in applied setting is independent primarily on identification of reinforcing consequences and consistent application of the procedure. Extinction does not require the application of aversive stimuli to decrease the behavior; it does not provide verbal or physical models of punishers being directed toward others. Extinction simply requires the withholding of reinforcement. The chapter defines extinction and describes procedures for applying extinction. Additionally, it discusses extinction behavior and resistance to extinction. Although extinction appears to be a simple process, its application in applied settings can be difficult.

Chapter Objectives

1. State the definition of extinction
2. Compare and contrast the functional and procedural forms of extinction.
3. Identify 3 misuses of the term extinction.
4. Compare and contrast the use of extinction with behaviors maintained by positive, negative and automatic reinforcement.
5. Plot and label an extinction curve on a graph.
6. Discuss the phenomenon of spontaneous recovery.
7. Explain the effect of continuous and intermittent reinforcement on behavior’s resistance to extinction.
8. Discuss how establishing operations effect resistance to extinction.
9. List several behavioral examples that demonstrate how response effort influences a behaviors resistance to extinction.
10. List and discuss the 10 guidelines for the use of extinction.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is extinction and how does it vary (procedurally) according to the function of a target behavior?
2. What are some of the common misconceptions about extinction?
3. What does a typical extinction curve look like?
4. What is an extinction burst and spontaneous recovery?
5. How do various variables (e.g., the previous schedule of reinforcement, establishing operations and response effort) affect resistance to extinction?

Chapter Key Terms

escape extinction extinction (operant) extinction burst resistance to extinction sensory extinction spontaneous recovery

Chapter Suggested Readings

Anderson, C. M., & McMillan, K. (2001). Parental use of escape extinction and differential reinforcement to treat food selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 511-515.
This study demonstrates parental, rather than clinical or classroom staff, implementing extinction effectively.

Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Cowdery, G. E., & Miltenberger, R. G. (1994). What makes extinction work: An analysis of procedural form and function. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 131-144.
This article reviews the procedural variations for extinction based on behavioral function. It includes an excellent table that summarizes the big ideas in the article.

Lerman, D. C., & Iwata, B. A. (1996). Developing a technology for the use of operant extinction in clinical settings: An examination of basic and applied research. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 345-382.
This article reviews the basic and applied research on extinction and the variables that influence both the direct and indirect effects of extinction.

Lerman, D.C., Iwata, B.A., & Wallace, M.D. (1999). Side effects of extinction: Prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 1-8.
This study evaluates the prevalence of extinction bursts and extinction-induced aggression during extinction procedures. Results showed that one or both effects were observed approximately 50% of the time when extinction was implemented alone. However, if extinction was combined with another procedure, these side effects were dramatically reduced.

Reed, G. K., Piazza, C. C., Patel, M. R., Layer, S. A., Bachmeyer, M. H., Bethke, S. D., & Gutshall, K. A. (2004). On the relative contributions of noncontingent reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 27-41.
This study evaluated the effects of NCR and escape extinction on the food refusal of young children. Results indicated that therapeutic treatment effects were obtained only when escape extinction was included as part of the intervention package.

Thompson, R. H., Iwata, B. A., Hanley, G. P., Dozier, C. L., & Samaha, A. L. (2003). The effects of extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, and differential reinforcement of other behavior as control procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 221-238.
This article suggests that extinction may be the most useful “control” condition when implementing single subject research designs (i.e., it produced the most consistent and rapid reversal effects).
Chapter 22: Decreasing Behavior with Differential Reinforcement

Chapter Summary

This chapter describes different forms of differential reinforcement that can be used to decrease problem behavior—both by providing reinforcement for either appropriate behaviors of for absence of problem behavior and by placing problem behavior on extinction. All differential reinforcement procedures consist of these two components: (a) providing reinforcement contingent upon either the occurrence of a behavior other than problem behavior or problem behavior occurring and a reduced rate, and (b) withholding reinforcement for problem behavior.

Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) are two similar forms of differential reinforcement. In DRI, the practitioner reinforces a response that is physically incompatible with the target problem behavior and in DRA, the practitioner reinforces a response that is an appropriate alternative to problem behavior but is not necessarily incompatible with the target problem behavior. When using these procedures, the practitioner should: select incompatible/alternative behaviors that are already in the learner’s repertoire, require less effort than the problem behavior, and occur naturally at a rate that will provide sufficient opportunities for reinforcement; select potential reinforcers; reinforce incompatible/alternative behaviors immediately and consistently; gradually thin the schedule of reinforcement over time; place the problem behavior on extinction; and combine it with other procedures to maximize effectiveness.

Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a procedure that provides reinforcement for the absence of problem behavior during or at specific times. There are interval DRO schedules of reinforcement, which require that the practitioner deliver reinforcement at the end of specific intervals if problem behavior did not occur during the interval. This is contrasted with momentary DRO schedules of reinforcement, which require that the practitioner deliver reinforcement at the end of specific intervals if problem behavior did not occur at the end of the interval. When using DRO, the practitioner should: establish an initial DRO interval that ensures that the learner’s current level of behavior will produce frequent reinforcement; gradually increase the intervals over time; extend DRO to other settings and/or times of day; and combine it with other procedures.

Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL) is used when the practitioner desires to decrease the overall rate of a behavior but not to eliminate it completely. There are full-session, interval, and spaced-responding DRL schedules. In full-session DRL, reinforcement is delivered when responding is equal to or falls below a predetermined criterion for the entire session. In interval DRL, the full session is divided into a series of equal intervals, and reinforcement is provided when responding is equal to or falls below a predetermined criterion for each individual interval. During spaced responding DRL schedules of reinforcement, reinforcement is provided for each response that is separated from the previous response by a minimum amount of time. When using DRL, the practitioner should: select the most useful DRL schedule, use baseline data to guide the initial selection of reinforcement requirements, and provide informational feedback to the learner to maximize the effectiveness of the DRL schedule.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and give examples of differential reinforcement.
2. Define, give examples of, and explain how to use differential reinforcement of incompatible/alternative behavior.
3. Define, give examples of, and explain how to use differential reinforcement of other behavior.
4. Define, give examples of, and explain how to use differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. How does differential reinforcement function to decrease problem behavior (i.e., what are the principles of behavior underlying it)?
2. What is differential reinforcement of incompatible/alternative behavior and what are the important things to consider when implementing it?
3. What is differential reinforcement of other behavior and what are the important things to consider when implementing it?
4. What is differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior and what are the important things to consider when implementing it?

Chapter Key Terms

|differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) |full-session DRO |
|differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI) |interval DRL |
|differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) |spaced-responding DRL |
|differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) |variable-interval DRO (VI-DRO) |
|fixed-interval DRO (FI-DRO) |variable-momentary DRO (VM-DRO) |
|fixed-momentary DRO (FM-DRO) | |

Chapter Suggested Readings

Lindberg, J. S., Iwata, B. A., Kahng, S., & DeLeon, I. G. (1999). DRO contingencies: An analysis of variable-momentary schedules. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 123-136.
This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of a variety of variable-momentary DRO schedules of reinforcement and compared them to fixed schedules. The results showed that variable DRO schedules may provide a more effective treatment solution.

Rehfeldt, R. A., & Chambers, M. R. (2003). Functional analysis and treatment of verbal perseverations displayed by an adult with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 259-261.
This article describes a DRA intervention that increased the appropriate verbalizations and decreased perseverative verbalizations in an adult with autism.

Roane, H. S., Fisher, W. W., Sgro, G. M., Falcomata, T. S., & Pabico, R. R. (2004). An alternative method of thinning reinforcer delivery during differential reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 213-218.
This article describes a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a reinforcement thinning procedure for a DRA intervention that involved restricting the participant’s access to alternative response materials.

Steege, M. W., Wacker, D. P., Cigrand, K. C., Berg, W. K., Novak, C. G., Reimers, T. M., Sasso, G. M., & DeRaad, A. (1990). Use of negative reinforcement in the treatment of self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 459-467.
This article describes a study in which the participants were taught to display a response (touching a microswitch) that was incompatible with their self-injurious behavior.

Chapter 23: Antecedent Interventions

Chapter Summary

Within the literature in the field of behavior analysis, antecedent-based behavior change is often classified under the same single terms such as antecedent procedures, antecedent control, antecedent manipulations, and antecedent interventions. Using the same terms interchangeably may cause confusion in how these strategies actually cause the behavior change. Important distinctions must be made between discriminative stimuli and motivating operations. Discriminative stimuli evoke behavior due to past correlation with increased availability of reinforcement. Motivating operations instead increase the current frequency of behavior when an effective reinforcer is not available. Each of these presents different implications for how behavior change strategies should be implemented and manipulated.

When examining antecedent behavior change strategies the function of the change strategy is important. Functions of antecedent stimuli can be classified into either contingency dependent stimuli or contingency independent stimuli. Contingency dependent stimuli are referred to as antecedent control whereas contingency independent stimuli are called antecedent interventions. Three antecedent interventions that have empirically validated results are non-contingent reinforcement (NCR), high-probability (high-p) request sequence, and functional communication training (FCT).

Non-contingent reinforcement (NCR) involves presenting stimuli with known reinforcing properties delivered on a fixed-tome (FT) or variable-time (VT) schedule independent of the learner’s behavior. NCR aims to effectively decrease problem behavior by making reinforcers that maintain the problem behavior available freely and frequently. NCR utilizes positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and automatic reinforcement to identify and deliver stimuli with reinforcing properties. When implementing NCR considerations should be made for how often or frequently the procedure will be implemented, terminal criteria for NCR, and any additional procedures that may be used in combination with NCR to enhance its effects.

High-probability (high-p) request sequence involves pairing two to five short tasks with which an individual has a history of compliance with a task(s) with which the individual does not have a history of compliance. High-p request sequences provide a non-aversive procedure for improving compliance by diminishing escape-maintained problem behaviors. In addition, high-p request sequences may decrease excessive slowness in responding to requests & increase time used for completing tasks. Utilization of a high-p request sequence should involve potent reinforcers, acknowledging compliance, and presentation of requests in a rapid sequence.

Functional communication training (FCT) aims to establish appropriate communication behavior to compete with problem behaviors. In contrast to NCR and high-p request sequences, FCT develops alternative behaviors that are sensitive to establishing operations or motivating operations. In examining FCT as an intervention it is a DRA (differential reinforcement of alternative behavior) procedure. What is unique about FCT though is that the alternative behavior is specific to communication for the individual. The specific communication response can vary or be a combination of communication strategies for an individual, but the function remains the same – to effectively communicate with others. Careful and advance consideration for the type of communication response and procedures to train the communication response require are warranted.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and discuss applications of antecedent interventions 2. Define and discuss applications of noncontingent reinforcement. 3. Define and discuss applications of high-probability request sequence. 4. Define and discuss applications of functional communication training.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is an antecedent intervention? 2. What is noncontingent reinforcement? 3. What is high-probability request sequence? 4. What is functional communication training?

Chapter Key Terms

|antecedent intervention |behavioral momentum |
|fixed-time schedule (FT) |functional communication training (FCT) |
|high-probability (high-p) request sequence |noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) |
|variable-time schedule (VT) | |

Suggested Readings/Activities

Banda, D.R., Neisworth, J.T., & Lee, D.L. (2003). High-probability request sequences and young children: Enhancing compliance. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 25, 17-29.
Empirical studies in which high-probability request sequence were employed in an effort to increase compliance among children are reviewed. A theoretical framework, methodological adequacies, utility, and implications for research are addressed.

Carr, E.G., & Durand, V.M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 111-126.
This study utilizes assessment data to implement differential reinforcement of communication responses for four children with developmental disabilities. Results are presented and discussion illustrates how different topographies of problem behavior actually served similar functions for the individual participants.

Carr, J.E., Coriaty, S., Wilder, D.A., Gaunt B.T., Dozier, C.L., Britton, L.N., Avina, C., & Reed, C.L. (2000). A review of "noncontingent" reinforcement as treatment for the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 21, 377-391.
This article discusses the history of noncontingent reinforcement and summarizes findings from treatment research.

Carr, J.E., Dozier, C.L., Patel, M.R., Adams, A.N., & Martin, N. (2002). Treatment of automatically reinforced object mouthing with noncontingent reinforcement and response blocking: experimental analysis and social validation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23, 37-44.
The present study examines the use of separate and combined effects of response blocking and non-contingent reinforcement as a treatment for object mouthing in a young girl with autism.

Durand, M.V., & Carr, E.G. (1991). Functional communication training to reduce challenging behavior: Maintenance and application in new settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 251-264.
Functional communication training was examined as an intervention for three students with mental retardation. Results include generalization and maintenance data.

Durand, M.V., & Merges, E. (2001). Functional communication training: A contemporary behavior analytic intervention for problem behaviors. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 110-119.
This article discusses functional communication training specifically as it relates to individuals with autism. Conditions under which this intervention is effective is discussed and comparisons to other behavioral approaches are made.

Fisher, W.W., Piazza, C., Cataldo, M., Harrell, R., Jefferson, G., & Conner, R. (1993). Functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 23-36.
Functional communication training is examined by itself and in combination with extinction procedures in this study.

Fisher, W.W., Thompson, R.H., & Kuhm, D.E. (1998). Establishing discriminative control of responding using functional and alternative reinforcers during functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 543-560.
Communication responses were trained to be emitted by two individuals. Results are discussed and highlight the fact that differential reinforcement of communication resulted in a reduction of problem behavior regardless of the reinforcers available.

Fisher, W.W., Thompson, R.H., Hagopian, L.P., Bowman, L.G., Krug, A. (2000). Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training. Behavior Modification, 24, 3-29.
This study investigates the use of functional communication training with extinction for three participants with severe behavior disorders and mental retardation whose problem behavior were maintained by positive reinforcement.

Hagopian, L.P., Fisher, W.W., Sullivan, M.T., LeBlanc, L.A., Aquisto, J. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: A summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 211-235.
This study examines the use of functional communication training with and without the use of extinction amongst 21 individuals with mental retardation.

Houlihan, D., Jacobson, L., & Brandon, P.K. (1994). Replication of a high-probability request sequence with varied interprompt times in a preschool setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 737-738.
This brief article describes the high-probability request sequence and the effects of its implementation with a young child with autism.

Humm, S.P., Blampied, N.M., & Liberty, K.A. (2005). Effects of parent-Administered, home-based, high-probability request sequences on compliance by children with developmental disabilities. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 27, 27-45.
This study looks at the effects of parents implementing the high-probability request sequence with their children to gain compliance within the home environment.

Kahng, S.W., Hendrickson, D.J., & Vu, C.P. (2000). Comparison of single and multiple functional communication training responses for the treatment of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 321-324.
This study examines two functional communication training conditions that were used as a potential intervention to treat problem behaviors of a child with mental retardation.

Killu, K. (1999). High-probability request research: Moving beyond compliance. Education and Treatment of Children, 22, 470-494.
This article examines the use of the high-probability request sequence. It provides an outline of research and proposes various applications of the strategy.

Lalli, J.S., Casey, S., & Kates, K. (1995). Reducing escape behavior and increasing task completion with functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 261-268.
This study investigates the effects of combining functional communication training, extinction, and responses chaining to decrease problem behavior and increase task participation with three children with varying diabilities.

Lancaster, B.M., LeBlanc, L.A., Carr, J.E., Brenske, S., Peet, M.M., & Culver S.J. (2004). Functional analysis and treatment of the bizarre speech of dually diagnosed adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 395.
Noncontingent reinforcement was used with two individuals with dual diagnoses to decrease bizarre speech that was attention maintained.

Lee, D.L. (2005). Increasing compliance: A quantitative synthesis of applied Research on high-probability request sequences. Exceptionality, 13, 141-154.
This article is a meta-analysis of the high-probability request sequence. The study looks at the intervention as a strategy for both individuals with and without disabilities.

O’Neill, R.E., & Sweetlant-Baker, M. (2001). Brief report: An assessment of stimulus generalization and contingency effects in functional communication training with two Students with autism. Journal of Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 31, 235-240.
Potential generalized effects and the role of different contingencies for functional communication training are discussed in relation to two individuals with autism for whom FCT was used as intervention.

Peck Peterson, S.M., Caniglia, C., Royster, A.J., Macfarlane, E., Plowman, K., Baird, S.J., & Wu, N. (2005). Blending functional communication training and choice making to improve task engagement and decrease problem behaviour. Educational Psychology, 25, 257-274.
This study examined the effects of choice making within functional communication training to increase the task engagement of two participants with inappropriate behaviour. FCT was implemented to teach participants to request for breaks as a replacement for problem behaviour, and choice-making was utilized to increase participants’ ability to choose between taking breaks or completing task demands.
Original Article
Roscoe, E.M., Iwata, B.A., & Goh, H. (1998). A comparison of noncontingent reinforcement and sensory extinction as treatments for self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 635-646.
This study compares noncontingent reinforcement and sensory extinction as treatment for the self-injurious behavior of three individuals with developmental disabilities.

Tucker, M., Sigafoos, J., & Bushell, H. (1998). Use of noncontingent reinforcement in the treatment of challenging behavior: A review and clinical guide. Behavior Modification, 22, 529-547.
This article reviews studies in which noncontingent reinforcement was used as an intervention to treat problem behaviors. The article also includes guidelines for using the technique.

Vollmer, T.R., Iwata, B.A., Zarcone, J.R., Smith, R.G., & Mazaleski, J.L. (1993). The role of attention in the treatment of attention-maintained self-injurious behavior: noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement of other behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 9-21.
This study compares DRO and NCR as possible treatments for reducing self-injurious in three adults with profound mental retardation.

Vollmer, T.R., Ringdahl, J.E., Roane, H.S., & Marcus, B.A. (1997). Negative side effects of noncontingent reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 161-164.
This article reviews concerns about the use of noncontingent reinforcement. Concerns are illustrated utilizing a case study.

Wacker, D.P., Steege, M.W., Northup, J., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., Cooper, L., Cigrand, K., & Donn, L. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 331-343.
Three individuals with displaying severe problem behaviors were trained to emit communicative responses in the present study.

Wehby, J.H., & Hollahan, S.M. (2000). Effects of high-probability requests on the latency to initiate academic tasks. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 259-262.
This study investigates the use of the high-probability request sequence as an intervention for decreasing the latency to initiating math assignments and increasing the duration on-task for an elementary student.

Wilder, D.A., Normand, M., & Atwell, J. (2005). Noncontingent reinforcement as treatment for food refusal and associated self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 549.
This study examines the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Results of the intervention showed a decrease in self-injury and an increase in bite acceptance.

Worsdell, A.S., Iwata, B.A., Hanley, G.P., Thompson, R.H., & Kahng, S.W. (2000). Effects of continuous and intermittent reinforcement for problem behavior during functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 167-179.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior.
Chapter 24: Functional Behavior Assessment

Chapter Summary

Many problem behaviors are learned and maintained via positive, negative, and/or automatic reinforcement. In this respect, problem behavior can be said to have a “function” (e.g., to gain access to stimuli or to escape stimuli). Although many people are concerned about the topography, or form, of the problem behavior, the topography of the behavior often reveals little useful information about the conditions that account for it. Identifying the conditions—or the functions—that account for behavior suggests what variables one can alter to change the behavior. Assessment of the function of a behavior can therefore yield useful information with respect to intervention strategies likely to be effective. Assessment of the function of problem behavior is often referred to as functional behavior assessment (FBA).

FBA can lead to effective interventions in at least three ways. First, it can identify antecedent variables that can be altered to prevent problem behavior. Second, it can identify reinforcement contingencies that can be altered so that problem behavior no longer receives reinforcement. Third, it can help identify reinforcers for alternative replacement behaviors. A positive side effect of FBA is that it can decrease reliance on increasingly intrusive, coercive, and punishment-based interventions. Decreased reliance on these “default technologies” occurs because when FBAs are conducted, reinforcement-based interventions are more likely to be implemented than are interventions that include a punishment component.

FBA methods can be classified into three types: functional (experimental) analysis, descriptive analysis, and indirect assessment. Functional analysis involves systematically manipulating environmental events thought to maintain problem behavior within an experimental design. This yields a clear demonstration of the variable(s) that relate to the occurrence of problem behavior. Descriptive assessment involves observation of the problem behavior in relation to events that are not arranged in a systematic manner. These are easier to conduct than functional analyses; however, caution must be exercised when interpreting information from them because they can be biased an unreliable. Indirect functional assessment uses structured interviews, rating scales, and/or questionnaires. Again, these forms of assessment are easier than functional analyses to conduct, but they can be unreliable and only correlational in nature. Therefore, they are best reserved for hypothesis formulation only.

The basic strategy of conducting a FBA is to (1) gather information via indirect and descriptive assessments, (2) interpret the information from these assessments and formulate hypotheses about the purpose of problem behavior, (3) test these hypotheses using functional analysis, and (4) develop intervention options based on the function of problem behavior. Often, intervention consists of selecting a replacement behavior that serves the same function as (i.e., is “functionally equivalent” to) the problem behavior.

Chapter Objectives Chapter Objectives

1. Name the functions that problem behavior can serve. 2. Describe the role functional behavior assessment plays in preventing problem behavior and developing interventions for problem behavior. 3. State the different methods of conducting a functional behavior assessment. 4. State the primary characteristics of and rationale for conducting a descriptive assessment. 5. Describe various methods for gathering descriptive assessment data and under what circumstances each is appropriate. 6. Given a set of descriptive data, interpret the data to form a hypothesis regarding the possible function of problem behavior. 7. State the primary characteristics of and rationale for conducting a functional analysis as a form of functional behavior assessment. 8. Describe how to conduct a functional analysis. 9. Given a set of data from a functional analysis, interpret the data to determine the function of problem behavior.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What are the possible functions for problem behavior? 2. What are the different methods of conducting a functional behavior assessment (FBA) and how are they implemented? 3. What are the relative strengths and limitations to each method of conducting a FBA? 4. How do the results of FBAs impact intervention selection and development?

Chapter Key Terms

|conditional probability |contingency reversal |
|descriptive functional behavior assessment |functional analysis |
|functional behavior assessment (FBA) |functionally equivalent |
|indirect functional assessment | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Bae, S. Using functional assessments to develop effective behavioral interventions. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(4), 213-215.
This is a short, to-the-point article describing the important details of functional assessment. The article describes how the functional assessment of problem behavior can aide in the identification of the function these behaviors serve and help to plan effective interventions.

Chandler, L.K. & Dahlquist, C.M. (2002) Functional assessment: Strategies to prevent and remediate challenging behavior in school settings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
This book offers readers a comprehensive look at the use of functional behavior assessment with children in preschool settings through high school, in a variety of classroom settings, with special and general education students. The book includes a number of vignettes and open-ended case studies, giving readers the opportunity to utilize problem-solving skills and applying the functional behavior assessment approach. In addition, the authors offer readers possible intervention ideas with a focus on a team-based approach to prevention and intervention.

Chandler, L.K., Dahlquist, C. M., Repp, A.C., & Feltz, C. (1999). The effects of team-based functional assessment on the behavior of students in classroom settings. Exceptional Children, 66(1), 101-122.
This article examines the use of functional assessment interventions on both the appropriate and challenging behaviors of groups of students within preschool classrooms for children with special needs and for children at risk. The article also provides information on the effectiveness of a training model to teach school-based teams to conduct functional assessment, and may provide assistance to school teams seeking advice on how to structure these procedures in their settings.

Cipani, E. (2002). An historical view of the clinical and research base of functional analysis. Teacher Educator, 37(4), 231-253.
This article is geared specifically at teachers and provides reviews of both clinical and empirical research on functional analyses by presenting landmark studies, implications for schools, and a discussion of the legislation making the knowledge of functional analysis and positive behavioral interventions crucial for school personnel.

Conroy, M.A., Clark, D., Gable, R. A., & Fox, J. J.(1999). Building competence in the use of functional behavioral assessment. Preventing School Failure, 43(4), 140-144.
This article discusses in brief the benefits and challenges of utilizing a functional behavior assessment. In addition, the article suggests future uses for the functional behavior assessment.

Derby, K.M., Wacker, D.P., Peck, S., Sasso, G., DeRaad, A., Berg, W., Asmus, J., & Ulrich, S. (1994). Functional analysis of separated topographies of aberrant behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 267-278.
This article discusses the importance of analyzing different topographies of problem behavior separately in a functional analysis. It demonstrates how both extended and brief functional analyses can suggest hypotheses for functions of the problem behaviors. The article includes graphs illustrating functional analyses in the aggregate form as well as graphs showing the separate response topographies.

Dunlap, G., & Kincaid, D. (2001). The widening world of functional assessment: Comments on four manuals and beyond. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 365-377.
This article provides a comparison of four different manuals that claim to provide practitioners with the steps necessary to complete functional assessments. The article itself does not give readers the tools necessary to conduct assessments and interventions, but instead equips consumers with the questions to ask when searching for materials to assist them in carrying out functional behavior assessments and assessment-based interventions.

Dunlap, G., Newton, J. S., Fox, L.; Benito, N., & Vaughn, B. (2001). Family involvement in functional assessment and positive behavior support. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(4), 215-221.
This article discusses the importance of family involvement in collecting information through a functional assessment. The article discusses the use of techniques to incorporate family participation in the assessment and intervention process for children with autism, but techniques are applicable when working with families of any child with whom a functional assessment is being used.

Gable, R.A. (1999). Functional assessment in school settings. Behavioral Disorders, 24(3), 246-248.
This article discusses the challenges that practitioners face in implementing functional behavior assessments in school settings.

Gartin, B.C., & Murdick, N.L. (2001). A new IDEA mandate: The use of functional assessment of behavior and positive behavior supports. Remedial and Special Education, 22(6), 344-349.
This brief article provides readers with the requirements for conducting functional behavior assessments and positive behavioral supports as established by IDEA Amendments of 1997. The article is a good reminder for school personnel, parents, and other professionals of what is required under the law, and provides steps and examples for each.

Harrower, J. K., Fox, L., Dunlap, G., & Kincaid, D. (1999/2000). Functional assessment and comprehensive early intervention. Exceptionality, 8(3), 189-204.
This article concentrates on outlining the procedure for conducting a functional behavior assessment in the context of comprehensive early intervention services. The article offers readers a case study and a discussion of important factors involved in the collaboration process.

Iwata, B.A., Dorsey, M.F., Slifer, K.J., Bauman, K.E., & Richman, G. S. (1982/1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3-20 [Reprinted in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197-209.]
This article is the seminal article on functional analysis. This article depicts the self-injurious behaviors of nine participants during systematically altered test conditions, known as a functional analysis. Data indicate a high level of self-injury is associated with a specific condition in a majority of participants. The methods employed by the authors in this study have laid the foundation for many other research studies on functional analyses.

Johnston, S.S., & O'Neill, R.E. (2001). Searching for effectiveness and efficiency in conducting functional assessment: A review of proposed process for teachers and other practitioners. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(4), 205-214.
This article geared to providing suggestions for teachers and other practitioners provides readers with a review of some current research on functional assessment and analysis strategies. The article provides two case study examples outlining the authors proposed strategies.

Knoster, T. P. (2000). Practical application of functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 25 (4), 201-211.
This is a good article for school personnel to gain some information about the important components of a functional behavior assessment. The article provides readers with an overview of the selection of assessment and intervention techniques to be used in a school environment.

O’Neill, R.E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R.W., Sprague, J.R., Storey, K. & Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook (2nd edition). Pacific Grove, IL: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
This book acts as a guide to conducting functional behavior assessment by supplying teachers, clinicians, families, and other practitioners with a practical step by step plan means to conducting assessments, tailoring support plans, and developing individual intervention strategies. The book includes several blank forms that can actually be used in assessments and example forms that provide practitioners with exemplar models.

Paclawskyj, T.R., Kurtz, P. F., & O'Connor, J.T. (2004) Functional assessment of problem behavior in adults with mental retardation. Behavior Modification, 28(5), 649-667.
This article discusses the use of both functional behavior assessments and functional behavior analysis amongst adults with mental retardation. Both techniques and the procedures involved in each are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, and future directions for these methods are suggested.

Quinn, M.M., Gable, R. A., Fox, J., Rutherford, R. B., Jr.Van Acker, R., & Conroy, M. (2001). Putting quality functional assessment into practice into schools: A research agenda on behalf of E/BD students. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(3), 261-275.
This article discusses the problems that schools have in implementing the requirements as established by IDEA, and suggests a line of research to address issues that have surfaced, specifically in working with students who have been diagnosed with emotional/behavioral disorders.

Ryan, A.L., Halsey, H.N., & Matthews, W.J. (2003). Using functional assessment to promote desirable student behavior in schools. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 8-15.
This short article provides teachers and other practitioners with rationales for utilizing the functional behavior assessments. The article provides readers with the fundamental principles of behavior, components of the functional behavior assessment, and examples of applications in the classroom, its advantages, and a case study.

Scott, T.M., Liaupsin, C.J., Nelson, C.M., & Jolivette, K. (2003). Ensuring student success through team-based functional behavioral assessment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 16-21.
This article provides a detailed description of how school personnel implemented a team-based functional assessment for a student demonstrating problem behavior. The article provides suggestions for implementing the functional behavior assessment, sample information collecting sheets, and planning ideas.

Shippen, M. E., Simpson, R.G., & Crites, S.A. (2003). A practical guide to functional behavior assessment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 36-44.
This article gives suggestions for the use of functional behavior assessments. The article includes a case study using a functional behavior assessment and sample information forms for observation recordings, hypothesis development, and development of functionally equivalent behaviors.

Tincani, M. J., Castrogiavanni, A., & Axelrod, S. (1999). A comparison of the effectiveness of brief versus traditional functional analyses. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20(5), 327-338.
This study compares the use of brief and extended functional analyses amongst three participants. Results suggest that both analyses revealed the same functions for the problem behavior, but with less time required for the brief functional analyses.

Chapter 25: Verbal Behavior

Chapter Summary

Language is behavior under the control of the same environmental contingencies that control nonlanguage behaviors. The most significant human behaviors are verbal and Skinner’s (1957) analysis provides applied behavior analysts with the conceptual and practical tools to behaviorally analyze and ameliorate human problems related to language. The research and applications relevant to Skinner’s analysis of language have been slow in developing, not necessarily as a result of problems with the analysis, but rather as a result of the complexity of topics analyzed (Michael, 1984) and the paucity of researchers and clinicians working in this area (Sundberg, 1991). However, recent data suggest that significant growth in verbal behavior research and applications has occurred over the past 25 years (Eshleman, 1991). These very promising developments are gradually sup0porting Skinner’s (1978) prediction that his book Verbal Behavior will “prove to be my most important work” (p. 122).

Chapter Objectives

1. Differentiate between formal properties and functional properties of language. 2. Define verbal behavior. 3. Define a verbal operant. 4. Explain why Skinner suggested that the listener’s role is less significant than typically assumed. 5. Using a given example, determine the classification of verbal operants and explain how these terms can be used in the analysis of complex verbal behavior. 6. Identify and discuss 3 or more functional units of verbal behavior that contribute to our understanding of multiple control. 7. Define an autoclitic relation. 8. Identify and discuss how viewing language as a learned behavior involving a social interaction between speakers and listeners, with the verbal operants as the basic units, changes how clinicians and researchers approach and ameliorate human problems related to language.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is the difference between formal and functional properties of language?
2. What is verbal behavior and what is a verbal operant?
3. What is the role of the listener in Skinner’s verbal behavior?
4. How are verbal operants classified?
5. How does an understanding of the functional units of verbal behavior contribute to the analysis of multiple control and complex verbal behavior?
6. What is an autoclitic relation?
7. How does Skinner’s approach to verbal behavior change how clinicians and researchers approach and ameliorate problems with language?

Chapter Key Terms

|audience |autoclitic relation |
|automatic reinforcement |automatic punishment |
|copying a text |echoic |
|format similarity |generic extensions |
|impure tact |intraverbal |
|listener |mand |
|metaphorical extension |metonymical extension |
|multiple control |point-to-point correspondence |
|private events |tact |
|textual |transcription |
|solistic extension |speaker |
|verbal behavior |verbal operant |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Students should peruse back issues of the journal The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, published by the Association for Behavior Analysis.

Hernandez, E., Hanley, G. P., Ingvarsson, E. T., & Tiger, J. H. (2007). A preliminary evaluation of the emergence of novel mand forms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 137-156.
This study evaluates the use of a teaching strategy that produced generalized language acquisition responding.

Marckel, J. M., Neef, N. A., & Ferreri, S. J. A preliminary analysis of teaching improvisation with the picture exchange communication system to children with autism (2006). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 109-115.
This study evaluated a teaching strategy for children who use Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) and who may not always have the required picture card in their picture binder. The authors taught children descriptive words to see whether the children would use descriptions in the absence of the correct picture card. Results showed that the teaching strategy promoted improvisation in the children when the correct picture card was absent. Generalization within classes of description (e.g., color) occurred, but generalization across classes did not readily occur.

Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal Behavior. Acton, MA: Copley.
Does any more need to be said?! The authoritative, original source for this topic.

Thompson, R. H., Cotnoir-Bichelman, N. M., McKerchar, P. M., Tate, T. L., & Dancho, K. A. (2007). Enhancing early communication through infant sign training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 15-23.
This study demonstrated that young, hearing children who were taught to sign produced generalized treatment effects and helped to reduce crying and whining when sign training was in place.

Wallace, M. D., Iwata, B. A., & Hanley, G. P. (2006). Establishment of mands following tact training as a function of reinforcer strength. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 17-24.
This study evaluated whether a response acquired as a tact would later be used as a mand. This study showed that training transferred from tact to mand conditions in some cases.
Chapter 26: Contingency Contracting, Token Economy, and Group Contingencies

Chapter Summary

A contingency contract specifies the contingent relationship between the completion of a specified behavior and access to a specific reinforcer. A contract describes the tasks and the reward, and has a record of progress. Implementing a contract involves a complex package of interventions, but is widely used in classroom, home, and clinical settings.

A token economy is a behavior change system that consists of a list of target behaviors to be reinforced, tokens or points that learners receive for emitting those target behaviors, and a menu of items/activities for which they can exchange their tokens. Important considerations must be made for how to begin, implement, maintain, evaluate, and remove such systems. There are six basic steps for implementing a token economy: selecting the tokens, identifying the target behaviors or rules, selecting the backup reinforcers, establishing the ratio of exchange, writing procedures for when and how tokens will be dispensed and exchanged, and field testing the system.

A group contingency is when a common consequence is contingent upon the behavior of an individual member of a group, a part of the group, or everyone in the group. There are three major forms of group contingencies: independent, dependent, and interdependent group contingencies. There are six guidelines for implementing a group contingency: choosing a powerful reinforcer, determining the behavior to change and collateral behaviors that might be affected, setting appropriate performance criteria, combining with other procedures, selecting the most appropriate group contingency, and monitoring individual and group performance.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and identify the components of a contingency contract.
2. Define and identify the components of a token economy.
3. Explain the considerations that must be made when implementing a token economy.
4. Define and identify the different types of group contingencies.
5. Explain the considerations that must be made when implementing a group contingency.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is a contingency contract and what type of information does it contain?
2. What are some examples of how contingency contracts have been applied in different environments?
3. What is a token economy and what are its major components?
4. How would you set up a token economy? What considerations would you have to take into account when making these decisions?
5. What is a group contingency and what are some different ways it can be implemented?
6. What are some considerations to take into account when setting up a group contingency?

Chapter Key Terms

|backup reinforcer |independent group contingency |
|behavioral contract |interdependent group contingency |
|contingency contract |level system |
|dependent group contingency |self-contract |
|group contingency |token |
|hero procedure |token economy |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Kelley, M. L., & Stokes, T. F. (1982). Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 447-454.
This article describes how contracting was used to improve the academic productivity of disadvantaged youths.

Main, G. C., & Munro, B. C. (1977). A token reinforcement program in a public junior-high school. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 93-94.
This article shows an early application of a token economy to a junior-high school.

McGinnis, J. C., Friman, P. C., & Carlyon, W. D. (1999). The effect of token rewards on "intrinsic" motivation for doing math. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 375-379.
This article evaluates the use of a token economy on academic skills and attempts to address the often-debated question of whether reinforcement affects “intrinsic” motivation.

Miller, D. L., & Kelley, M. L. (1994). The use of goal setting and contingency contracting for improving children's homework performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 73-84.
This article describes how contracting was used to improve homework performance. Parents were responsible for implementing the contract.

Jenson, W.R., Rhode, G., & Reavis, H.K. (1996). The tough kid toolbox. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
This book accompanies the Tough Kid Book and has reproducible contracts, tokens, point sheets, spinners, and a variety of tools that can be used to implement contingency contracts, token economies, and group contingencies.

Rhode, G., Jenson, W.R., & Reavis, H.K. (1995). The tough kid book: Practical classroom management strategies. Longmont, CO: Sopris West,
This is an easy-to-read book that describes token economies, contingency contracts, and group contingencies. An excellent resource for any teacher or parent.

Wysocki, T., Hall, G., Iwata, B., & Riordan, M. (1979). Behavioral management of exercise: Contracting for aerobic points. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 55-64.
This study shows how contracting was used to improve the exercise of college students.
Chapter 27: Self-Management

Chapter Summary

We tend to assign causal states to events that precede behavior. When causal variables are not apparent in the immediate environment, the tendency to resort to internal causes, such as willpower or drive, is strong. However, these hypothetical constructs do little to actually help understand the behaviors they claim to explain and instead lead to circular reasoning. Skinner (1953) was the first to apply the philosophy and theory of radical behaviorism to actions considered to be controlled by the self, and conceptualized self-control as a two response phenomenon: the controlling response and the controlled response. The controlling response affects the variables in such a way as to change the probability of the other behavior, the controlled response.

Self-management is defined as the personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a desired change in behavior. The term self-control is also used to refer to this type of behavior change program. However, self-control as a term implies several additional constructs beyond the reference of a person acting in some way in order to change his subsequent behavior. Self-management is a relative concept and as a behavior change program may necessitate a small level of self-management or a wide-spanned scale of self-management. Self-management can be used to: live a more effective and efficient daily life, break bad habits and acquire new ones, accomplish difficult tasks, and achieve personal goals. Learning and teaching self-management skills have many advantages and benefits to the individual actually learning or implementing the skills, those teaching it, and other who may benefit the individual’s use of the skills. One categorization of self-management tactics involve the manipulation of stimuli antecedent to the target behavior and are collectively referred to as antecedent-based self-management tactics.

Self-monitoring is often a component of a self-management program and is the procedure by which a person observes and responds to the behavior he is trying to change. Self-monitoring was originally developed as a method of clinical assessment for behaviors that were thought to only be observable by the client himself. Self-monitoring is frequently combined with additional strategies such as goal setting, self-evaluation, and reinforcement delivered for meeting predetermined criteria. Self-monitoring is a strategy that is difficult to determine exactly how it works since it is confounded by private events. Even so, self-monitoring is a widely applicable tactic useful for individuals of varying ages and abilities as well as across a wide range of behaviors. The chapter provides several suggestions for effective use and implementation of self-monitoring.

Self-administered consequences are not synonymous with self-reinforcement or self-punishment because the variables influencing the controlling response make self-management strategies more than an application of operant reinforcement. Self-administered consequences analogous to positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment can be incorporated into self-management programs and the chapter details several suggestions for promoting the success of these consequences.

In addition to self-management and self-monitoring there are other types of self-management tactics. These include self-instruction, habit reversal, systematic desensitization, and massed practice. Each tactic varies in the exact procedures for implementing the self-management process, but the reference of a person acting in some way in order to change his subsequent behavior remains constant.

Implementing a self-management program can have a great impact on the target behavior. Sex steps are recommended for designing and implementing an effective self-management program. By following the six steps as well as other considerations outlined in the chapter, self-management can be a very effective behavior change tactic.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define self-management, its advantages and benefits, and specific types of self-management strategies.
2. Define self-monitoring, list and discuss suggested guidelines or procedures for its use, and discuss various derivatives of the self-monitoring.
3. Compare and contrast different types of self-administered consequences.
4. Define and discuss four additional types of self-management tactics.
5. List and discuss various suggestions for conducting an effective self-management program.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is self-management? 2. What are the advantages and benefits of using self-management? 3. What are antecedent-based self-management strategies? What are some examples? How are they implemented? 4. What is self-monitoring? 5. What other types of tactics may be combined with self-monitoring? 6. What promotes the effectiveness and success of self-monitoring? 7. What are self-administered consequences? 8. What is self-instruction and how is it utilized? 9. What is habit reversal and how is it implemented? 10. What is systematic desensitization and how is it employed? 11. What is massed practice and how is it used? 12. What steps are necessary for conducting an effective self-management program?

Chapter Key Terms

|habit reversal |massed practice |
|self-control |self-evaluation |
|self-instruction |self-management |
|self-monitoring |systematic desensitization |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Ackerman, A. M., & Shapiro, E. S. (1984). Self-monitoring and work productivity with mentally retarded adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 403-407.

The use of self-monitoring to increase the productivity of individuals with mental retardation working in sheltered workshop in examined in this investigation. Results demonstrated that increased productivity levels, evident when praise and prompting were being administered, maintained with self-monitoring alone.

Christian, L., & Poling, A. (1997). Using self-management procedures to improve the productivity of adults with developmental disabilities in a competitive employment setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 169-172.

This study describes the use of self-management procedures to improve the productivity of two participants with mild mental retardation who worked in restaurant settings. Results include social validity of acceptance by the participants as well as their workplace colleagues.

Connell, M. C., Carta, J. J., & Baer, D. M. (1993). Programming generalization of in-class transition skills: Teaching preschoolers with developmental delays to self-assess and recruit contingent teacher praise. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 345-352.

This study examines the use of a self-management intervention package that taught preschoolers with developmental delays to self-assess performance of targeted skills and to recruit teacher praise. Results are reported for both the training setting and the generalization settings, and implications of combining self-assessment and recruitment of contingent teacher praise are discussed.

Dunlap, L. K., & Dunlap, G. (1989). A self-monitoring package for teaching subtraction with regrouping to students with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 309-314.

This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of a self-monitoring package applied to solving subtraction problems for individuals with learning disabilities. whose responding to subtraction problems had been highly inconsistent and unsuccessful. Results of the study are compared to the literature on self-monitoring and learning disabilities.

Epstein, R. (1997). Skinner as self-manager. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 545-568.

B. F. Skinner’s application of self-management is examined in this article. The commentary focuses on his personal application of self-management strategies as well as the contemporary divergence from the principles behind self-management.

Gajar, A., Schloss, P. J., Schloss, C. N., & Thompson, C. K. (1984). Effects of feedback and self-monitoring on head trauma youths' conversation skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 353-358.

Effects of feedback and self-recording on the small group conversational behaviors of two individuals with head trauma were evaluated in this study. The efficacy of both interventions in examined through the experimental design and reported in the results.

Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Hurley, C., & Frea, W. D. (1992). Improving social skills and disruptive behavior in children with autism through self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 341-353.

This investigation assessed whether self-management could be used as a technique to produce extended improvements in responsiveness to verbal initiations from others in community, home, and school settings without the presence of a treatment provider for individuals with autism. Results are discussed in terms of their significance for improved development of social skills in children with autism.

Parsla Vintere, Nancy S. Hemmes, Bruce L. Brown, & Claire L. Poulson (2004). Gross-motor skill acquisition by preschool dance students under self-instruction procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 305-322.

This study evaluated the effects of two training procedures---(a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise---on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students. Results discuss both procedures and compare the effectiveness of each on the gross-motor chain acquisition of the skills taught.

Twohig, M. P., & Woods, D. W. (2001). Habit reversal as a treatment for chronic skin picking in typically developing adult male siblings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 217-220.

This study evaluated the use of habit reversal as a treatment for skin picking in typically developing adult siblings. Results indicated socially valid decreases in reported picking.

Wood, D. K., Frank, A. R., & Wacker, D. P. (1998). Teaching multiplication facts to students with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 323-338.

The effects of an instructional package on accuracy of performance in solving multiplication facts by students with learning disabilities are investigated in this study. Results discuss the instructional package, its effects, and replication.

Woods, D. W., Miltenberger, R. G., & Lumley, V. A. (1996). Sequential application of major habit-reversal components to treat motor tics in children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 483-493.

This study examines the use of habit-reversal as a potential treatment for children with motor tics. The habit-reversal treatment was comprised of four components. Results indicated that various combinations of components were effective in elimination of the target behavior for different participants. Possible explanations for varied results and future research are discussed.

Activities • Have students select a behavior that they would like to either increase or decrease for themselves, and create a self-management to target the selected behavior. Have students follow the six suggestions for conducting an effective self-management program as recommended in the text.

• Have students create a self-monitoring system for another individual with whom they are working, and have the individual monitor the selected target behavior for a period of time with your students checking in and ensuring that the individual is accurately recording.

Chapter 28
Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change

Chapter Summary

A behavior is said to have generalized if the trained behavior occurs at other times or in other places without having to be retrained completely in those particular times of places, or if functionally related behaviors occur that were not trained directly occur. This chapter concentrates on three main types of generalized behavior change: response maintenance, setting/situation generalization, and response generalization. Response maintenance refers to the extent to which a learner continues to perform a behavior after a portion or all of the intervention responsible for the initial change in behavior has been removed. Setting/situation generalization is the extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in settings or situations that are different from the instructional setting, or the setting in which the behavior was originally trained. Finally, response generalization refers to the extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained response. Some interventions may yield large and widespread generalization across time, settings, and other behaviors while other interventions may only produce very limited generalization. Undesirable generalization can also occur in both setting/situation generalization and response generalization, and can produce undesired outcomes for the learner.

Generalized behavior change involves systematic planning. The first step in promoting generalized behavior changes is to select target behaviors that will meet naturally existing contingencies of reinforcement. Identifying all of the desired behavior changes and all the environments in which the learner should emit the target behaviors after training is removed will assist in the planning process as by prioritizing the scope of the teaching task and which behaviors require instruction through direct teaching.

Stokes and Baer (1977) proposed “an implicit technology of generalization” and researchers continue to develop this into explicit strategies and tactics for promoting generalized behavior change. Strategies and tactics for promoting generalized behavior change are varied. They include teaching sufficient examples, conducting generalization probes, having the learner practice a variety of response topographies, general case analysis, incorporating negative teaching examples, programming common stimuli, teaching loosely, using intermittent schedules of reinforcement and delayed rewards. In addition to these strategies for promoting generalized behavior change, other tactics can be utilized to mediate generalization. Bringing the target behavior under the control of a contrived stimulus in the instructional setting and teaching the learner self-management skills are two additional methods to ensure generalization of behavior.

When using any type of intervention to change a behavior it is impractical, impossible, and undesirable to continue the intervention indefinitely. Therefore, shifting from intervention to a normal everyday environment can be accomplished by gradual withdrawal of three distinct components of the training program. Some learners may require some level of ongoing intervention in which constant monitoring and program evaluation will be required.

Finally, in developing and enhancing means of promoting generalized behavior change, there are five guiding principles. These principles are: 1) minimize the need for generalization as much as possible, 2) conduct generalization probes before, during, and after instruction, 3) involve significant others whenever possible, 4) promote generalized behavior change with the least intrusive, least costly tactics possible, and 5) contrive intervention tactics as needed to achieve important generalized outcomes.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define and provide examples of the different basic forms of generalized behavior change. 2. Define and provide examples of the different undesirable types of generalized behavior change. 3. Discuss planning techniques for generalized behavior change. 4. List and discuss strategies and tactics for promoting generalized behavior change. 5. Discuss how to modify and terminate successful interventions. 6. Name and discuss the guiding principles for promoting generalized outcomes.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What is response maintenance? 2. What is setting/situation generalization? 3. What is the difference between the instructional setting and the generalization setting? 4. What is response generalization? 5. What are undesirable forms of generalization? 6. What are other types of generalized outcomes? 7. How can planning for generalized outcomes best be achieved? 8. What strategies and tactics can assist in promoting generalized behavior change? 9. What does it mean to mediate generalization and how can it be accomplished? 10. What should be done to modify and terminate successful interventions? 11. What are the five guiding principles for promoting generalized outcomes?

Chapter Key Terms

|behavior trap |contrived contingency |
|contrived mediating stimulus |general Case analysis |
|generalization |generalization across subjects |
|generalization probe |generalization setting |
|indiscriminable contingency |instructional setting |
|lag reinforcement schedule |multiple exemplar training |
|naturally existing contingency |programming common stimuli |
|response generalization |response maintenance |
|setting/situation generalization |teaching sufficient examples |
|teaching loosely | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

Barton, E. J., & Ascione, F. R. (1979). Sharing in preschool children: Facilitation, stimulus generalization, response generalization, and maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 417-430.

This study investigated three different approaches to facilitating verbal and physical sharing, and the target behaviors’ generalizability and durability. Results demonstrated that physical sharing was durable and generalizable only when children were taught to share verbally. Increases in physical sharing produced by training children to share only physically were not durable and did not generalize. Training both verbal and physical sharing produced results with a magnitude slightly greater than teaching just verbal sharing. Results also indicated that some of the treatment effects generalized to another setting and were maintained during the Follow-up. Response generalization of the effects of training verbal sharing to physical sharing but not vice versa.

Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W., DeRaad, A., Ulrich, S., Asmus, J., Harding, J., Prouty, A., Laffey, P., & Stoner, E. A. (1997). The long-term effects of functional communication training in home settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 507-531.

A four-phase study was conducted in the homes of 4 young children who displayed aberrant behavior. Phases 1 and 2 consisted of a series of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the environmental antecedents and consequences that controlled aberrant behavior. Phases 3 and 4 evaluated the short- and long-term effects of treatment on aberrant behavior, target mands, and collateral (social and toy play) behaviors. The effects of treatment were monitored for up to 27 months to assess long-term suppression of aberrant behavior. The assessment results successfully identified environmental events that occasioned and maintained aberrant behavior for all children. The short-term treatment resulted in immediate decreases in aberrant behavior for 3 of 4 children. Long-term treatment was successful for all children and was correlated with substantial response generalization. These results are interpreted in relation to functional equivalence, pivotal responding, and response generalization.

Duker, P. C., & Morsink, H. (1984). Acquisition and cross-setting generalization of manual signs with severely retarded individuals. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 93-103.

The effect of a transfer of stimulus control procedure on the acquisition and cross-setting generalization of manual signs with four individuals with profound mental retardation was investigated in the current study. Results showed that individuals acquired the trained signs and maintenance and generalization across settings and persons occurred, but was highly variable between and within individuals.

Geller, E. S. (1983). Rewarding safety belt usage at an industrial setting: Tests of treatment generality and response maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 189-202.

This study examined the use of an incentive program to motivate seat belt use. Results were analyzed for possibly treatment generalization and response maintenance.

Lerman, D. C., Kelley, M. E., Vorndran, C. M., Kuhn, S. A. C., & LaRue, R. H., Jr. (2002). Reinforcement magnitude and responding during treatment with differential reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 29-48.

The relation between reinforcement magnitude and adaptive behavior was evaluated with three individuals as part of treatment with differential reinforcement. The relation between reinforcement magnitude and response maintenance was evaluated in the second experiment conducted in this study.

Pierce, K. L., & Schreibman, L. (1994). Teaching daily living skills to children with autism in unsupervised settings through pictorial self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 471-481.

The efficacy of pictorial self-management to teach daily living skills to three low-functioning children with autism was investigated in this study. Stimulus and response generalization, stimulus control of self-management materials, and maintenance of behavior change were also assessed. Results showed that children with autism could successfully use pictures to manage their behavior in the absence of a treatment provider, generalize their behavior across settings and tasks, and maintain behaviors at follow-up.

Rusch, F. R., & Kazdin, A. E. (1981). Toward a methodology of withdrawal designs for the assessment of response maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 131-140.

The present paper discusses three design options potentially useful for the investigation of response maintenance. These include: (a) the sequential-withdrawal, (b) the partial-withdrawal, and (c) the partial-sequential withdrawal designs. Each design is illustrated and potential limitations are discussed.

Whitman, T. L., Mercurio, J. R., & Caponigri, V. (1970). Development of social responses in two severely retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, 133-138.

This study examined the effect of reinforcement dependent on the social responses of two individuals who were severely retarded withdrawn children. Results include discussion of setting generalization as well as response generalization for each of the participants.

Chapter 29: Ethical Considerations for Applied Behavior Analysts

Chapter Summary

Ethics help behavior analysts address three basic questions: What is the right thing to do? What is worth doing? What does it mean to be a good behavior analyst? Ethics help the behavior analyst determine what is the morally correct course of action irrespective of expediency, pressures, personal histories/preferences, etc. These practices are often codified by professional organizations. However, it is important to understand that these codes change over time due to the changing culture in which we live. It is important for behavior analysts to understand the ethical practice codes, as well as the rules for the specific settings in which they work. Professional organizations not only set the ethical codes for their organizations, but they also impose sanctions when deviations from the codes occur. Behavior analysts should comply with ethical codes not just to avoid sanctions; at the heart of their decision-making should be the welfare of the client. Because cultures and rules change over time, the behavior analyst must be self-regulating to keep abreast of changing norms. Thus, behavior analysts must maintain certifications through not only formal training, supervised practica, and mentored professional practice, but also through continuing education and staying abreast of current research.

Behavior analysts must obtain informed consent prior to providing treatment. To obtain informed consent, the behavior analyst must ensure that the client has the capacity to make decisions, provides voluntary consent, and understands the treatment for which consent was given. In addition, before providing treatment, behavior analysts must ensure that treatment is necessary (i.e., the need for medical treatment has been ruled out) and must be confident that the treatment environment will support treatment delivery. When providing treatment, behavior analysts must maintain the confidentiality of the client. In addition, the behavior analyst must ensure the dignity of his/her client by ensuring that the client makes choices, has privacy, has a therapeutic environment, and has the right to refuse treatment. Throughout treatment, the behavior analyst must be on guard against conflicts of interest. When conducting frequent, direct measures of behavior, behavior analysts often interact with clients and families in natural settings (e.g., their homes). The behavior analyst must guard against developing relationships with clients that extend past professional boundaries.

Chapter Objectives

1. Define ethics and state why ethical practice and codes are important. 2. Define and explain standards of professional practice relevant to behavior analysts. 3. Explain how professional competence can be ensured. 4. Identify and explain ethical issues in client services. 5. Explain considerations important to advocating for clients.

Chapter Focus Questions

1. What are ethics and why are they important? 2. What are standards of practice? 3. What are agencies that provide standards of practice for behavior analysts? 4. How is professional competence ensured among behavior analysts? 5. What are some of the ethical issues that confront those who provide services to clients? 6. When advocating for clients, what are the important considerations for the behavior analyst?

Chapter Key Terms

|confidentiality |ethics |
|conflict of interest |informed consent |
|ethical codes of behavior | |

Chapter Suggested Readings/Activities

The following are documents that describe codes for professional conduct and ethical practice for applied behavior analysts. All are important additional reading for this chapter.

American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved November 11, 2003, from www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html.

Association for Behavior Analysis. (1989). The right to effective education. Kalamazoo, MI: Author. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from www.abainternational.org/ABA/statements/treatment.asp.

Association for Behavior Analysis. (1990). Students’ right to effective education. Kalamazoo, MI: Author. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from www.abainternational.org/ABA/statements/education.asp.

Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2001). Guidelines for responsible conduct for behavior analysts. Tallahassee, FL: Author. Retrieved November 11, 2003, from http://bacb.com/consum_frame.html.

Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2005). Behavior analyst task list, third edition. Tallahassee, FL: Author. Retrieved November 11, 2003, from http://bacb.com/consum_frame.html.

Additional readings of interest:

Bailey, J.S., & Burch, M.R. (2005). Ethics for behavior analysts: A practical guide to the Behavior Analyst Certification board Guidelines for Responsible Conduct. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This textbook provides a thorough discussion of the ethical concerns of behavior analysts and is consistent with the Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB). This is an excellent study tool when preparing for the BACB exam.

Chapter 1: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. The levels of understanding science provides includes: A. Prediction, Description & Control B. Prediction, Description & Calculation C. Prediction, Depiction, & Illustration D. Picture, Description, & Control

2. Determine whether each of the following is: (A) An attitude of science, (B) A defining characteristic of applied behavior analysis, or (C) Neither an attitude of science or a defining characteristic of ABA.

_____ Empiricism _____ Applied _____ Prediction _____ Experimentation _____ Functional relation _____ Effective _____ Conceptual _____ Mentalism _____ Determinism _____ Technological

3. This is the assumption upon which science is predicted. A. Empiricism B. Prediction C. Determinism D. Experimentation

4. This involves the repetition of experiments to determine the reliability of findings. A. Experimentation B. Replication C. Reproduction D. Control

5. The idea that simple, logical explanations must be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered. A. Experimentation B. Parsimony C. Prediction D. Philosophic doubt

6. This branch of behavior analysis concentrates on the philosophy of the science of behavior. A. Applied behavior analysis B. Experimental analysis of behavior C. Determinism D. Behaviorism

7. This branch of behavior analysis concentrates on development of a technology to improve behavior. A. Applied behavior analysis B. Experimental analysis of behavior C. Determinism D. Behaviorism

8. This formally began the experimental branch of behavior analysis. A. Watsonian psychology or S-R psychology B. Pavlov’s study of reflexive behavior C. Skinner’s publication The Behavior of Organims D. Fuller’s study on the application of operant behavior to humans

9. This approach to understanding behavior assumes that inner causes or phenomena directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, and strongly relies on hypothetical constructs or explanatory fiction. A. S-R psychology B. Radical behaviorism C. Methodological behaviorism D. Mentalism

10. This approach to understanding behavior attempts to explain all behavior, including private events. A. Structuralism B. Radical behaviorism C. Methodological behaviorism D. Mentalism

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. The overarching purpose of applied behavior analysis as field of study is to concentrate on socially important or significant behaviors.

2. TRUE or FALSE. There are three levels of understanding that persist in science, and each level contributes to the overall knowledge base in a given field.

3. TRUE or FALSE. The highest level of scientific understanding is prediction or the ability to correlation between events.

4. TRUE or FALSE. Empiricism is the assumption upon which science is predicted, that the universe is a lawful and orderly place, and events occur as the result of other events.

5. TRUE or FALSE. Philosophic doubt involves the continuous questioning of the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge.

6. TRUE or FALSE. Psychology in the early 1900’s was dominated by the study if behavior through a measurable and observable means.

7. TRUE or FALSE. B.F. Skinner is considered the founder of the experimental analysis of behavior.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Describe the level(s) of understanding that science provides and the overarching purpose(s) and goal(s) of science.

2. State and describe each of the different attitudes of science.

3. Describe what is meant by a functional relation, and provide a concrete example for a human organism.

4. State and describe the defining characteristics of behavior analysis.

5. Describe and discuss various explanations of behavior. Be certain to include such perspectives as radical behaviorism, mentalism, methodological behaviorism, and structuralism in your response.

Chapter 2: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. A ________________ _____________ is a group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment. a. Shaped response b. Complete repertoire c. Response class d. Skill set

2. ________________ refers to a specific instance of behavior a. Skill b. Response c. Stimulus d. Function

3. A ______________ _________ is a group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions. A. Stimulus class B. Response class C. Antecedent class D. Stimulus change

4. A reflex is a _____________ ____________ relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits (e.g., knee-jerk to tap just below patella). A. Behavior consequence B. Stimulus-response C. Respondent-respondent D. Functional class

5. Operant conditioning, which encompasses ___________________ and ______________, refers to the process and selective effects of consequences on behavior. A. Response, behavior B. Antecedent, stimulus C. Control, coercion D. Reinforcement, punishment

6. Which of the following is considered a principle of behavior?

A. Reflex B. Reinforcement C. Antecedent D. Analysis

7. A principle of behavior describes a(n) _______________ _____________ between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables.

A. Extinction curve B. Response reinforcer C. Functional relation D. Stimulus relation

8. ____________ and ___________ are examples of motivating operations that make food more or less effective as reinforcement.

A. Time, effort B. Stimulus, antecedent C. Speed, fluency D. Satiation, deprivation

9. The three-term contingency is the basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior and is made of the following elements:

A. Antecedent, behavior, consequence B. Reflex, time, duration C. Learning history, outcomes, stimuli D. Reinforcement, punishment, extinction

10. Consequences can only affect _________ behavior A. New B. Extinguished C. Immediate D. Future

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. Principles of behavior describe how behavior works and behavior-change tactics are how the applied behavior analysts put the principles to work to help people learn and use socially significant behaviors.

2. TRUE or FALSE. Operant conditioning is best described as a stimulus-response relationship, where the stimulus elicits the response.

3. TRUE or FALSE. Time-out and response cost are basic principles of behavior every applied behavior analyst should know.

4. TRUE or FALSE. Consequences select response classes, not individual responses.

5. TRUE or FALSE. Extinction is defined as removing a preferred item contingent upon inappropriate behavior.

Matching

Match the following scenario to the appropriate operation (positive/negative reinforcement or positive/negative punishment). The target antecedents, behaviors, and consequences are provided.

A. Positive Reinforcement B. Negative Reinforcement C. Positive Punishment D. Negative Punishment

1. Devon is driving his brand new car, sees a red light, and “hits” the gas (i.e., he speeds through the red light). Devon’s car is hit. Devon is fine, but his brand new car is dented. In the future, under similar conditions, Devon no longer “speeds up” when he sees a red light.

Antecedent Sees red light

Behavior “Hits the gas” (i.e., speeds up)

Consequence Car crash

2. Molly is asked to get her book and start reading. Molly gets her book and starts reading. Molly’s teacher ignores Molly. Molly continues to read her book. In the future, under similar conditions Molly continues to get her book and read.

Antecedent “Molly, get your book and start reading.”

Behaviors Gets book, reads

Consequence Access to an interesting story

3. Ms. Miller asked Steven to take out his pencil and begin working on his math worksheet. Steven did not respond. Ms. Miller removed tokens from Steven’s token board without saying a word. In the future, when Ms. Miller asked Steven to take out his pencil and to begin work, without hesitation, Steven gets right to work (i.e., noncompliance decreases).

Antecedent “Take out your pencil”

Behavior Noncompliance, specifically, not following the teacher’s direction the first time that the direction is given

Consequence Removal of token from the token board

4. Simon is sitting in his living room and gets a chill from the open window. He gets up and closes the window. The chill in the air is removed. In the future, under similar conditions, Simon closes the window when he feels a chill.

Antecedent Gets a chill

Behavior Closes the window

Consequence Chill is removed

5. Rebecca walks by her kitchen cabinet and smells something foul. She looks into the cabinet and sees that the kitty litter box is full. She scoops the waste and pours in fresh litter. Rebecca no longer smells the odor. In the future, under similar conditions Rebecca continues to scoop and pour litter.

Antecedent Foul odor and the sight of the full kitty litter box

Behavior Scooping the waste and pouring fresh litter

Consequence Foul odor is removed

Short Answer/Essay

1. What is the major difference between behavior and response? Give an example of each. 2. State the two basic effects stimulus changes can have on behavior.

3. – 6. Fill in the blanks A - D Type of Stimulus Change
| |Present or Increase |Withdraw or Decrease Intensity of |
| |Intensity of Stimulus |Stimulus |
|Effect on Future | |A. |C. |
|Frequency of Behavior |Increase ↑ | | |
| | |B. |D. |
| |Decrease ↓ | | |

7. What are the elements of the three-term contingency? 8. What is a “history of reinforcement” and how does it help explain individual differences? 9. Discuss the difference between ontogeny and phylogeny. 10. State a similarity and difference between positive and negative reinforcement. 11. State a similarity and difference between positive and negative punishment. 12. Discuss the difference between a principle of behavior and a behavior-change tactic. 13. What is one important function of a motivating operation? 14. Define “stimulus control” and discuss the role of antecedent stimuli in operant conditioning.

Chapter 3: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. The progression of behavioral assessment can be conceptualized as a __________ shape A. Circular B. Funnel C. Linear D. Complex

2. One of the fundamental questions to answer before initiating behavioral assessment is: A. Who will conduct the assessment? B. Where will observations be conducted? C. What is the nature of the problem behavior? D. Who has the authority and skill to intervene with the behavior?

3. When interviewing a significant other about a client’s behavior, the behavior analyst should ask variations of all of the following types of questions except A. What B. How C. Why D. When

4. The preferred method of behavioral assessment to determine which behaviors to target for change is ____________ _____________. A. Ecological assessment B. Interviews C. Checklists D. ABC recording

5. A(n) ________ behavior is a behavior that produces indirect benefits to clients by potentially increasing opportunities for participation in other environments. A. Access B. Cusp C. Key D. Invitation

6. A behavior that produces corresponding modifications or co-variations in other adaptive, untrained behaviors is a(n) _____________________. A. Behavior cusp B. Critical behavior C. Initiating behavior D. Pivotal behavior

7. Improving academic grades is not a good target behavior because academic grades A. Are not a socially valid outcome. B. Do not specify the behaviors required to achieve the goal. C. Are too complex an outcome for behavior analysis. D. Have poorly defined performance criteria.

8. When prioritizing behaviors for change a chronic behavior _____________ when compared to a more recently acquired behavior. A. Is easier to change B. Takes precedence C. Is less important D. Requires less intervention

9. One method of priority ranking various potential target behaviors is to use a(n) A. Ranking matrix B. Standardized test C. Interviewing significant others D. Behavioral assessment

10. Explicit behavior definitions are important to the practitioner of applied behavior analysis for all of the following except: A. Ease of evaluation B. Increased likelihood of behavior change C. Accurate measurement of behavior D. Demonstration of effectiveness

11. A good behavior definition should be _____________, __________, and ____________. A. Objective, clear, complete B. Concise, specific, limited C. Functional, clear, socially valid D. Measurable, mentalistic, meaningful

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. An anecdotal observation is a form of direct, continuous observation of all behaviors of interest and the environmental conditions.

2. TRUE or FALSE. A topographical definition classifies behavior in terms of their common effects on the environment.

3. TRUE or FALSE. The belief that individuals with disabilities should be physically and socially integrated into society to the maximum extent possible is called habilitation.

4. TRUE or FALSE. Learning a pivotal behavior can result in modification of other behaviors that have not yet been learned.

5. TRUE or FALSE. An ecological assessment is an essential component in applied behavioral analysis.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Explain the benefits of interviews as a method for obtaining assessment information?

2. Compare the methods of standardized tests and direct observation with regard to how assessment information is obtained, the type of information gathered, and effects on the target behaviors.

3. Describe the causes of reactivity and what measures should behavior analysts undertake to minimize this effect?

4. How does the concept of habilitation help the behavior analyst determine which behavior should be targeted for behavior change?

5. Explain how the concept of normalization influences the selection of target behavior and appropriate interventions.

6. What ethical considerations should a behavior analyst consider before engaging in behavior change procedures?

7. Explain the benefits to practitioners of using observable and measurable terms to describe behaviors and intervention outcomes.

8. Discuss the importance of replacement behavior when reducing or eliminating target behavior.

9. Explain the problems with setting a general goal such as to be more successful as opposed to a more specific goal.

10. Explain the differences between a behavior cusp and a pivotal behavior.

11. Explain the benefits of including client, family, and/or staff in the goal determination process.

Chapter 4: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. A feature of an event that can be measured is called a(n) a. Unit b. Dimension c. Quality d. Characteristic

2. All of the following are measurable dimensional quantities except: a. Repeatability b. Temporal extent c. Temporal locus d. Topography

3. If you are interested in amount of time it takes a student to begin a task after the teacher has given an instruction you would measure _________________. a. Response latency b. Interresponse time c. Trials-to-criterion d. Duration

4. The force or intensity of a behavioral response is called a. Topography b. Magnitude c. Strength d. Power

5. The procedure of observing and recording behavior during intervals or at specific moments in time is called ___________. a. Time sampling b. Temporal extent c. Celeration d. Measurement artifact

6. A procedure that can be used to measure a continuous behavior such as academic engagement is _____________________. a. Event b. Whole interval c. Permanent product d. Response latency

7. All of the following behaviors could be assessed using natural permanent product measurement except: a. Test scores b. Washing dishes c. Raising hand in class d. Picking up garbage

8. Permanent product measurement may be more accurate, complete, and continuous for all of the following reasons except: a. The observer can take their time b. The behavior definitions are more precise c. The observer can review the product more than once d. Measurement can be conducted when there are no distractions

9. A procedure that allows for the simultaneously recording of multiple behaviors across multiple dimensions is called ______________. a. Whole interval b. Event c. Momentary time sampling d. Computer-assisted

10. A teacher is interested in measuring the engagement of groups of students at certain times of the day. An appropriate measurement procedure for this would be a. Momentary time sampling b. Permanent product c. Planned activity check d. Event

11. _________________ measurement facilitates data collection for interobserver agreement and treatment integrity. a. Measurement artifact b. Permanent product c. Direct observation d. Time sampling

True/False

1. Measurement is the process of applying qualitative labels to events.

2. The number of response opportunities needed to achieve a predetermined level of performance is called trials-to-criterion.

3. A feature of data that appears to exist because of the way the data is measured or examined is called an artifact.

4. The amount of time that elapses between two consecutive instances of a response class is called response latency.

5. One benefit of measurement is that it helps practitioners verify the legitimacy of different treatments.

Matching

1. ______ Number of responses emitted during an observation period
2. ______ The amount of time in which behavior occurs.
3. ______ The amount of time that elapses between two consecutive instances of a response class.
4. ______ The intensity of behavior responding.
5. ______ A variety of procedures for detecting and recording the number of times a behavior is observed.
6. ______ Procedure in which the observer records whether each individual in a group is engaged in the target behavior.
7. ______ Procedure for measuring the effect of behavior on the environment after it has occurred.
8. ______ The change in rate of responding per unit of time.
9. ______ The number of response opportunities needed to achieve a predetermined level of performance.
10. ______ Measurement of the elapsed time between the onset of a stimulus and the initiation of a subsequent response.

a. Duration b. Magnitude c. Response latency d. Event recording e. Count f. Permanent product g. Trials-to-criterion h. Interresponse time i. Celeration j. Planned activity check

Short Answer/Essay

1. Provide a brief explanation of why applied behavior analysts measure behavior.

2. What are two benefits of measurement for practitioners?

3. Define event recording and give three examples of devices or procedures used to collect event data.

4. Describe the difference between whole-interval and partial-interval recording.

5. Describe one example of when a trials-to-criterion method could be used to evaluate outcome.

6. Define the two definitional measures of behavior.

7. For what type of behavior is duration recording an appropriate method?

8. What observation problem do time sampling procedures address?

9. What is the main advantage of using the momentary time sampling procedure over other recording procedures?

10. What is artifactual variability?

11. Identify two ways that measurement by permanent product differs from the other procedures for measuring behavior?
Chapter 5: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. Measurement is ___________ when it yields the same values across repeated measurement of the same event. a. Indirect b. Direct c. Reliable d. Valid
2. Measurement __________________ are data that give an unwarranted or misleading picture of the behavior because of the way measurement was conducted. a. Checks b. IOA c. Standards d. Artifacts
3. __________________ _____________ is the biggest threat to the accuracy and reliability of data. a. Indirect measurement b. Human error c. Calibration mistakes d. Direct measurement
4. Observer _____________ is an unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system over the course of an investigation. a. Reactions b. Tide c. Drift d. Direction
5. _______________ ____________________ is the degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events. a. Interobserver Agreement (IOA) b. Interobserver Accuracy (IOA) c. Observer Drift (OD) d. Observation Indicators (OI)
6. Which is a false statement about the requirements of IOA? a. IOA observers must use the same observation code b. IOA observers must measure the same participants and events c. IOA observers must always score videotapes together d. IOA observers must observe and record the behavior independent of influence by other observers
7. Measurement that is _____________ , ________________, and reliable yields the most trustworthy and useful data for science and science-based practices. a. Direct, indirect b. Valid, accurate c. True, actual d. Calibrated, direct
8. Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to measurement error? a. Poorly designed measurement systems b. Observer Drift c. Expectations about what the data should look like d. Well-trained observers
9. Measurement bias caused by observer expectations can be avoided by using _______ observers. a. Informed b. Inadequately trained c. Many d. Naïve

10. __________________ ______ ___________________ between observers is the most common convention for reporting IOA in ABA. a. Percentage of Agreement b. Point-by-point c. Interval by interval d. Overall agreement

11. Scored – interval IOA is recommended for behaviors that occur at relative _________frequencies; unscored – interval IOA is recommended for behaviors that occur at relative _____________frequencies. a. High, low b. Moderate, high c. Low, moderate d. Low, high

True/False

1. Measurement is accurate when observed values, the data produced by measuring an event, match the true state, or true values, of the event.

2. Observers should not receive systematic training prior to data collection because training will cause observer bias.

3. Observers should receive feedback about the extent to which their data confirm or run counter to hypothesized results or treatment goals.

4. True values for some behaviors (e.g., compliance) are difficult because the process for determining true value must be different from the measurement procedures used to obtain the data one wishes to compare to the true value.

5. A mean of 80% agreement means the data are accurate.

Matching

Match the method of IOA calculation for event recordings with its formula.
|1. |Exact Count-per-Interval IOA |A |Int 1 IOA + Int 2 IOA + Int N IOA X 100 |
| | | |N Intervals |
|2. |Total Count IOA |B |Number of Intervals of 100% IOA X 100 |
| | | |N Intervals |
|3. |Trial-by-Trial IOA |C |Smaller Count X 100 |
| | | |Larger Count |
|4. |Mean Count-per-Interval IOA |D |Number of trials (items) agreement X 100 |
| | | |Total number of trials (items) |

Match each term with its definition
|Accuracy (of measurement) | |Any procedure used to evaluate the accuracy of a |
| | |measurement system and, when sources of error are |
| | |found, to use that information to correct or |
| | |improve the measurement system |
|Calibration | |Measurement conducted in a manner such that some |
| | |instances of the response class(es) of interest |
| | |may not be detected |
|Continuous measurement | |Occurs when the behavior that is actually measured|
| | |is the same as the behavior that is the focus of |
| | |the investigation |
|Direct measurement | |Occurs when the behavior that is actually measured|
| | |is in some way different from the behavior of |
| | |interest |
|Indirect measurement | |Measurement conducted in a manner such that all |
| | |instances of the response class(es) of interest |
| | |are detected during the observation period |
|Discontinuous measurement | |The extent to which observed values, the data |
| | |produced by measuring an event, match the true |
| | |state, or true values, of the event as it exists |
| | |in nature |

Short Answer/Essay

1. List and describe the three elements of valid measurement in Applied Behavior Analysis.

2. Describe three threats to the validity of measurement in Applied Behavior Analysis.

3. State and describe three common causes of measurement artifacts.

4. Identify three factors that contribute to human measurement error.

5. Describe ways to reduce the negative effects of a complex measurement system.

6. List skills observers must learn prior to collecting data for an experiment.

7. Discuss the difference between observer drift and observer reactivity.

8. Describe four purposes for conducting accuracy assessments.

9. Describe the importance of calibrating measurement instruments as it relates to accurate measurement. Discuss how you would calibrate a timing instrument – such as a watch.

10. List and describe four benefits and uses of IOA.

11. How often should IOA be obtained?

12. For what variables should IOA be obtained and reported?

13. Which method of calculating IOA should be used and what is an acceptable level of IOA?

Chapter 6: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Behavior change is considered a ________ and _______ process, therefore it is important to maintain direct and continuous contact with the behavior under investigation.

A. Simple, easy B. Time-consuming, affordable C. Dynamic, on-going D. Cumulative, static

1. _____________ are relatively simple formats for visually displaying relationships among and between a series of measurements and relevant variables.

A. Lists B. Tables C. Number groupings D. Graphs

2. The three fundamental properties of behavior illustrated on a graph include:

A. Level, trend, variability B. Movement, on-going, continual C. Line, bar, cumulative D. Series, numerical, data

3. Graphs are considered a _______________ _______________; devices that help the practitioner or experimenter interpret the results of a study or treatment.

A. Proper decision B. Statistical tool C. Treatment aid D. Judgmental aid

4. The __________ graph is the most common graphic format for displaying data in applied behavior analysis.

A. Bar B. Cumulative record C. Line D. Scatterplot

5. Bar graphs sacrifice the presentation of the ____________ and ___________ in behavior.

A. Level, number B. Variability, trends C. Data, time D. Peak, valley

6. On a cumulative record the steeper the slope, ____________ the response rate.

11. The higher 12. The lower 13. More level 14. More intense

7. Logarithmic scales are well suited to display and communicate ______________________ change.

A. Sequential B. Simple C. Proportional D. Traditional

8. This type of graph provides a standardized means of charting and analyzing how the frequency of behavior changes over time.

A. Celeration graph B. Bar graph C. Scatterplot D. Standard Celeration Chart

9. Precision teaching focuses on ________________ rather than the specific frequency of correct and incorrect responses.

A. Time B. Celeration C. Rate D. Speed

10. Behavior analysts typically use _________________ ____________________ to interpret graphically displayed data.

A. Statistical analysis B. Numerical analysis C. Visual analysis D. Graphic analysis

11. The value on the vertical axis scale around which a set of behavior measures converge is called ______________.

A. Trend B. Rate C. Variability D. Level

12. The overall direction taken by a data path is its __________________.

A. Trend B. Rate C. Variability D. Level

True/False

1. Graphs are not considered an effective source of feedback to the person whose behavior change is represented.

2. A cumulative record should be used if the target behavior can only occur once per measurement period.

3. You should always connect data points on a line graph, even if there is a condition change line.

4. Overall response rate refers to the average rate of response over a given time period.

5. If you believe the data on a graph are distorted by the scaling of the axes you should re-plot the data on a new graph before continuing with visual analysis.

Matching
Use the basic parts of a line graph listed below to label the graph that is provided.

|Horizontal axis (x-axis) |A |
|Vertical axis (y-axis) |B |
|Condition change line |C |
|Data point |D |
|Data path |E |
|Behavior of interest |F |

[pic]
For each scenario select the most appropriate data display to communicate quantitative relations.
|Line graph |Bar Graph |Cumulative Record |Standard Celeration Chart |Scatterplot |

7. During this analysis you are interested in evaluating the effects of the independent variable on a dependent variable that can only occur once per measurement period, for example the participant either engages in the behavior or does not, therefore your data collection is limited to recoding a yes or a no.
8. You are interested in comparing the effects of intervention A with intervention B on the aggressive behaviors displayed by one student in your classroom. In other words, you are interested in looking at the same behavior under different and alternating experimental conditions.
9. You completed a study on the effects of peer tutoring on the acquisition of irregular sight words and would like to summarize the performance of the entire class under baseline and intervention conditions.
10. You are conducting 1-minute timings with a student who is practicing multiplication facts. You are interested in the student’s accuracy and speed in acquiring new multiplication facts – that is, you are interested in the student’s multiplication fact fluency.
11. You are interested in finding out if there is a correlation between your students’ missing naptime and the display of afternoon problem behavior.
12. You are interested in investigating the effects of a motivational system on a student’s appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
13. You’ve decided to create a personal behavior management system to increase the number of minutes you exercise each day. You would like to include a graphic feedback device for motivation.

Short Answer

1. Write a brief statement describing the level and variability of responding depicted in the graph.
[pic]

2. Write a brief statement summarizing the trend and degree of variability depicted in the graph.
[pic]

3. Write a brief statement summarizing the trend and degree of variability depicted in the graph.

[pic]

4. What is one benefit to graphic displays over other displays of behavioral data?
5. List the three fundamental properties common to all behavioral data.
6. State a strength and state a limitation of using bar graphs for displaying behavioral data.
7. State one situation in which a cumulative graph would be preferable to a noncumulative line graph.
8. State one reason why it is important for applied behavior analysts to maintain direct and continual contact with the behavior under investigation.

Chapter 7: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. ___________ ________ enhances the understanding of natural phenomena by enabling scientists to describe behavior accurately.

A. systematic observation
B. independent observation
C. variable presentation
D. subjective observation

2. Science enables understanding at these three levels
A. see, hear, report
B. description, prediction, and control
C. experimentation, manipulation, documentation
D. external, internal, uncontrolled

3. The highest level of scientific understanding
A. Observation
B. Documentation
C. Specification
D. Experimental control

4. An experiment has a high degree of ___________ __________ when it shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of unknown variables.

A. Reliability control
B. Stability and rigor
C. Insightful applications
D. Internal validity

5. An applied analysis of behavior requires that the target behavior be a _____________ of an environmental event that can be practically and ethically manipulated.

A. Sample
B. Part
C. Function
D. Predictor

6. A student’s changing level of interest and background knowledge in algebra, during a study on the effects of response card quiz reviews on next-day quiz performance is a potential _____________ _____________ to the investigation and should be monitored.

A. Application variable
B. Systems variable
C. Confounding variable
D. Reliability variable

7. A science of behavior contributes to a useful technology of behavior change to the extent that it discovers functional relations with __________ across individuals

A. Prediction
B. Control
C. Variability
D. Generality

8. A well-planned scientific investigation begins with _____________

A. Systematic observation
B. Target behavior selection
C. Experimental question
D. Intervention

9. ________________ are demonstrated when observed variations in behavior can be attributed to manipulations of the independent variable.

A. Functional relations
B. Identified correlations
C. Predictions
D. Experimental operations

10. Unplanned environmental variations which may impact the experimenters demonstration of experimental control are called ___________________

A. Manipulated variables
B. Dependent variables
C. Independent variables
D. Extraneous variables

11. _________________________ refers to the arrangement of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects of the independent variable can be made.

A. Intervention
B. Experimental design
C. Single-subject design
D. Group comparison design

12. A ______________ study seeks to discover the differential effects of a range of values on the independent variable on the dependent variable of interest.

A. Component analysis
B. Group analysis
C. Single-case
D. Parametric

True or False

1. Single-subject research designs always involve only a single participant.

2. Baseline data collection is important because it results in a certain level of needed subjectivity.

3. All experiments in ABA include at least one behavior and at least one treatment or intervention condition.

4. Within-subject design and intra-subject design are alternate terms used to describe single-subject experimental designs.

5. Nothing is gained by collecting unduly long baselines of behavior that cannot reasonably be expected to be in a subject’s repertoire.

Matching
For each graph indicate if an ascending (A), Descending (D), or Variable baseline in depicted:

[pic]

Indicate if an independent (I) or dependent (D) variable is depicted in the bold type.

______ 6. The effects of study cards on the rate of homework completion
______ 7. A self-management intervention increases students’ task engagement.
______ 8. Use of an electronic signal device during classroom instruction increases the number of praise statements made by the teacher
______ 9. The effects of a token reinforcement plus praise treatment package on student hand raising
______10. Number of words spelled correctly following a spelling quiz review

Short Answer/Essay

1. List the assumptions underlying the analysis of behavior. 2. Name and briefly describe three levels of scientific understanding. 3. Discuss the two defining features of behavior and the two assumptions about the nature of behavior which guides the experimental methods of behavior analysis. 4. The experimental approach most commonly used in social and behavioral sciences makes two assumptions about variability. What are these assumptions and what methodological implications result from following these assumptions? 5. Discuss two methodological implications of the following assumption: “behavioral variability is the result of an environmental influence.” 6. List the essential components of all experiments in applied behavior analysis. 7. Write an experimental question – be sure to identify the dependent and independent variables of interest. 8. Discuss the importance of steady or stable state responding as it relates to single-subject designs. 9. Identify the purposes of establishing a baseline level of responding in single-subject research. 10. Describe the three components of experimental reasoning used in single-subject research designs.

Chapter 8: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following illustrates the 3 consecutive phases of a reversal design? A.

B.

C.

D.

2. This design compares two or more distinct treatments while their effects on the target behavior are measured. A. Reversal Design B. Alternating Treatments Design C. Withdrawal Design D. Multiple Treatment Reversal Design

3. Which of the following is considered a limitation in the use of a multiple treatment reversal design? A. Sequence effects B. Observer drift C. Rapid alternation effects D. Variability

4. In an alternating treatments design the extent of any differential effects produced by two treatments is determined by the _________ distance between their respective data paths and quantified by the __________ axis scale. A. Horizontal, vertical B. Horizontal, horizontal C. Vertical, vertical D. Vertical, X

5. ___________ effects are the effects on a subject’s behavior in a given condition that are the result of the subject’s experience with a prior condition. A. Interference B. Observer C. Treatment D. Sequence

6. Which of the following statements is a practical rationale for using a B-A-B reversal design? A. Experimenter is interested in quickly understanding the effects of two different treatments B. Behavior of interest is dangerous and withholding an effective treatment would be unethical C. Treatment is already in place D. B & C E. None of the above

7. When it is not possible or appropriate to completely eliminate the event or activity used as a contingent reinforcer this variation of the reversal design can be employed. A. B-A-B B. B-A-C-A C. NCR Reversal D. Multiple Treatment Reversal

8. Behavioral ____________ means that the level of behavior observed in an earlier phase cannot be reproduced even though experimental conditions are the same as they were during earlier phases. A. Irreversibility B. Effects C. Trend D. Sequencing

9. Which of the following experimental questions is/are most appropriate for a reversal design? A. The effect of choice versus no choice on the disruptive behavior displayed by students with developmental disabilities B. The effect of response cost on talk outs in an elementary classroom C. The effect of math instruction on student engagement D. A & B E. None of the above

10. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the alternating treatments design? A. Can be used to compare one or more treatments B. Minimizes the possibility of multiple treatment interference C. Does not require treatment withdrawal D. Minimizes sequence effects

True/False

1. True or False. An experiment that incorporates multiple reversals often presents a more convincing and compelling demonstration of a functional relation than does an experiment with one reversal.
2. True or False. Extended designs, such as an A-B-C-B-C-A-C-A-C-A-C multiple treatment reversal designs are most often preplanned by the experimenter.
3. True or False. A reversal design would be an effective element of an experiment investigating the effects of a variable that cannot be withdrawn once it has been presented (for example instruction).
4. True or False. When considering educational and clinical issues surrounding the use of a reversal design it may be appropriate to conduct only two or three brief reversals as a demonstration of experimental control.
5. True or False. A properly conducted alternating treatments design minimizes the extent to which an experimenter’s results are confounded by sequence effects.
6. True or False. An alternating treatments design should not be used with unstable data.

Matching

Match the name of the experimental tactic described in each of the following:

|A |A-B-A design |
|B |A-B-A-B design |
|C |Alternating treatments design |
|D |B-A-B design |
|E |DRI/DRA reversal technique |
|F |DRO reversal technique |

1. This design allows for a quick comparison of interventions.
2. Baseline, intervention, and a return to baseline phase.
3. After steady state responding is attained in the first treatment, the independent variable is withdrawn and baseline conditions are reestablished.
4. A major advantage of this design is that it does not require treatment withdrawal.
5. This design is widely used in applied behavior analysis due to its ability to expose variables for what they are – strong and reliable or weak and unstable. The behavior analyst is able to turn on and off the behavior of interest through repeated applications of the independent variable.
6. This design is useful in situations where two or more treatments are being compared.
7. Sequence effects cannot be ruled out when using this design because no preintervention performance data are collected.
8. These two tactics are considered “control” procedures and might be employed when a “no-reinforcement” baseline condition is not possible.
9. When implemented completely an advantage of this variation of a reversal design ends with the treatment condition in place.
10. This analytic tactic is also referred to in the literature as a multi-element design, multiple schedule design, concurrent schedule design, and simultaneous treatment design.

Short Answer

1. Given the following experimental designs diagram an example of how it would be implemented. a. A-B-A b. A-B-A-B c. Alternating Treatments Design d. Multiple Treatment Reversal Design

2. Given the following experimental designs describe the logic and how experimental control would be demonstrated. a. Reversal design b. Alternating Treatments Design

3. Given the following experimental designs state an advantage and disadvantage. a. A-B-A b. Alternating Treatments Design

4. Given a research question describe an appropriate research design.
a. You are interested in the effects of contingent attention on students’ study behaviors.
b. You are interested in comparing the effects of two distinctly different study session procedures on next session quiz scores.
c. You are interested in the effects of response cost on students’ disruptive behaviors.

5. Given a graph illustrating an experimental design identify the design and describe the next steps to demonstrate experimental control.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) Chapter 9: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. The ______________ design is the most widely used experimental design in applied behavior analysis. A. Multiple baseline B. Reversal C. Changing criterion D. Multielement designs

2. When each behavior changes when, and only when, the independent variable is applied then _______________ has been demonstrated. A. Extraneous control B. Experimental control C. Control of relevant variables D. Effective intervention

3. The multiple probe design is effective for situations in which A. An intervention can be easily withdrawn from an environment B. The participant’s skills are expected to increase incrementally over time C. Prolonged baselines are not appropriate D. The participant is expected to acquire discrete behaviors

4. All of the following are variations of the multiple baseline design except _________. A. Multiple baseline across behaviors B. Multiple baseline across participants C. Multiple baseline across settings D. Multiple baseline across interventions

5. Behaviors selected for study with a multiple baseline design should A. Be functionally independent B. Be easy to change C. Co-vary D. Be related to one another

6. The independent variable should be applied to the behavior that A. Shows the most stable level during baseline B. Was identified first C. Is measured earlier in the day D. Has the greatest likelihood of responding to the intervention

7. The ______________ design can be used to evaluate the effects of treatment on the gradual improvement of behavior already in the participant’s repertoire. A. Multiple baseline B. Reversal C. Changing criterion D. Multielement designs

8. In a changing criterion design, reinforcement is usually contingent upon A. Duration of intervention B. Establishment of experimental control C. Number of experimental sessions D. Performance at a specified level

9. In a changing criterion design, when the participant’s behavior closely conforms to the gradually changing performance criteria, then ___________ has been established. A. Magnitude of behavior change B. Experimental control C. Effective intervention D. Reliability

10. All of the following are required to determine the potential of a changing criterion design to demonstrate experimental control except the A. Length of phase B. Latency of criterion changes C. Number of criterion changes D. Magnitude of criterion changes

11. Which of the following are the advantages of the changing criterion design? A. It is the least complicated experimental B. It does not require a withdrawal phase C. It allows for experimental analysis while gradually improving behavior D. Both B and C.

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. The length of the baseline phases for the different behaviors in a multiple baseline design should differ significantly.

2. TRUE or FALSE. One advantage of a multiple baseline design is possibility of co-variation between different behaviors.

3. TRUE or FALSE. The believability of the changing criterion design is enhanced if a previous criterion is reinstated and the participant’s behavior reverses to the previous level.

4. TRUE or FALSE. An advantage of the changing criterion design is that the behavior must already be in the participant’s repertoire.

5. TRUE or FALSE. Conducting a reversal phase in one or more tiers of a multiple baseline design can weaken the demonstration of experimental control.

Short Answer

1. Compare the three basic forms of the multiple baseline design. 2. Explain how experimental control is demonstrated in a multiple baseline across settings design. 3. Identify two conditions that make a multiple probe design appropriate for evaluating behavior change. 4. Identify three potential limitations to using a delayed multiple baseline. 5. Describe the basic methodology of implementing a multiple baseline design across behaviors. 6. Describe the basic methodology of implementing a multiple probe design and what type of analysis for which it is particularly suited. 7. Explain the capacity and limitations of baseline measures of each tier in a delayed multiple baseline design to verify predictions for subsequent behaviors. 8. What are three situations in which a delayed multiple baseline provides an appropriate tactic for analyzing behavior? 9. Describe the three features of a changing criterion design that combine to demonstrate experimental control. 10. What two problems can occur if the criterion changes are too large from one phase to another?

Chapter 10: Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. The subject matter of behavior analysis is the: a. Activity of living organisms b. Challenging behavior of individuals with disabilities c. Conditioned behavior d. Effective behavior change treatments

2. All of the following are concerns with typical group-comparison designs except a. Group data may not represent the performance of individuals b. Group data masks variability c. Performance averages are not statistically significant d. Intrasubject replication is not present

3. All of the following are elements of baseline-logic except a. Prediction b. Functional Relation c. Replication d. Verification

4. The term used to signify a researcher’s ability to reliably produce a specified behavior change by manipulating an independent variable is a. Internal validity b. External validity c. Control of behavior d. Experimental control

5. All of the following are potential confounds to internal validity except a. Generalization b. Maturation c. Observer drift d. Treatment drift

6. The extent to which the independent variable is implemented as planned is called a. Treatment integrity b. Procedural fidelity c. Experimental control d. Both A and B e. Both A and C

7. Which of the following is not a measure of the social validity of in applied behavior analysis? a. The social significance of the target behavior b. The appropriateness of the procedures c. The magnitude of behavior change d. The social importance of the results

8. The generality of research findings in applied behavior analysis is assessed, established, and specified through a. Verification of baseline logic b. Replication c. Social validation d. External validity

9. The most frequently used method of demonstrating generality in the applied behavior analysis research literature is a. Direct replication b. Systematic replication c. Intrasubject verification d. Treatment reversal

10. In order to evaluate the internal validity of applied behavior analysis research, all of the following should be considered except a. Meaningfulness of baseline conditions b. Experimental design c. Measurement procedures d. Conceptual sense

True/False

1. TRUE OR FALSE. Statistical manipulation can control the variables responsible for variability in the data. 2. TRUE OR FALSE. With proper experimental design, the experimenter can control all aspects of a subject’s behavior. 3. TRUE OR FALSE. Placebo control is designed to separate any effects that may be produced by a subject’s expectations of improvement due to treatment from actual effects of treatment. 4. TRUE OR FALSE. External validity refers to the degree to which a functional relation found reliable and socially valid in one circumstance will hold under different conditions. 5. TRUE OR FALSE. All studies that demonstrate a functional relation between the independent variable and a socially important target behavior make a significant contribution to the field of applied behavior analysis.

Short Answer

1. Explain why the behavior of individual subjects is of primary interest in applied behavior analysis. 2. Compare the different ways that variability in the data is treated with individual subject designs and group comparison designs. 3. What are two reasons that is it important to know the individual tactics of experimental designs even though there are no strict rules for experimental design in applied behavior analysis? 4. Define treatment drift and explain the threat it poses to research outcomes. 5. Why is a precise operational definition of the target behavior critical in applied behavior analysis? 6. Define external validity and describe how the generality of research findings is established in applied behavior analysis. 7. Describe three methods for measuring social validity of a behavior change. 8. Compare and contrast two methods for validating the social importance of behavior change. 9. What are the four factors that favor visual analysis of data over tests of statistical significance in applied behavior analysis? 10. Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1987) argue that applied behavior analysis must shift its emphasis away from simply demonstrating behavior change. What is the more important focus in their opinion?

Chapter 11: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1) One advantage to free operant preference assessments is: a) There is less potential for children to satiate on the stimuli than with forced choice and approach responding assessments. b) There can be less time consuming than forced choice and approach responding assessments. c) They provide a rank order of preferences, unlike forced choice assessments. d) All of these are advantages to the free operant preference assessment.

2) Assume you give a student in your class a forced-choice preference assessment. On this preference assessment, computer time was ranked highest (that is, it was selected the most frequently). What can you say about computer time, based on this information? a) Computer time is a reinforcer for this student. b) Computer time may be a reinforcer for this student. c) Computer time is a punisher for this student. d) Computer time is a non-preferred stimulus.

3) Here is a common situation: New parents put a child to bed. The child begins to cry, so the parents comfort the child and allow the child to sleep in bed with them. Thus, when they put the child to bed in the future, she is more likely to cry. What has occurred in this situation? a) The parents have positively reinforced crying. b) The parents have negatively reinforced crying. c) The parents have punished crying by removing the child’s bed. d) The parents have punished crying by presenting a stimulus. e) There is not enough information to answer this question.

4) Let’s look at this scenario from another point of view. The parents of the child in Question 2 are very tired because they work hard and are trying to raise a young child. The child begins crying. When they put the child in their own bed, the child stops crying. Therefore, in the future, they are more likely to put the child in their own bed. What has occurred in this situation? a) The parents have been reinforced for putting the child in their bed via positive reinforcement. b) The parents have been reinforced for putting the child in their bed via negative reinforcement. c) The parents have been punished for putting the child in their bed via punishment by removal. d) The parents have been punished for putting the child in their bed via punishment by presentation. e) There is not enough information to answer this question.

5) Ms. Franklin conducted a survey with her class to identify stimuli that might serve as reinforcers. All of the students in her class indicated that extra recess time and pencils would be some things they would like to earn. She then collected baseline data on the number of math problems each student correctly completes during seatwork time. Following this, she told her students they can have 5 minutes of extra recess if they complete 5 more math problems during seatwork time today than they did yesterday. Each day, she increased the number of math problems the students needed to complete to earn extra recess. She kept a graph of the results, which is shown below. What can be said about what she has done?

a) She has demonstrated that extra recess functions as a punisher for work completion. b) She has demonstrated that pencils have no effect on work completion. c) She has demonstrated that extra recess functions as a reinforcer for work completion. d) She has demonstrated that pencils are a reinforcer for work completion.

6) Assume you have a student in class, Ben, who becomes severely aggressive whenever another student takes his toys away from him. When Ben hits them, the other children tend to return the toys they took away from him. What can be said about this situation? a) Ben’s aggression has been positively reinforced by the children returning the toy to him. b) Ben’s aggression has been negatively reinforced by the children taking the toy away from him. c) Ben’s aggression has been punished (via presentation) by the children returning the toy to him. d) Ben’s aggression has been punished (via removal) by the children taking the toy away from him. e) There is not enough information to answer this question.

7) Which of the following represents an example of the Premack Principle? a) Telling a child to eat his vegetables or he must go to time out. b) Explaining to a child why it is a good thing to eat vegetables. c) Telling a child to eat his vegetables, then he can have dessert. d) Allowing a child to have dessert first if he promises to eat his vegetables later.

8) Which of the following is/are conditioned reinforcers? a) Food b) Money c) Tokens d) Sleep e) A & D f) B & C g) All of the above are conditioned reinforcers

9) National Public Radio (NPR) often holds fund drives to raise money for their radio stations. They frequently offer “prizes” for people who donate a certain amount of money. For example, they might offer a CD for those who donate at least $50 to the station. It’s not clear whether this actually increases donations. What can we say about this situation? a) The CD’s function as a reinforcer for donating money. b) The money functions as a reinforcer for getting a CD. c) The CD’s function as a reward for donating money. d) The money functions as a reward for getting a CD.

10) Unconditioned reinforcers are: a) Stimuli, such as praise, that individuals have to learn to like through pairing with other unconditioned reinforcers. b) Stimuli, such as rock music, that were once punishing (aversive) but are now things the individual likes. c) Stimuli, like meat powder, that cause reflex actions to occur. d) Stimuli, such as food and water that are inherently reinforcing for individuals.

11) The Premack Principle is useful for: a) Increasing high probability behaviors. b) Decreasing high probability behaviors. c) Increasing low probability behaviors. d) Decreasing low probability behaviors.

12) What is the advantage of using generalized conditioned reinforcers? a) They are less susceptible to satiation because they can be exchanged for a wide variety of other reinforcers. b) They are easier for children to obtain than other forms of reinforcement. c) They are negative reinforcers, which are more powerful than positive reinforcers. d) None of these are advantages of generalized reinforcers.

13) One can identify whether an argument is circular reasoning: a) By evaluating the direction of the relation (e.g., Sally’s off-task behavior is due to her attention deficit disorder vs. Sally’s attention deficit disorder causes her off-task behavior) b) By evaluating whether the two components of the argument can be separated and whether one can be manipulated to determine the effect on the other c) Both A and B d) Neither A nor B

14) An s-delta is a) A stimulus in the presence of which reinforcement is withheld if a target response occurs. b) A stimulus in the presence of which reinforcement is delivered if a target response occurs. c) The same thing as a discriminative stimulus. d) A consequence event.

15) An advantage to survey methods of evaluating preference is that they are relatively uncomplicated to conduct. A disadvantage of such methods is: a) They may not yield any more accurate information than chance. b) They can trigger disruptive behavior. c) They are relatively time consuming to conduct. d) It is impossible to conduct them with learners who have limited language skills.

16) Elsa conducted a preference assessment for Jordan, a 5 year-old-boy with autism with whom she works. She arranged 10 stimuli on a table and allowed him a little time to interact with the stimuli prior to the assessment. Then, she began her assessment, allowing Jordan to select a stimulus and play with it. When Jordan finished playing with that item, Elsa put the toy away and allowed Jordan to select another toy. She repeated this procedure until there were only 3 toys left. What form of preference assessment is this? a) Forced choice b) Survey c) Multiple stimulus d) Single stimulus

17) If one wants to determine the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer relative to another stimulus, which assessment method would be most appropriate? a) Concurrent schedule assessment b) Multiple schedule assessment c) Progressive-ratio schedule assessment d) Paired stimulus assessment

18) If one compares the effects of response dependent delivery of a stimulus to a response independent schedule delivery of a stimulus to analyze whether or not the stimulus serves as a reinforcer, which assessment method is one using? a) Concurrent schedule assessment b) Multiple schedule assessment c) Progressive-ratio schedule assessment d) Paired stimulus assessment

19) If one wants to determine the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer as the requirements to earn that reinforcer change over time, which assessment method would be most appropriate? a) Concurrent schedule assessment b) Multiple schedule assessment c) Progressive-ratio schedule assessment d) Paired stimulus assessment

True/False

1) The stimulus change responsible for increasing responding is called a reinforcer.
2) The behavior that occurs temporally closest to the presentation of a reinforcer will be strengthened by its presentation.
3) When implementing a reinforcement contingency, it is acceptable to wait 30 s following the emission of a target response to deliver the reinforcer.
4) Another word for the three-term contingency is the discriminated operant.
5) Establishing operations are relatively consistent and do not tend to change over time.
6) In order for reinforcement to work, the individual must be aware that reinforcement has occurred.
7) A primary reinforcer is an unconditioned reinforcer.
8) As a general rule, it is safer to assume that a high preference item identified through a trial-based method of assessment is more likely to serve as a reinforcer than one identified via a survey method of assessment.

Short Answer/Essay

1) Given an example of an argument that is circular reasoning. Give an example of an argument that is not circular. Explain why the first argument is circular and the second is not.

2) Diagram a novel example of a reinforcement contingency. Include all 4 terms of the contingency.

3) Explain why this statement is self-contradictory: “I have tried every reinforcement program in the book, and not one has worked. I still can’t get Joseph to sit in his chair for more than 3 minutes at a time.”

4) Explain the concept of the arbitrary nature of reinforcement.

5) Explain automatic reinforcement and provide a novel example of it.

6) Explain why the following statement is false: A conditioned reinforcer is called “generalized” because it reinforces a wide range of behaviors.

7) What is the difference between a preference assessment and a reinforcer assessment?

8) Compare and contrast concurrent, mixed, and progressive-ratio schedule assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of a stimulus functions as a reinforcer.

Chapter 12: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Negative reinforcement involves:

A. Presenting an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior B. Removing an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior C. Removing a desirable stimulus contingent upon a behavior D. Punishing a behavior

2. Positive and negative reinforcement are similar in that:

A. They both produce an increase in responding. B. They both involve a stimulus change following a target behavior. C. They can either be conditioned or unconditioned. D. All of the above

3. The key distinction between positive and negative reinforcement is:

A. The effect on behavior. B. The stimulus change with positive reinforcement has a discrete onset and offset, where the stimulus change with negative reinforcement does not. C. The stimulus change with negative reinforcement has a discrete onset and offset, where the stimulus change with positive reinforcement does not. D. The type of stimulus change that occurs following a response.

4. Negative reinforcement can be differentiated from punishment by carefully attending to the role of the “aversive” stimulus. In a negative reinforcement contingency, the aversive stimulus , whereas in a punishment contingency, the aversive stimulus .

A. Is presented following the target behavior; is removed following the target behavior. B. Is removed following the target behavior; is present before the target behavior occurs. C. Is present prior to the occurrence of the target behavior; is removed following the target behavior. D. Is present prior to the occurrence of the target behavior; is presented following the target behavior.

5. Joe hates his new alarm clock. This morning, the annoying buzzer sounded at 6:00 a.m. Joe hit the snooze button to catch a few more minutes of sleep. He opened his eyes and saw that the clock read 6:14. Knowing the buzzer will sound again at 6:15 (the snooze button allows for 15 minutes to pass before it sounds again). Because he hates the sound of the alarm, he reaches over and shuts off the alarm before it can sound and gets out of bed. Turning off the alarm before it can sound is an example of:

A. Discriminated avoidance. B. Free operant avoidance. C. An escape contingency. D. An aversive stimulus.

6. Which of the following examples illustrates socially-mediated negative reinforcement:

A. Alice scratches her arm to alleviate an itch. B. Marge closes her eyes when the wind picks up on the beach to avoid getting sand in her eyes. C. Sandy asks her mother for help washing the dishes to reduce the amount of time she has to spend in the kitchen doing chores. D. Paul uses the remote control to mute the television during commercials to avoid listening to the commercial hype.

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. An aversive stimulus can function as both a negative reinforcer and a punisher.

2. TRUE or FALSE. Joey forgot to clean his room before leaving for school. When he returned from school in the afternoon, he quickly cleaned his room before his mother came home to avoid a reprimand from her. A reprimand, in this case, can be considered an unconditioned negative reinforcer.

3. TRUE or FALSE. To maximize the effectiveness of negative reinforcement for a given response, it is important that there is a great difference in the level of stimulation present before the response as compared to after the response.

4. TRUE or FALSE. Negative reinforcement can be used to teach both appropriate and inappropriate behaviors.

5. TRUE or FALSE. Research has demonstrated that the use of error correction procedures during instruction may create an avoidance contingency.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Explain the difference between an escape contingency and an avoidance contingency.

2. Give an example of an escape contingency. In your answer, be sure to identify all 4 components of the contingency.

3. Give an example of an avoidance contingency. In your answer, be sure to identify all of the relevant components of the contingency.

4. Define negative reinforcement.

5. Negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment. Identify one potential source of confusion in these terms and explain why this understanding is incorrect.

6. Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement.

7. Compare and contrast negative reinforcement and punishment.

8. Give a novel example of how negative reinforcement could be used to teach an appropriate behavior.

9. Explain this statement: Ethical concerns about the use of positive and negative reinforcement are similar and arise from the severity of the EO that occasions behavior maintained by a given consequence. Give a specific example for both positive and negative reinforcement in your explanation.

10. Give a novel example of an unconditioned negative reinforcer and of a conditioned negative reinforcer.

Chapter 13: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. A schedule of reinforcement is a rule that describes

A. The type of reinforcement used B. A rule that describes a contingency of reinforcement C. A calendar of when intervention is delivered D. A rule that describes a contingency of punishment

2. Continuous reinforcement provides a reinforcement for

A. Every second response B. One response only C. Each occurrence of behavior D. For the first response, then non-contingently, or continuously after.

3. Applied behavior analysts use intermittent reinforcement to

A. Build skill acquisition B. Weaken established behaviors C. Strengthen new behaviors D. Maintain established behaviors.

4. A major goal of most behavior change programs is the development of

A. Naturally occurring activities B. Stimuli C. Events to function as reinforcement D. All the above

5. The four basic schedules of intermittent reinforcement are

A. Fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval B. Fixed, variable, stable, and continuous C. Continuous, intermittent, mixed, and stable D. None of the above

6. A post reinforcement pause is when

A. The subject demands delivery of reinforcement B. The subject speeds up responses to quicken the delivery of reinforcement C. The subject does not respond for a period of time following reinforcement D. The subject indefinitely refuses to respond after the delivery of reinforcement

7. With variable reinforcement, a number representing the ___________________ number of responses required for reinforcement is determined.

A. Median B. Mode C. Least D. Average

8. The Variable Ratio Schedule of reinforcement tends to produce a

A. Quick rate of response B. Slow Rate of Response C. Suspended Rate of Response D. No rate of response

9. A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first correct response following a

A. Fixed number of responses B. Variable number of responses C. Fixed duration of time D. Variable duration of time.

10. An FI schedule typically produces a ____________________ in responding during the early part of the interval.

A. Rapid increase B. Rapid decrease C. Post-punishment delay D. Post-reinforcement pause

True/False

1. _____ A post-reinforcement pause is typically associated with a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement.

2. _____ A VI schedule of reinforcement tends to produce a constant, stable rate of response.

3. _____ One way researcher’s thin schedules of reinforcement are by gradually increasing the response ratio or the duration of the time interval.

4. _____ One way researcher’s thin schedules of reinforcement are by rapidly increasing the response ratio or the duration of the time interval.

5. _____ Ratio strain can result from abrupt decreases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules.

Matching

A. Matching Law B. Fixed Ratio C. Fixed Interval D. Variable Ratio E. Variable Interval F. DRL G. DRH H. Compound Schedules of Reinforcement I. Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement J. Conjunctive Schedules of Reinforcement K. Mixed Schedules L. Adjunctive Behaviors

1. _____ A schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more elements of continuous reinforcement (CRF), the four intermittent schedules of reinforcement (FR, VR, FI, VI), differential reinforcement of various rates of responding (DRH, DRL), and extinction.

2. _____ A schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses to be emitted for reinforcement.

3. _____ A schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses to be emitted for reinforcement.

4. _____ A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingent on the number of responses emitted during the interval being greater than a gradually increasing criterion based on the individual’s performance in previous intervals.

5._____ A compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more basic schedules of reinforcement (elements) that occur in an alternating, usually random, sequence; no discriminative stimuli are correlated with the a presence or absence of each element of the schedule, and reinforcement is delivered for meeting the response requirements of the element in effect at any time.

6. _____ A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on a rate or responding being below a predetermined criterion.

7. _____ When the frequency of a time filling behavior increases as a side effect of other behaviors maintained by a schedule for reinforcement. May be identified as a schedule induced behavior.

8. _____ Refers to the allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement; rates of responding across choices are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement received from each choice alternative.

9._____ A compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more basic schedules of reinforcement (elements) that occur in an alternating, usually random, sequence; a discriminative stimulus is correlated with the presence or absence of each element of the schedule, and reinforcement is delivered for meeting the response requirements of the element in effect at any time.

10._____ A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time since the last response was reinforced.

11._____ A schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more elements of continuous reinforcement (CRF), the four intermittent schedules of reinforcement (FR, VR, FI, VI), differential reinforcement of various rates of responding (DRH, DRL), and extinction. The elements from these basic schedules can occur successively or simultaneously and with or without discriminative stimuli; reinforcement may be contingent on meeting the requirements of each element of the schedule independently or in combination with all elements.

12. ____ A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time occurring in a random or unpredictable order. The mean duration of the intervals is used to describe the schedule.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Define fixed and variable ratio schedules of reinforcement, as well as fixed and variable interval schedules of reinforcement. Compare and contrast the effects of these schedules of reinforcement on behavior.

2. Explain what is meant by a “scallop effect” and when you would expect to see it.

3. Give a real-life example of a ratio schedule of reinforcement and how ratio strain could occur as reinforcement is thinned. When explaining your example, make sure you are clear on what ratio strain is. Chapter 14: Test Questions
Multiple Choice

1. Positive punishment can best be defined as:

A. Delivery of a stimulus after a behavior that increases the occurrence of the behavior. B. Removal of a stimulus after a behavior that decreases the occurrence of the behavior. C. Delivery of a stimulus after a behavior that decreases the occurrence of the behavior. D. Removal of a stimulus after a behavior that increases the occurrence of the behavior.

2. Which statement is not included in the procedural guidelines for the use of punishment?

A. Conduct a punisher assessment B. Consider using varied punishers C. Use the highest intensity of punishment that is effective D. Experience the punisher personally.

3. Negative punishment can best be defined as:

A. Delivery of a stimulus after a behavior that increases the occurrence of the behavior. B. Removal of a stimulus after a behavior that decreases the occurrence of the behavior. C. Delivery of a stimulus after a behavior that decreases the occurrence of the behavior D. Removal of a stimulus after a behavior that increases the occurrence of the behavior.

4. Which of the following statements are not a part of the factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment?

A. Immediacy B. Schedule C. Intensity D. Punishment for the alternative behaviors

5. The current status of knowledge regarding the use of punishment was rendered from research that was conducted over _______ years ago.

A. 100 B. 10 C. 70 D. 40

6. Mrs. Mody decided that because Johnny dumped the contents of his glue container on the floor that he would not only have to clean up his work space, but clean the entire classroom floor. The punishment procedure that Mrs. Mody is using is called:

A. Negative reinforcement B. Behavioral contrast C. Restitutional overcorrection D. Negative punishment

True/False

1. _____ A decrease in the future frequency of the occurrence of a behavior must be observed before a consequence-based intervention qualifies as punishment.

2. _____ Positive punishment has occurred when the removal of an aversive stimulus increases the occurrence of the behavior.

3. _____ Negative punishment has occurred when the removal of an event decreases the future occurrence of a behavior.

4. _____ Emotional and aggressive acts are potential side effects of punishment use.

5. _____ Restitutional correction involves the student repairing the damage or returning the environment to its original state and then bringing the environment to a condition vastly better than it was.

Matching

Choose the corresponding answer(s) for each of the following statements. Answers may be used once, several times, or not at all.

A. Side effects of punishment B. Procedural guideline for the use of punishment C. Factor that influences the effectiveness of punishment. D. Positive punishment E. Ethical guideline for the use of punishment F. Behavioral contrast

1. _____ Reinforcement for the target behavior 2. _____ Punishment may evoke escape and/or avoidant behaviors. 3. _____ Experience the punisher personally. 4. _____ A phenomenon in which the change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on that component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component of the schedule. 5. _____ Reinforcement for alternative behaviors 6. _____ Delivery of a stimulus after a behavior occurs that decreases the future rate of frequency of that behavior. 7. _____ Conducting a punisher assessment. 8. _____ Right to a safe and humane treatment, professional responsibility to adhere to the doctrine of the least restrictive alternative, and client’s right to effective treatment.

Short Answer/Essay

1. What are some of the potential side effects of using punishment as a treatment intervention? (Include at least three)

2. Why does the field of applied behavior analysis adhere to the consideration of procedural guidelines when using a punishment intervention?

3. Explain the importance of using a functional analysis to identify the function of a problem behavior and how it relates to the identification and strengthening of an alternative response.

4. Detail the similarities and differences between positive practice and restitutional overcorrection.

5. Describe some of the ethical concerns revolving around the use of punishment as an intervention. (Include a minimum of three)

Chapter 15: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus is also known as:

E. Negative reinforcement. F. Negative punishment. G. Type II punishment. H. Positive punishment. I. All of the above. J. A,B,C only. K. B and C only.

2. The key behavioral effect of punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus is:

E. An increased frequency, duration, or intensity of non-problematic behaviors. F. Increased compliance by the individual. G. Collateral improvement in academic skills. H. A decreased frequency, duration, or intensity of behaviors targeted for punishment. I. All of the above. J. A,B,D. K. B,C,D.

3. The key difference between noncexclusion and exclusion time-out is:

E. With nonexcluion time-out the individual is not totally removed from the instructional environment. F. There are no differences, they both result in the same effect on behavior. G. With exclusion time-out the individual is at least partially removed from the instructional environment. H. A and C.

4. In order for withdraw of a specific reinforcer to be successful:

A. The item removed must be a reinforcer. B. The procedure must be applied to an entire group. C. The student must be able to regain access to the item at a later time. D. The practitioner must be able to control access to the item. E. A and C.

5. Contingent observation involves:

A. The individual being removed from the instructional setting for a period of time. B. The individual remaining in the setting but losing participation privileges for a period of time. C. The practitioner closely observing the individual for instances of the target behavior. D. Assessing the problem behavior during instructional activities.

6. The time-out room should be:

A. Devoid of any potential reinforcers. B. Located as far away from the instructional setting as possible. C. Locked at all times when a student is there. D. Free of tables and chairs. E. All of the above

7. The disadvantages of using a time-out room can include

A. Social isolation. B. Lost instructional time. C. Public perception. D. The room is highly disciminable. E. All of the above. F. B and C.

8. All of the following are desirable aspects of time-out except?

A. Ease of application. B. Acceptability. C. Collateral decreases in non-targeted behaviors. D. Rapid suppression of behavior. E. Can be combined with other approaches.

9. When an individual returns from a time-out the first thing a practitioner should do is:

A. Reinforce an appropriate behavior. B. Discuss why the individual was placed in time-out. C. Move the individual in closer proximity to the practitioner. D. Decrease the demands placed on the individual. E. Go over the rules for appropriate behavior with the individual.

10. Making additional reinforcers available noncontingently that are available for removal during a response cost procedure is known as?

A. Priming the pump. B. A direct fine. C. A combined approach. D. Negative reinforcement. E. Bonus response cost.

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. The greater the reinforcing value of the time-in setting, the more effective time-out will be.

2. TRUE or FALSE. If time-out does not result in a decreased probability of the target behavior occurring it is still considered punishment.

3. TRUE or FALSE. Removing a student from the instructional setting contingent on emission of a target behavior is an example of nonexclusion time-out.

4. TRUE or FALSE. Planned ignoring involves the removal of social reinforcers.

5. TRUE or FALSE. Wearing the time-out ribbon signals that the individual is in time-out.

Matching

Choose the corresponding answer that best completes the following statements.

A. Bonus Response cost F. Withdrawal of a specific reinforcer A. Contingent observation G. Group time-out B. Increased aggression H. Reinforcing alternative behaviors C. Obtaining permission I. Partition time-out D. Type II punishment J. Hallway time-out

1. _____ An unwanted side effect that can occur with the use of punishment. 2. _____ When the behavior of any individual results in time-out for all. 3. _____ One of the steps to complete before beginning a time-out procedure. 4. ______ Reinforcers that can be lost during a response cost procedure. 5. ______ A procedure that involves obstruction the view of the individual in time-out. 6. _____ A necessary component of the “fair pair” rule. 7. ______ Losing access to positive reinforcement and watching other earn rewards. 8. ______ Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus. 9. ______ Removal from the classroom but within range to hear instrcution. 10._____ Loss of a particular stimulus.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Why is nonexclusion time-out recommended the method of first choice when implementing time-out?

2. Why might planned ignoring be difficult to implement successfully?

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a time-out room?

4. Why is it important to enrich the time-in setting?

5. Timmy is a bright student who is the “class clown”. He often blurts out answers before getting permission to respond. In addition, he makes off color jokes to get other students to laugh? Pick a procedure to use to decrease his talk outs and jokes and describe how you would implement the procedure.

Chapter 16: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. The term motivating operation has been suggested to replace the term establishing operation with the addition of the term(s):

A. Value-altering B. Unconditioned C. Conditioned D. Behavior-altering E. Both A & D F. Both B & C

2. An evocative effect refers to:

A. A decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event B. An increase in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event C. No effect in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event D. A combination of decreasing and increasing effects in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event

3. An abative effect refers to:

A. A decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event B. An increase in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event C. No effect in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event D. A combination of decreasing and increasing effects in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by some stimulus, object, or event

4. Behavior altering effects have:

A. Direct effects B. Conditioned effects C. Direct and indirect effects D. Indirect effects

5. Dimensions of value altering effects are:

A. Limited to frequency B. Includes frequency, magnitude, & latency C. Includes frequency & magnitude but not latency D. Includes frequency & latency but not magnitude

6. Motivating operations:

A. Will evoke the target behavior every single time B. May never evoke the target behavior C. Should evoke the target behavior, but may not consistently do so D. Evoke the target behavior even if not first successful at doing so

7. Conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) have:

A. Value-altering motivating effects that are unlearned B. Behavior-altering motivating effects that are a function of a learning history C. Behavior-altering effects that are unlearned D. Value-altering motivating effects that are a function of a learning history

8. Unconditioned motivating operations (UMOs) have:

A. Value-altering motivating effects that are unlearned B. Behavior-altering motivating effects that are a function of a learning history C. Behavior-altering effects that are unlearned D. Value-altering motivating effects that are a function of a learning history

9. Conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) can be classified as:

A. Positive & Negative B. Reflexive, Surrogate & Transitive C. Reflexive & Trasitive D. Transitive, Relective, & Substantive

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. Antecedent variables include only SD’s. 2. TRUE or FALSE. Value-altering and behavior-altering effects described the defining effects in the original definition of establishing operation (EO). 3. TRUE or FALSE. An abolishing operation has behavior-altering effect in which a decrease in the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event occurs. 4. TRUE or FALSE. Behavior-altering effects refer only to the frequency of a behavior. 5. TRUE or FALSE. All conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s) are motivationally neutral prior to their relation with another MO or to a form of reinforcement or punishment.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Name and briefly discuss the two types of effects that accompany the term motivating operation (MO).

2. Define and discuss the similarities and differences between unconditioned motivating operations (UMO’s) and conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s).

3. Compare and contrast the different types of conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s).

4. State and discuss one example of an unconditioned motivating operation (UMO) as it relates to a human organism.

5. Discuss the antecedent variables SD and MO. Provide a concrete example to illustrate the arguments you make.

Chapter 17: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. A discriminative stimulus is: A. A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced. B. A stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced. C. A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be placed on extinction. D. A stimulus that cues respondent behaviors to occur.

2. A stimulus delta is: A. A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced. B. A stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced. C. A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be placed on extinction. D. A stimulus that cues respondent behaviors to occur.

3. Operant stimulus control has been achieved when: A. A response occurs frequently throughout the day under a variety of stimulus conditions. B. A response occurs in the presence of a conditioned stimulus. C. A response occurs more frequently in the presence of a specific stimulus, but rarely occurs in the absence of the stimulus. D. A response occurs more frequently in the absence of a specific stimulus, but rarely occurs in its presence.

4. Stimulus generalization has occurred when: A. A response occurs more frequently in the presence of a specific stimulus, but rarely occurs in the absence of the stimulus. B. The same response occurs in the presence of two different, but similar, stimuli. C. One response occurs in the presence of a specific stimulus, and a different response occurs in the presence of a different stimulus. D. One stimulus evokes a number of different, but similar, responses.

5. Concept formation: A. Requires both stimulus discrimination across different classes and stimulus generalization within a class. B. Requires both stimulus discrimination within a class and stimulus generalization across classes. C. Is a simple process that involves strict stimulus discrimination and training to avoid any stimulus generalzation. D. Is a hypothetical mental construct.

6. Which of the following would be included in the feature stimulus class for ducks: A. All animals. B. Webbed feet. C. All birds. D. Beaks.

7. Stimuli in an arbitrary stimulus class: A. Share common physical forms or relations to the target stimulus. B. Do not share similar stimulus features. C. Include an infinite number of stimuli. D. Comprise a large portion of our conceptual behavior.

8. Stimulus equivalence: A. Means that two stimuli share a number of common features. B. Is important to the development of stimulus discrimination. C. Means that a person responds accurately to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following training on different stimulus-stimulus relations. D. Requires testing of reflexivity, symmetry, and commonality.

9. The critical test for stimulus equivalence is: A. Reflexivity B. Symmetry C. Transitivity D. Commonality

10. Stimulus salience: A. Can affect the development of stimulus control. B. Refers to the prominence of the stimulus in the person’s environment. C. Can depend on the sensory capabilities of the learner. D. All of the above.

11. Which of the following constitutes a prompt? A. Physically helping an individual perform a task. B. Providing a reinforcer to an individual for completing a step of a task. C. Praising an individual for his/her performance. D. All of the above.

12. Which of the following is a stimulus prompt? A. Mary is trying to do laundry, but has forgotten the next step. Ashley says to Mary, “Remember, next you need to put the soap in the washing machine.” B. Mary puts the soap in the machine but does not begin putting the clothes in the washing machine. Ashley picks up an article of clothing and puts in the washer, saying “Do this next.” C. After putting the clothes in the washer, Mary attempts to close the lid to the washer. Due to her limited vision, she keeps missing the lid when she reaches for it. Ashley physically guides her hand to the washer lid and puts her hand on the lid. D. After closing the lid, Mary turns the dial to the correct cycle. Prior to the training session, Ashley painted a red arrow to the correct setting to help Mary remember where to set the dial. Mary successful sets the dial to the correct setting without any additional assistance.

13. Which of the following is an example of stimulus fading? A. Taking a line drawing of a bed and slowly changing it into the letters b-e-d to help a child learn to read the word bed. B. Most-to-least prompting. C. Printing a child’s name on a piece of paper and having him trace his name. Over time, slowly remove one letter of his name, thus requiring him to trace the first letters but to print the last letters himself. D. All of these are examples of stimulus fading.

True/False

1. Operant and respondent stimulus control are identical.
2. Stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination are opposites.
3. Stimulus generalization is always a desired long-term goal of any behavioral intervention.
4. The more similar two stimuli are, the more likely stimulus generalization will occur.
5. Reflexivity occurs when one matches a novel picture of an object to an identical picture of an object when it is presented in an array of other objects.
6. If a student lacks attending skill, this will make it more difficult for stimulus control to develop for the student.
7. Transfer of stimulus control from prompts to naturally occurring stimuli is accomplished through stimulus equivalence training.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Explain two ways in which motivating operations and discriminative stimuli are similar. Then explain how they are different.
2. Explain the stimulus discrimination training process. Provide a novel concrete example of discrimination training.
3. Give an example of concept formation that clearly delineates the key features of the process by which concepts are formed.
4. Give a novel example of the trained and untrained relations that occur when attempting to achieve stimulus equivalence.
5. Name and describe four ways to transfer stimulus control from prompts to natural stimuli. Chapter 18: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. An antecedent stimulus that evokes the imitative behavior is: A. a chaining of behaviors B. an imitative response chain C. an operative behavior D. a model

2. The model and the behavior must have: A. formal similarity B. environmental relations C. behavioral relations D. imitative behaviors

3. All antecedent stimuli with the capacity to evoke imitation are potentially: A. planned echoic stimuli B. unplanned echoic stimuli C. planned models D. unplanned models

4. When a model and the behavior physically resemble each other and are in the same sense mode, this is known as: A. Formal similarity B. Formal modeling C. Formal sensing D. Antecedent control

5. After the model evokes an imitation, that behavior comes into contact with contingencies of: A. similarity B. antecedent control C. reinforcement D. punishment

6. Teaching learners to do what the model does regardless of the behavior modeled is the major objective of what? A. Imitation training B. Antecedent control C. Formal modeling D. Formal similarity

7. If progress breaks down while conducting imitation training, the practitioner should: A. Reduce the speed of the lesson B. Back up and move ahead slowly C. Change to alternate behaviors then return D. Remove that behavior from the repertoire

True False

1. When the topography of a previous imitation occurs in the absence of the model it is not imitative behavior.

2. A controlling relation between the behavior of a model and the behavior of the imitator is inferred when a novel model evokes a similar behavior in the absence of a history of reinforcement.

3. Once an imitative behavior has been demonstrated, that behavior comes under the influence of modeled behavior.

4. Typically developing children and children with developmental disabilities initially acquire many skill by imitating planned and unplanned models.

5. Delayed behaviors using the topography of an imitative behavior, by definition, are imitative.

6. To maintain quick and active imitation training, practitioners should us short (10-15 minute) training sessions.

7. In the early stages of imitation training, practitioners should reinforce each occurrence of either a prompted or true imitation.

Short Answer/Essay

1. State the five elements of Striefel’s (1974) imitation training program.

2. Explain why a behavior occurring due to controls of a discriminate operant is similar to, or not similar to, a behavior occurring due to modeling and imitation. Provide examples to help clarify your answer.

3. Describe what the elements of Striefel’s (1974) imitation training program are and explain why each is important.
Chapter 19: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is an example of shaping to teach an individual to sign “please” to get access to a toy? (A please sign consists of placing an open palm on the chest and making a circular motion.) a. First reinforce lifting the hand, then reinforce lifting the hand to the chest, then reinforce lifting the hand to the chest and making a circular motion. b. Provide full physical assistance to lift the hand to the chest and making a circular motion, then providing partial physical assistance to lift the hand to the chest and make a circular motion, then providing a model of lifting the hand to the chest and making a circular motion, then providing a verbal prompt to “sign please.” c. Provide a verbal prompt to “sign please.” If the individual doesn’t sign please, provide a model. If the individual doesn’t sign please, provide partial physical assistance to lift the hand to the chest and make a circular motion. If the individual still doesn’t sign please, provide full physical assistance to raise hand to chest and make a circular motion. d. Provide a cue to “sign please.” If the individual signs please, provide reinforcement. If the individual does not sign please, withhold reinforcement.

2. Laura would like to shape the “tidiness” of her husband, who always leaves his clothes in a pile on the floor at the end of the day instead of throwing them in the clothes hamper, which is in the laundry room. She begins by providing him with lavish praise and offering to make him a nice dinner when he puts his clothes in a heap in the laundry room rather than in a heap on the bedroom floor. Now, he is consistently putting his clothes in a heap in the laundry room. Next, she plans to provide praise and a nice dinner only if her husband sorts his laundry into whites and colors and puts his laundry into the appropriate laundry basket. What do you think about her plan? a. Given how well Laura’s plan has worked to date, this should work fine. b. Laura should proceed in more gradual steps to increase the likelihood of her husband’s success. c. Laura’s husband is likely to become frustrated and receive little or no reinforcement for quite some time. d. Laura should stop the intervention and be pleased that she has gotten her husband to come this far. e. B & C

3. Gretchen has been trying to teach Glen, a preschooler, to pull up his pants by himself after using the toilet. She has been using a shaping model. She began by reinforcing him with an animal cracker for bending over and touching his waistband. He is now doing that consistently. Next, she wants him to start pulling his pants a little bit. However, she has become very frustrated because Glen continues to simply touch his pants rather than pull a bit. What should Gretchen do? a. Gretchen should pull up his pants for him. Glen is not “ready” to do this behavior ad will grow into it over time. b. Gretchen should intermittently give Glen a reinforcer for touching his pants to make sure he doesn’t get too frustrated. c. Gretchen should reanalyze her task analysis and “chunk” the skills into bigger steps. d. Gretchen should add a prompt of some sort (e.g., a verbal or physical prompt) to help make the shaping process more efficient.

4. Continuing with the question above… Assume that Gretchen analyzes the situation further. Typically, Glen has been allowed to bring an Elmo doll into the bathroom with him when he uses the toilet. (Earlier, Elmo was used as a reinforcer for using the toilet.) Glen sits Elmo on a little potty chair in the bathroom while he uses the toilet. Gretchen notices that the entire time Glen is in the bathroom, he looks at Elmo, talks to him, and sings Sesame Street songs. How should Gretchen use this information? a. She should consider removing Elmo from the bathroom. It may be distracting Glen from attending to the relevant cues for pulling up his pants. b. She should sing along with Glen and play with Elmo while he is toileting. Perhaps making toileting more fun will improve the success of the shaping intervention. c. She should add other Sesame Street toys to the bathroom to make toileting more fun to improve the success of the shaping intervention. d. She should let Glen hold Elmo in one hand while he is pulling up his pants with his other hand so that Elmo is not as distracting.

5. After you have shaped a successive approximation to a terminal behavior, what reinforcement schedule should you use before increasing your criteria for reinforcement? a. Various b. Intermittent c. Continuous d. Interval

6. When just beginning to shape a new behavior, what reinforcement schedule should you use for the initial responses each time you increase the criteria for reinforcement? a. Variable b. Intermittent c. Continuous d. Interval

7. When shaping a new behavior, it is important to: a. Carefully analyze the response class to identify the discrete behaviors that are part of the terminal behavior. b. Know the terminal behavior you are shooting for. c. Have a plan for how you will reinforce the behaviors that are part of the terminal behavior. d. A, B, and C e. A & B only

8. Travis has been training his puppy, Belle, to sit by the back door and bark when she wants to go outside and “do her business.” First, Travis let her out, provided her with tons of praise, and gave her a treat (all presumed reinforcers) if she sat by the back door and then when outside and urinated. Then, Travis withheld reinforcement for this behavior and provided the reinforcers only if she sat by the door and made a small noise (i.e., a whine). Now that she does that well, Travis is withholding reinforcement for that behavior and only providing the reinforcers if she sits by the door and makes a bark. What has Travis been doing? a. Shaping sitting by the door and barking when Belle has to urinate. b. Using differential reinforcement to teach Belle to sit by the door and bark when she has to urinate. c. Using backward chaining to teach Belle to sit by the door and bark when she has to urinate. d. A & B e. B & C

9. Shaping a behavior within a response ________________ means that the form of the behavior remains constant, but differential reinforcement is applied to a dimension of the behavior. a. Schedule b. Chain c. Topography d. Contingency

10. __________________ is the process by which one systematically and differentially reinforces successive approximations to a terminal behavior. a. Task analysis b. Training for stimulus generalization c. Stimulus fading d. Shaping

True/False:

1. The process of differential reinforcement produces response differentiation.

2. Melania has bee working with a child to shape his handwriting. When Melania started working with the child, he could hold his pencil and write the letters of his name, but the marks were so faint that one could hardly see them. Over time, Melania taught the boy to press his pencil hard enough so that people could easily see the marks he had made. The shaping procedure Melania used is an example of shaping across a response topography.

3. It is not uncommon for problem behaviors to be learned via shaping processes.

4. In fading, behavior is changed by changing antecedent stimuli, while in shaping, behavior is changed by gradually changing the response requirements.

5. One way to make the shaping process proceed more quickly is to implement response prompts along with the shaping procedures.

6. If one implements response prompts during the shaping process, it is not necessary to fade those prompts over time. The shaping process will automatically eliminate the need for prompts.

7. If an individual becomes “stuck” during shaping (i.e., he/she does not seem to be able to meet the newly-increased criteria for obtaining reinforcement) and frustrated, the trainer should continue to the next step of the shaping sequence. This will allay any frustration the individual is experiencing.

8. The shaping process will proceed more quickly if the trainer makes the criteria for each successive approximation much larger than the last.

9. It is important for trainers to ensure that a successive approximation is well established in the client’s repertoire before increasing the criteria for reinforcement. This will ensure that the shaping process moves along more quickly.

10. If a learner is making frequent mistakes during a shaping process, this is a signal that the criteria for reinforcement are being raised too quickly.

Short Answer/Essay:

1. You are consulting with a care provider who is implementing shaping to teach a young adult to brush her own hair. The care provider asks you if you think he is changing his criteria for reinforcement too quickly, too slowly, or just right. You ask him to see his graph of the child’s performance. He shows it to you. What will you look for in order to answer his question? How will the data influence your answer?

2. Ma Yao wants to shape the behavior of “play dead” in her dog. She wants her dog, Skardu, to lay on the floor, on his back, with is feet up in the air for at least 5 seconds when she gives this command. Her dog can already sit and lay down on command. However, he will only stay in these positions for a couple of seconds. (He’s only 8 months old.) He can also roll over on command. In following the guidelines for effectively using shaping, she notes that she must first identify what the initial behavior that will receive reinforcement will be. What two considerations should she make in determining the first behavior to reinforce, what behavior would you reinforce first, and why?

3. Diagram an example of shaping. Select a behavior to shape, analyze the response class, and make a diagram that shows how the shaping process might proceed. Your diagram should show at least 4 shaping steps. At each step, make it clear what response receives reinforcement and what occurs for the previously reinforced response. Also, be sure to indicate how response differentiation would be expected to occur (i.e., what responses do you expect to increase and what responses do you expect to decrease?).

4. Give an example of shaping across a response topography and shaping within a response topography. Explain why your examples fall into each of these categories.

5. Define shaping.

6. Given an example of how shaping can misapplied to inadvertently shape a problem behavior.

7. What is a successive approximation?

8. Give a novel (i.e., an example not provided in the text or in class discussion) example of shaping new performance across each of the following dimensions of behavior: topography, frequency, latency, duration, and amplitude.

Chapter 20: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Mr. Worms is teaching an adult (Sandie) who lives in his group home to make macaroni and cheese from a box. Mr. Worms prompts Sandie to do all steps of the task using full physical prompts, except for the last step, which is to serve the macaroni and cheese on a plate. For this step, Mr. Worms is using a most-to-least prompting sequence. When Sandie has mastered that skill, Mr. Worms plans to have Sandie do the stirring and the serving (the last two steps of the task). What procedure is Mr. Worms using? a. Forward chaining b. Backward chaining c. Total-task chaining d. Shaping

2. One advantage to the procedure being used by Mr. Worms is that: a. Sandie will get immediate access to the reinforcer for completing the chain of behaviors. b. Sandie will get to practice every step of the chain each time Mr. Worms conducts a training session. c. Sandie will always start with the first step of the task whenever a training session is conducted. d. All of these are advantages of the procedure Mr. Worms is using.

3. Ms. March is teaching Matthew to do his laundry. She has written a task analysis for doing laundry, which consists of 36 steps. She conducted an initial assessment to identify which steps Matthew could already do, and she discovered that the only step he can presently do independently is to open the lid to the washer. She decides to use total task presentation as her method of teaching this complex chain of behaviors, using a least-to-most prompting strategy. What might be one disadvantage to this procedure? a. This procedure is likely to make each training session quite long. b. Matthew may become confused with the sequence of the task because the teaching procedure involves having him do the last step, then the last two steps, and so on. c. Because Matthew’s present behavior will be placed on extinction until he emits a new behavior that is closer to the terminal behavior, he will likely become very frustrated. d. All of these are reasonable concerns given the teaching context.

4. Assume you are working with a student who really likes McDonald’s. When you are out in the community with this student and you drive past a McDonald’s, the student always begins to whine about going to McDonald’s. If you say, “No,” the student begins to cry. If you still say, “No,” the student begins to kick and scream and whack his head on the car window. Assume you want to break this inappropriate chain of behaviors by removing the initial SD and substituting an alternative SD. What would be one way of doing so? a. Use total-task chaining to help him learn the appropriate chain of behaviors. b. Tell the student that if he doesn’t whine when you go past McDonald’s you will stop for something to eat. c. Use shaping to teach the student to sign McDonald’s. d. Avoid driving by McDonald’s whenever possible. Instead drive past Wendy’s and give the cue, “Would you like to stop and get something to eat?”

5. Before you use a chaining procedure, it is recommended that you task analyze the skill to be taught. What does it mean to task analyze a skill? a. Make a sequential list of all the smaller substeps of the task to be trained. b. Plan your prompting strategy carefully. c. Conduct a reinforcer assessment prior to beginning training. d. Analyze the response class and reinforce successive approximations to the terminal behavior.

6. If you are teaching a student to make a peanut butter sandwich, which of the following represents a total-task chaining approach? a. Having the trainer complete all steps except the last one (putting the bread together). The student puts the bread together himself. When he has mastered that step, the trainer completes all but the last two steps, and the student completes those. And so on… b. Having the student complete the first step (getting out the bread) and the trainer completing the remaining steps. When the student has mastered that step, the student completes the first two steps while the trainer completes the rest. And son on… c. Having the student complete all steps of the task, while the trainer provides the necessary level of prompt at each step. d. Having the trainer model all steps of the task on all occasions.

7. One advantage to backward chaining procedure is: a. It is the only chaining procedure in which the student gets reinforced for completing the task. b. It is the chaining procedure that results in the most immediate access to the reinforcer following the display of a correct response in the behavioral chain. c. It doesn’t rely on prompting procedures like the other chaining methods. d. It doesn’t rely on reinforcement procedures like the other chaining methods.

8. Sadie goes to an aerobics class on M, W, and F (on a good week!). The aerobic routines they do have many, many steps and constitute behavioral chain. The aerobics teacher has everyone perform one step of the routine multiple times and asks, “Does everyone get it?” The students all yell, “Yep!” Then, she says, “Adding on!” and she shows them another step. Once they have that step down, she has them do the first step, followed by the second step. Then she adds on again. This process is repeated until the students are doing a very long, complex routine by the end of the hour. What teaching procedure does Sadie’s aerobics instructor use? a. Total task presentation b. Forward chaining c. Backward chaining d. Stimulus shaping

True/False

1. Every step in a behavior chain serves two functions: an SD for the subsequent step and as a conditioned reinforcer for the preceding step.

2. A behavior chain with a limited hold results in performance that is both accurate and fluent.

3. There are only a few skills in every day life that are considered behavioral chains.

4. If a person has a number of behaviors already in their repertoire, chaining can be used to put these behaviors together in unique sequences in order to teach them a new behavior.

5. In order to construct a task analysis, it is acceptable and valid to perform the behavior yourself and write down the steps to the skill ask you perform them.

6. Once you have developed a task analysis, you should not change the sequence of steps, add steps, or remove steps in the analysis. This invalidates the task analysis.

7. A task analysis for one person can look completely different from a task analysis for another person, even if it for the same skill.

8. The single-opportunity method of assessing a person’s skills on a task analysis means that they only get one chance to demonstrate the skill before instruction begins; whereas with the multiple-opportunity method of assessment, a person’s skills are assessed multiple times before instruction begins.

9. When using the multiple-opportunity method of assessment during assessment of a task analysis, there is greater risk for co-mingling of assessment and instruction than there is for the single-opportunity method of assessment.

10. The research literature has repeatedly shown that the total-task chaining procedure is the most effective method of chaining.

11. In backward chaining, the individual learns to complete the steps of a task in reverse order.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Define a behavior chain and clearly explain the role each step in the chain serves relative to other steps in the chain.

2. What advantage does adding a limited hold component to a behavior chain serve?

3. Assume you want to teach an individual how to use a public telephone. You conduct a task analysis of the skill and end up with the following steps: i. Locate the telephone ii. Find the telephone number iii. Choose the correct change iv. Pick up receiver in left hand v. Put receiver to ear and listen for dial tone vi. Insert first coin vii. Insert second coin viii. Dial 7-digit number ix. Wait for telephone to ring a minimum of 5 times x. If someone answers, initiate conversation xi. If telephone is busy or no one answers, hang up and collect money Carefully describe how you would implement forward, backward, and total-task chaining for this task analysis.

4. Consider the task analysis listed above. Compare and contrast how you would conduct a baseline assessment of a person’s performance on this task analysis using the single- versus multiple-opportunity method. In your answer, be sure you identify how the two forms of assessment would be similar and how they would differ.

5. When might you want to interrupt a behavior chain? How would you go about implementing a behavior chain interruption strategy, and what kind of response should you expect from the learner?

6. Identify at least 3 ways that a learner could have difficulty with SDs that signal incorrect performance in a behavioral chain and how you would go about correcting these problems. Specifically, what changes would you make to the environment or task analysis to correct the problem?

7. Name at least 3 factors that can impact an individual’s performance on a behavior chain. Explain each factor and how it impacts performance.
Chapter 21: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is not associated effects of extinction?

A. Spontaneous Recovery B. Aggression C. Extinction Burst D. Stable Responding

2. ________________ is a technical term used to identify the procedure of withholding reinforcers that maintain behavior.

A. Reinforcement B. Punishment C. Extinction D. Time-Out

3. Which of the following statements is not a common misuse of the term extinction?

A. Referring to any decrease in behavior B. Confusing forgetting and extinction C. Confusing noncontingent reinforcement and extinction D. Withholding of reinforcers that maintain the behavior.

4. When Timmy wanted a drink, he generally screamed at his mother until she gave him a drink. Which of the following extinction procedures is the most appropriate choice?

A. Extinction of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. B. Extinction of behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. C. Extinction of behavior maintained by positive punishment. D. Extinction of behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

5. When Bobby was given a work sheet in class, he screamed and crawled under his desk. Bobby would continue to scream and remain under his desk until his teacher removed the work sheet and left him alone. Which of the following extinction procedures is the most appropriate choice?

A. Extinction of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. B. Extinction of behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. C. Extinction of behavior maintained by positive punishment. D. Extinction of behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

6. Susie spent most of the day sitting on her bedroom floor, rocking back and forth. While she was rocking, she would flap both of her hands back and forth. Which of the following extinction procedures is the most appropriate choice?

A. Extinction of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. B. Extinction of behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. C. Extinction of behavior maintained by positive punishment. D. Extinction of behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

7. Which statement correctly states the definition of extinction?

A. Extinction is a procedure that provides zero probability of reinforcement. B. Extinction is a procedure in which punishment of a previously punished behavior is discontinued. C. Extinction is a procedure in which a behavior is put on a continuous reinforcement schedule D. None of the above.

8. Which statement correctly defines extinction burst?

A. The gradual decline in frequency of a target behavior after the removal of the reinforcer. B. A gradual increase in frequency of a target behavior after the removal of the reinforcer. C. An immediate increase in the frequency of a target behavior after the removal of the reinforcer. D. An immediate decline in the frequency of a target behavior after the removal of the reinforcer.

9. A schedule of intermittent reinforcement is likely to increase the _________________?

A. Resistance to Reinforcement B. Resistance to Extinction C. Establishing operation D. Motivating operations

10. Resistance to extinction is _________________ when extinction is carried out under high motivation than under low.

A. Greater B. Lower C. Faster D. Smaller

11. Which of the following statements is not associated with the term “spontaneous recovery”?

A. Behavior that diminished during the extinction process recurs even though behavior does not produce reinforcement. B. Short-lived and limited if the extinction procedure remains in effect. C. Reappearance of the behavior after it has diminished to its pre-reinforcement level or stopped entirely. D. All of the statements are associated with the term spontaneous recovery.

True/False

1. _____ Extinction produces a slow gradual increase in the target behavior.

2. _____ An extinction burst is the complete cessation of the target behavior after the extinction procedure has started.

3. _____ Extinction procedure should not be used with behaviors that cause serious injury to the subject.

4. _____ If the behavior analyst does not have the ability to control the subject’s access to reinforcement, an extinction procedure should not be implemented.

5. _____ Spontaneous recovery of the target behavior will be short lived as long as the extinction procedure remains in effect.

Matching

A. Spontaneous Recovery B. Escape Extinction C. Extinction D. Extinction burst E. Resistance to Extinction F. Sensory Extinction G. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) H. Variable-time schedule

1._____ A procedure in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are presented on fixed-time or variable-time schedules completely independent of behavior.

2._____ The discontinuing of the reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior (i.e., responses no longer produce reinforcement.)

3._____ A behavioral effect associated with extinction in which the behavior suddenly begins to occur after its frequency has decreased to its prereinforcement level or stopped entirely.

4._____ A schedule for the delivery of noncontingent stimuli in which the interval of time from one delivery to the next randomly varies around a given time.

5._____ The process by which behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are placed on extinction by masking or removing the sensory consequence.

6._____ Behaviors maintained with negative reinforcement are placed on ______________ when those behaviors do not produce a removal of the aversive stimulus.

7._____ An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented.

8._____ The relative degree to which operant behavior continues to occur during extinction.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Explain how extinction of a behavior maintained by positive reinforcement would be different, procedurally, than extinction of a behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Give a specific example of each.

2. Name and explain the four key effects of extinction.

Chapter 22: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. All differential reinforcement procedures combine the use of what two principles of behavior? a. Reinforcement and extinction b. Reinforcement and punishment c. Punishment and extinction d. Positive and negative reinforcement

2. Assume you are teaching a large group of students, and they are very disruptive during your class. For example, the students talk out of turn, laugh, and throw things at each other. You want to improve their behavior, so you decide to implement a DRA intervention. This means you will reinforce: a. A behavior that is incompatible with disruption. b. A behavior that is a lower rate than what is currently happening. c. Any behavior other than disruption. d. None of the above.

3. You are working with a student who is frequently out of his seat. You decide to provide the student with reinforcement every time he is in his seat for 5 consecutive minutes. If he does not stay in his seat for 5 consecutive minutes, you withhold the reinforcer. What type of intervention have you implemented? a. DRI b. DRO c. DRL d. DRH

4. You would like to decrease the number of times a student sharpens her pencil during class. However, you don’t want to completely eliminate this behavior. Which type of reinforcement program makes the most sense? a. DRO b. DRA c. DRI d. DRL

5. You would like to implement an interval DRO procedure with one of your students with autism to decrease hand flapping (so that you can get the student to attend to her work eventually). You conduct some baseline observations and find that the student stops flapping her hands for about 2 minutes on average. What would an appropriate initial DRO interval be? a. 2 seconds b. 2 minutes, 30 seconds c. 1 minute, 45 seconds d. 4 minutes

6. A disadvantage to using DRO is: a. It does not teach any new skills. b. You often have initial increases in problem behavior when it is implemented. c. If the problem behavior occurs very frequently (e.g., every 5 seconds), it can be a very labor-intensive procedure to implement. d. A, B, and C. e. A and C. f. A and B. g. B and C.

6. Assume you are working with a girl with Rett syndrome. A behavior characteristic of this syndrome is that the girls play with their fingers and hair to the point that their fingers may become raw and bloody. Also, these girls pull their hair out. This particular little girl also puts her foot up by her face and scratched the edge of her shoe along her face, causing scrapes and bleeding on her face. These behaviors severely trouble her mother (understandably so!). You have not been able to identify a reinforcer for the problem behaviors. However, you have found that sitting the girl on her mom’s lap while playing with toys seemed to be a reinforcer for appropriate behavior, so you decide to implement an fixed-momentary DRO using mom’s attention and toys as the reinforcer and an interval of 5 seconds. Which of the following would describe your fixed-momentary DRO procedure most accurately? a. Give the girl a specific appropriate response (e.g., say “mom”) that she should display to gain access to mom and the toys. After 5 seconds expires, prompt her to engage in this response. If she does it, she gets to play with mom and toys. b. Set a timer for 5 seconds. When the timer dings, if the girl is not engaged in finger picking, hair pulling, or face scratching, allow her to play with mom and toys. If she is picking her fingers, pulling her hair, or scratching her face, do not allow her to play with mom and toys. c. Set a timer for 5 seconds. If she does not engage in finger picking, hair pulling, or face scratching at any time during the 5 seconds, allow her to play with mom and toys. Reset the timer contingent on finger picking, hair pulling, or face scratching. d. Set a timer for 5 seconds. If she engages in finger picking, hair pulling, or face scratching for 5 seconds, allow her to play with mom and toys.

7. What is the difference between DRI and DRA? a. DRI involves reinforcing a behavior that is incompatible with the problem behavior, whereas DRA involves reinforcing a behavior that may not be incompatible with the problem behavior. b. DRA involves reinforcing anything other than the problem behavior, whereas DRI involves reinforcing any behavior that is incompatible with the problem behavior. c. With DRA, the time interval is reset, whereas with DRI it is not. d. None of the above. There is no difference between DRI and DRA.

8. Andrea is 4 years old and nonverbal. She often becomes noncompliant (she says no, pulls away, and puts in a corner) when she is told to sit at the table to work on art activities. You, as her teacher, believe that Andrea is trying to escape the task and that breaks from tasks will be an effective reinforcer for her. You want to implement DRA because Andrea is nonverbal. Which of the following would be an example of DRA? a. If Andrea completes one step of the task, she can leave the table and take a break. If she is noncompliant, she must stay at the art table. b. Set a timer for 10 seconds. If Andrea does anything other than noncompliant behavior, allow her to leave the table and take a break. If she is noncompliant, she must stay at the art table. c. Set a limit on the number of times Andrea is allowed to say No. If she exceeds the limit, she must stay at the art table. If she says no fewer times than the limit, she can take a break and leave the art table. d. None of the above.

9. If I want to use DRI to decrease Melinda’s hitting other children in the hallway, I would: a. Provide reinforcement contingent on Melinda walking down the hall with her hands in her pockets or folded across her chest. b. Provide reinforcement contingent on Melinda saying “hi” to peers. c. Provide reinforcement contingent on Melinda waving at peers. d. Provide reinforcement contingent on Melinda doing anything other than hitting peers as she walks down the hall.

11. What is the difference between momentary DRO and interval DRO? a. Momentary DRO requires that the individual do anything other than the target problem behavior at the end of the interval. Interval DRO requires that the individual do anything other than the target problem behavior for the entire interval. b. Momentary DRO requires that the individual do a response that is incompatible with the target problem behavior. Interval DRO does not have this requirement. c. Momentary DRO is usually conducted for shorter time intervals than interval DRO. d. Momentary DRO is usually more effective early on in intervention, whereas interval DRO is more effective later in intervention.

True/False

1. One advantage to DRI/DRA interventions is that they teach new, desired replacement behaviors.
2. Reinforcing in-seat behavior for a child who frequently engages in out-of-seat behavior is an example of DRI.
3. When selecting a DRA/DRI response, one should select a behavior that is not in the learners current repertoire in order to avoid accidentally reinforcing something associated with problem behavior.
4. When designing a DRA/DRI intervention, it is a good idea to use the reinforcers that maintain problem behavior as the reinforcers for the “A” and “I” behaviors.
5. Generally speaking, it is a good idea to uses momentary DRO to begin your intervention and move to an interval DRO for maintenance purposes.
6. DRL is the intervention of choice when you do not want to totally eliminate the target behavior.

Short Answer/Essay
1. The title of this chapter is “Decreasing Behavior with Differential Reinforcement.” This title seems a little odd because, by definition, reinforcement increases the future probability of a behavior. Explain how a behavior is decreased through differential reinforcement. Be sure you are clear about the principles of behavior at work in your explanation.

2. Give an example of DRA using negative reinforcement. In your answer, make sure you specify what is provided contingent upon the “A” response and what is provided contingent on the occurrence of problem behavior.

3. When implementing a DRO procedure, explain how you would determine the duration of the interval.

4. Explain 3 different ways a DRO interval can be increased.

5. Explain the difference between full-session and interval DRL. In your explanation, give an example of each.

6. When might a practitioner want to use a spaced-responding DRL contingency? In your answer, give a specific example (other than what is in your text) of a case where this would be appropriate.
Chapter 23: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Function(s) for antecedent stimuli can be classified as:

A. Contingency dependent B. Contingency co-dependent C. Contingency independent D. Contingency non dependent E. Both A and C F. Both B and D G. None of the above

2. Noncontingent reinforcement is this type of intervention.

A. Antecedent intervention B. Consequent intervention C. Punishment strategy D. Behavioral momentum intervention

3. Noncontingent reinforcement functions as a:

A. Establishing operation B. Motivating operation C. Abolishing operation D. None of the above

4. High-p sequence refers to:

A. High-punishment sequence B. High-probability request sequence C. High-potential request sequence D. High-prospect sequence

5. Functional communication training is an application of this procedure: A. DRA B. DRO C. DRL D. DRH

6. Effective use of functional communication training includes:

A. Dense schedules of reinforcement B. Decreased use of verbal prompts C. Behavior reduction procedures D. Schedule thinning E. All of the above F. None of the above

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. Noncontingent reinforcement is an intervention in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are delivered on a fixed-ratio (FR) or variable-ratio (VR) schedule independent of the learner’s behavior.

2. TRUE or FALSE. Noncontingent reinforcement is also referred to as presenting stimuli with known reinforcing with known reinforcing properties.

3. TRUE or FALSE. Noncontingent reinforcement uses only two distinct procedures: positive and negative reinforcement.

4. TRUE or FALSE. Behavioral effects of high-p sequence suggests the abative effects of an abolishing operation by increasing the value of reinforcement for non-compliance to low-p requests and reducing the aggression & self-injury typically associated with low-p requests.

5. TRUE or FALSE. When using a high-p sequences effectively behaviors should be selected from the current repertoire and requests should be presented at a very slow, even pace.

6. TRUE or FALSE. Functional communication training establishes an appropriate communication behavior to compete with problem behaviors evoked by an establishing operation.

7. TRUE or FALSE. Functional communication training develops alternative behaviors that are sensitive to establishing operations. This is similar to noncontingent reinforcement and high-p request sequence.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Define and describe noncontingent reinforcement. Be sure to discuss how it operates, what its purpose or function is, and considerations for effective implementation of the technique.

2. Define and describe high-p sequence. Be certain to discuss how it operates, what its main function is, and considerations for effective implementation of the technique.

3. Define and describe functional communication training. Be sure to discuss how it operates, what is main purpose is, and considerations for effective implementation of the technique. In addition, describe how this procedure varies from other antecedent interventions discussed in the text. Chapter 24: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Problem behavior can be maintained by:

A. Social positive reinforcement B. Automatic reinforcement C. Tangible reinforcement D. Automatic tangible reinforcement E. All of the above F. None of the above G. A,B,C only H. B and D only

2. What strategic approach(es) can a FBA intervention consist of?

A. Teaching alternative behaviors B. Altering antecedent variables C. Teaching reinforcement and punishment strategies D. Altering consequent variables E. All of the above F. A,B,D G. B,C,D

3. Analog conditions are used in a functional analysis because:

A. They are easy to contrive, implement, and maintain when attempting to discover the function of a behavior. B. They allow the practitioner to better control the environmental variables that may be related to the problem behavior. C. They allow the practitioner to better control the individual exhibiting the problem behavior than in the naturally occurring routine. D. All of the above E. B and C only.

4. A descriptive functional behavior assessment involves:

A. Providing a detailed description of the problem behavior in the environment in which it occurs. B. Performing on-going assessment of a problem behavior by interviewing the individuals who most commonly see the problem behavior occurring. C. Direct observation of the problem behavior in relation to events under naturally occurring conditions. D. Assessing the problem behavior during a functional analysis.

5. Alternative appropriate behaviors that serve the same function for an individual:

A. Always involve skills the individual already possesses. B. Produce the same reinforcer for the individual. C. Have the same topography as the problem behavior. D. Always require the same amount of response effort as the problem behavior.

6. A default technology is:

A. The term used to refer to easy techniques that practitioners use to increase the frequency of alternative appropriate behaviors. B. The expertise that is required to implement a functional analysis properly. C. The process involved in creating the various phases in a sequential order of a functional analysis. D. The term used to refer to the interventions that individuals may resort to using that are increasingly intrusive, coercive, and punishment-based.

7. Look at the following graph from a functional analysis of Sammy’s biting. What would you conclude is the function of Sammy’s biting?

[pic] A. Social positive reinforcement B. Automatic reinforcement C. Social negative reinforcement D. Both social positive reinforcement and social negative reinforcement E. Both social negative reinforcement and automatic reinforcement F. Undifferentiated pattern

8. Look at the following graph from a functional analysis of Brittany’s eye poking. What would you conclude is the function of Brittany’s eye poking?

[pic] A. Social positive reinforcement B. Automatic reinforcement C. Social negative reinforcement D. Both social positive reinforcement and social negative reinforcement E. Both social negative reinforcement and automatic reinforcement F. Undifferentiated pattern

9. Look at the following graph from a functional analysis of Michael’s head hitting. What would you conclude is the function of Michael’s head hitting?
[pic]

A. Social positive reinforcement B. Automatic reinforcement C. Social negative reinforcement D. Both social positive reinforcement and social negative reinforcement E. Both social negative reinforcement and automatic reinforcement F. Undifferentiated pattern

10. Look at the following graph from a functional analysis of Laurie’s mouthing. What would you conclude is the function of Laurie’s mouthing?

[pic]

A. Social positive reinforcement B. Automatic reinforcement C. Social negative reinforcement D. Both social positive reinforcement and social negative reinforcement E. Both social negative reinforcement and automatic reinforcement F. Undifferentiated pattern

11. Look at the following graph from a functional analysis of Tony’s floor dropping. What would you conclude is the function of Tony’s dropping to the floor?

[pic]

A. Social positive reinforcement B. Automatic reinforcement C. Social negative reinforcement D. Both social positive reinforcement and social negative reinforcement E. Both social negative reinforcement and automatic reinforcement F. Undifferentiated pattern

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. Assessment of the function of a behavior can yield useful information with respect to intervention strategies that are likely to be effective.

2. TRUE or FALSE. FBA methods can be classified into two types: 1) functional analysis and 2) descriptive assessment.

3. TRUE or FALSE. A functional analysis is comprised of three conditions: contingent attention, contingent escape, and alone.

4. TRUE or FALSE. Undifferentiated results obtained in a functional analysis are considered inconclusive and require further analysis or can indicate that a behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement.

5. TRUE or FALSE. A FBA can also be referred to as a reinforcer assessment.

Matching

Choose the corresponding answer(s) for each of the following statements. Answers may be used once, several times, or not at all.

A. ABC continuous recording B. Behavior rating scales C. Scatterplots D. Behavioral interviews E. ABC narrative recording

1. _____ Recording procedure used to record the extent to which a target behavior occurs more often at a particular time than others. 2. _____ Type(s) of descriptive functional behavior assessment. 3. _____ Observers record occurrences of the targeted problem behaviors and selected environmental events in the natural routine during a period of time. 4. ______ Data are collected only when behaviors of interest are observed. 5. ______ Uses precise measures and in some cases the correlations may reflect causal relations. 6. _____ Type(s) of indirect functional behavior assessment. 7. ______ Recording is open ended. 8. ______ Data are collected for several days and then analyzed for patterns across time periods. 9. ______ May best be used as a means of collecting preliminary information. 10._____ Asks informants to estimate the extent to which behavior occurs under specified conditions.

Short Answer/Essay

1. What does a functional behavior assessment (FBA) allow a practitioner to do or accomplish?

2. Why does the topography of the behavior reveal rather limited information about the conditions that account for the behavior?

3. Why is it important to identify the conditions that account for a behavior rather than just the topography?

4. What are two things that can be changed and/or eliminated by altering the antecedent(s) for problem behavior?

5. If a FBA identifies the source of reinforcement to be eliminated for the problem behavior, what was the strategic approach used?

6. Why is it important to understand why a behavior occurs before how it can be changed?

7. Illustrate an example of how treating a problem behavior before understanding its function can be problematic.

8. Describe at least two benefits of using a FBA.

9. What does the functional analysis method allow practitioners to do?

10. Why is a functional analysis sometimes referred to as an analog?

11. Discuss the advantages and limitations of a functional analysis.

Chapter 25: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. The formal properties of language involve the: A. cause of the verbal response B. topography of the verbal response C. unseen forces of verbal language D. language properties are not formal.

2. The functional properties of language involve: A. causes of the verbal response B. topography of the verbal response C. language properties do not have functional components. D. unobservable psychic antecedents.

3. Which statement is not a reason for the slow appreciation of Skinner’s work; Verbal Behavior? A. it was met with immediate challenges from the field of linguistics and psycholinguistics. B. Skinner not responding to Norm Chomsky’s negative review. C. lack of research and data supporting his theory. D. Disinterest and negative reactions from the field of behavior analysis. E. All of these were reasons for the slow appreciation of Verbal Analysis.

4. A mand is a type of verbal operant in which a speaker: A. differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others. B. asks for (or states, demands, implies, etc.) what he needs or wants C. repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker. D. names things and actions that the speaker has direct contact with through any of the sense modes.

5. An intraverbal response is a type of verbal operant in which a speaker: A. differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others. B. asks for (or states, demands, implies, etc.) what he needs or wants C. repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker. D. names things and actions that the speaker has direct contact with through any of the sense modes.

6. An tact is a type of verbal operant in which a speaker: A. differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others. B. asks for (or states, demands, implies, etc.) what he needs or wants C. repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker. D. names things and actions that the speaker has direct contact with through any of the sense modes.

True/False

1. _____ Formal properties of language involve the topography of the verbal response whereas the functional properties involve the causes of the response.
2. _____ Verbal behavior makes a clear distinction between the behavior of the speaker and that of the listener.
3. _____ Public accompaniment occurs when two public stimuli occur together.
4. _____ The tact repertoire is extensive and often the primary focus of many language programs.
5. _____ The textual operant has point-to-point correspondence but not formal similarity between the stimulus and the response product.

Matching

Choose the corresponding answer(s) for each of the following statements. Answers may be used once, several times, or not at all.

A. Mand B. Tact C. Echoic D. Copying a Text E. Intraverbal F. Textual G. Transcription

1_____ A type of verbal behavior in which a written verbal stimulus has point- to-point correspondence and formal similarity with a written verbal response.

2_____ A type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others.

3_____ Behavior of reading, without any implications that the reader understands what is being read.

4_____ Writing and spelling words that are spoken.

5_____ A verbal operant in which a speaker asks for (or states, demands, implies, etc.) what he needs or wants

6_____ A type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker.

7_____ A type of verbal operant in which a speaker names things and actions that the speaker has direct contact with through any of the sense modes.

Short Essay

1. Discuss some of the variables associated with slow appreciation of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.

2. Define and discuss the term “autoclitic relation.”

Chapter 26: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is NOT a part of a contingency contract? a. A description of the reward b. A method of recording whether or not the learner has engaged in the required task c. A description of the required task d. A description of when tokens will be exchanged for backup reinforcers

2. The success of contingency contracts is probably due to: a. Positive reinforcement that results from the rewards provided b. Rule-governed behavior c. Response prompting d. All of these are things that factor into the success of contingency contracts.

3. In a token economy, the tokens: a. Should be a highly desirable item b. Should be something learners can easily find in other places (to aid with generalization of the token economy in other settings) c. Are generalized, conditioned reinforcers that are exchanged for backup reinforcers d. All of the above

4. When setting up a token economy: a. One should define a large number of behaviors for which tokens will be delivered so that the economy has the broadest application. b. One must be certain that the learners possess the prerequisite skills for any target behaviors. c. The same criteria should apply to all learners in the environment. d. All of the above

5. When implementing a token economy, what consideration should be made in determining the ratio of exchange? a. The initial ratio between the number of tokens earned and the price of backup items should be small. b. The initial ratio between the number of tokens earned and the price of backup items should be large. c. As token earning increases, the cost of backup items should decrease. d. If token earning decreases, the cost of backup items should increase.

6. A method for withdrawing a token system is: a. Gradually increase the number of responses required to earn a token b. Gradually decrease the length of time the token economy is in effect c. Gradually make more of activities and privileges used as backup items be those found in the untrained setting d. Increase the price of desirable items and keep the price of undesirable items low e. Gradually move from concrete tokens (such as poker chips) to something less visible (such as a point card the learner carries wit him/her f. All of these are methods for withdrawing a token system g. None of these methods should be used. Once implemented, a token system should not be withdrawn.

7. A group contingency is useful when: a. A practitioner wishes to change a large number of disruptive behaviors b. A practitioner suspects it will take a long time to change a behavior c. A practitioner fears that learners may place undue pressure on their peers d. A group contingency is useful under all these conditions

8. A teacher uses a group contingency with her students. She states the following rule: If everyone gets 100% on their spelling test this week, I will turn cartwheels down the hall for you.” What type of group contingency is this? a. Independent group contingency b. Dependent group contingency c. Interdependent group contingency

9. A parent says to his/her children: For anyone who earns all As on his/her report card, I will pay you $50 at the end of the semester. What type of group contingency is this? a. Independent group contingency b. Dependent group contingency c. Interdependent group contingency

10. A teacher says: “Everyone, you have math homework tonight. Tomorrow, I will draw a name from a hat. If that person has completed his/her homework and remembered to bring it back to school, everyone will get extra recess.” What type of group contingency is this? a. Independent group contingency b. Dependent group contingency c. Interdependent group contingency

11. Problems with scapegoating in group contingencies can be avoided if: a. The behavior analyst sets the criteria low b. Delivering reinforcers, even if they weren’t earned c. Making the contingency elements random d. All of the above

12. When selecting the performance criteria for a group contingency: a. It is important to consider the initial performance of the group; low performers may respond differentially to criteria as compared to high performers b. The criteria should always be set at the current mean performance of the group c. The criteria should always be set just below the current mean performance of the group d. The criteria should always be set just above the current mean performance of the group

13. When evaluating a group contingency, one must: a. Observe both individual and group performance b. Be mindful of potential saboteurs c. Be mindful of potential scapegoating d. All of the above

Matching

Match the following terms to the correct description:

A. Independent group contingency B. Dependent group contingency C. Interdependent group contingency

A contingency is presented to all members of a group, but reinforcement is delivered only to those individuals who meet the criterion

All of the individuals in the group must meet the criterion for the reinforcer to be delivered

The reinforcer for the group is provided if a certain individual or small group of students meets the criterion

True/False

1. When writing a contingency contract, it is okay for the contract to be a verbal agreement and not written down anywhere.

2. Contingency contracts are often combined with other procedures.

3. Contingency contracts are most effective in school settings. Their application in other settings is somewhat limited.

4. A contract you write with yourself is a valid form of contingency contracting.

5. Contingency contracts should be stored in a visible place.

6. The effectiveness of a token as a reinforcer depends largely on the variety of backup reinforcers for which they can be exchanged.

7. One should avoid combining token systems with other procedures, such as level systems. The procedure becomes too complicated and cumbersome to be effective when one does this.

8. Tokens should be delivered at the end of the day rather than immediately following a target behavior. This teaches children to delay reinforcement.

9. Initially, token stores should be open frequently.

10. If set up correctly, a group contingency can facilitate positive social interactions with peers.

Short Answer/Essay

1. When describing the task in a contingency contract, what are the 4 important things to include in the description?

2. Describe a situation for which a contingency contract might be useful. Write a sample contract that includes all the necessary components.

3. You are consulting with a family. The parents are having difficulty managing their 10-year-old daughter’s behavior. You recommend that they implement a contingency contract with their daughter. Describe the process you would go through with the family to help them develop the contingency contract.

4. Explain what a level system is and how it can be used with a token economy.

5. When a learner doesn’t earn tokens or tests the system, how should the behavior analyst handle the situation?

6. If you decide to include a response cost component into a token economy, name at least 3 things you should consider.

7. Name and explain at least 3 management issues you must consider when implementing a token economy.

8. An interdependent group contingency can be implemented in at least 3 different ways. Describe at least 2 of them and give a novel example of each.

9. Once you have decided to use a group contingency, how would you determine which type to use (independent, dependent, interdependent)?

Chapter 27 Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. Skinner was the first to apply the philosophy and theory of radical behaviorism to self control and defined this as a two-response phenomenon involving:

A. a controlling response B. a control response C. a controlled response D. A & B E. A & C

2. Self-management is best defined as the

A. Personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a desired change in behavior B. Personal application of behavior change tactics that produces an increase in a desired behavior(s) C. Personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a decrease in a desired behavior(s) D. Application of behavior change tactics that causes changes to a particular behavior

3. Self-management can help individuals to:

A. Accomplish difficult tasks B. Break bad habits & replace with good ones C. Live a more effective & efficient daily life D. Achieve personal goals E. All of the above

4. Advantages of self-management include:

A. Promoting the generalization & maintenance of behavior change B. Eliminating work for teachers and parents to do with students/children C. External change agents will always target all instances of the behavior D. A small repertoire of self-management skills can control many behaviors E. A & B F. A & D G. B & D

5. Which of the following is (are) antecedent based self-management tactics?

A. Removing materials for a desired behavior B. Performing the final steps of a behavior chain C. Providing response prompts D. All of the above

6. This is a procedure whereby a person observes his/her behavior systematically & records the occurrence of nonoccurrence of a target behavior.

A. Self-evaluation B. Self-monitoring C. Habit reversal D. Self-instruction

7. Suggestions for making self-monitoring effective include:

A. Self-monitor the most important dimension of the behavior B. Self-monitor only one aspect of the target behavior C. Self-monitor only when really necessary D. Never provide supplementary cues or prompts E. All of the above

8. Self-administered consequences that increase behavior include:

A. Self-management analogs of positive reinforcement B. Self-management analogs of positive punishment C. Self-management analogs of negative reinforcement D. Self-management analogs of negative punishment E. A & C only F. B & D only G. All of the above

9. Recommendations for self-administered consequences include:

A. Keep it simple B. Select small, easy to deliver consequences C. Set a meaningful, but easy-to-meet criterion for reinforcement D. All of the above

10. Self-generated verbal responses, covert or overt, that functions as response prompts for a desire behavior is referred to as:

A. Habit reversal B. Massed practice C. Self-instruction D. Self directed systematic desensitization

11. Performing an undesired behavior over and over again with the intention to decrease the future frequency of the target behavior.

A. Habit reversal B. Massed practice C. Self-instruction D. Self directed systematic desensitization

True/False

8. TRUE or FALSE. A desired change in the target behavior must occur for self-management to be demonstrated.

9. TRUE or FALSE. The term self-control can and should be used interchangeably with the term self-management because the two are synonymous.

10. TRUE or FALSE. Antecedent-based self-management tactics involve the manipulation of events of stimuli antecedent to the target behavior.

11. TRUE or FALSE. Manipulating motivating operations involves behaving in a way that creates a certain state of motivation that, in turn increases (or decreases as desired) the subsequent frequency of the target behavior.

12. TRUE or FALSE. Self-monitoring is a tactic that was originally conceived as a method of instructional assessment.

13. TRUE or FALSE. Self-evaluation involves the comparison of a person’s performance by himself/herself with goals or standards of other individuals.

Short Answer/Essay

1. State and discuss/illustrate two antecedent-based self-management tactics. 2. What is the difference between self-monitoring and self-monitoring with self-evaluation? 3. List and briefly discuss (e.g. a rationale) recommended steps for conducting an effective self-management program. 4. State and discuss/illustrate three guidelines for promoting the success and effectiveness of self-monitoring.

Chapter 28: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

12. This is the extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that is different from the instructional setting.

A. Setting/situation maintenance B. Response generalization C. Setting/situation generalization D. Response maintenance

13. This is the extent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention responsible for the behavior’s initial appearance in the learner’s repertoire has been terminated.

A. Setting/situation maintenance B. Response generalization C. Setting/situation generalization D. Response maintenance

14. This is the extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target behavior.

A. Setting/situation maintenance B. Response generalization C. Setting/situation generalization D. Response maintenance

15. This is a process by which a behavior that was initially selected and shaped under one set of conditions is recruited by a different set of contingencies and takes on a new function in a person’s repertoire.

A. Contingency adduction B. Stimulus equivalence C. Faulty stimulus control D. Overgeneralization

16. One strategy for promoting generalized behavior change is to teach the full range of relevant stimulus conditions and response requirements. In doing this, a practitioner may:

A. Teach sufficient stimulus examples B. Teach sufficient response examples C. Utilize general case analysis D. Use negative teaching examples E. All of the above F. None of the above

17. Making the instructional setting similar to the generalization setting involves:

A. Teaching self-management skills B. Teaching loosely C. Programming common stimuli D. B & C only E. A & C only F. All of the above

18. The general rule for teaching sufficient stimulus examples is:

A. The less examples used during instruction, it is more likely the learner will respond correctly to untrained examples or situation. B. The more examples used during instruction, it is more likely the learner will respond correctly to untrained examples or situation. C. The more examples used during instruction, it is less likely the learner will respond correctly to untrained examples or situation. D. The less examples used during instruction, it is less likely the learner will respond correctly to untrained examples or situation.

19. The success of using delayed rewards depends on:

A. The indiscriminability of the contingency. B. The learner understanding the relation between emitting the target behavior at an earlier time and receiving a reward later. C. The person delivering the reward. D. A and B only E. A and C only F. All of the above

20. Generalization across subjects is also referred to as:

A. Vicarious reinforcement B. Ripple effect C. Spillover effect D. All of the above E. None of the above

21. John was taught by his teacher to say, “Hello” when greeting people. Now when he meets people he not only says “hello,” but also says: “hi,” “good to see you” and “hey there.” John’s behavior change is an example of:

A. Setting/situation generalization B. Response generalization C. Setting/situation maintenance D. Response maintenance

True/False

1. TRUE or FALSE. The total environment where instruction occurs, including any aspects of the environment, planned or unplanned, that may influence the learner’s acquisition and generalization of the target behavior is referred to as the generalization setting. 2. TRUE or FALSE. Faulty stimulus control is when a target behavior comes under the restricted control of an irrelevant antecedent stimulus. 3. TRUE or FALSE. Contingency adduction is the emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations. 4. TRUE or FALSE. Changes in the behavior of people not directly treated by an intervention as a function of treatment contingencies applied to other people is known as generalization across subjects. 5. TRUE or FALSE. A generalization map involves the combination generalized treatment effects of across time, across settings, across behaviors, and across subjects. 6. TRUE or FALSE. A naturally occurring contingency includes any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) designed and implemented by a behavior analyst or practitioner to achieve acquisition, maintenance, and/or generalization of a targeted behavior change. 7. TRUE or FALSE. An indiscriminable is a contingency in which the learner can discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement. 8. TRUE or FALSE. CRF should only be utilized during initial acquisition of a skill for a learner. 9. TRUE or FALSE. A general case analysis is a systematic method for selecting teaching examples that represent the full range of stimulus variations and response requirements in the generalization setting. 10. TRUE or FALSE. The ripple effect and spillover effect refer to generalization across settings for an individual subject or participant.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Name and discuss the importance of the three major types of generalized behavior change. 2. List and discuss two potential advantages/benefits of programming common stimuli. 3. A number of suggestions for teaching loosely were made by Baer (1999). Name five of these recommendations for teaching loosely and provide a rationale as to why each suggestion may be pertinent to a learner’s performance of a target behavior(s). 4. When teaching sufficient stimulus examples, the actual number of examples needed varies as a function of a number of factors. List and discuss three of these factors.

Chapter 29: Test Questions

Multiple Choice

1. When considering what is worth doing, as far as an intervention is concerned, what is/are some important point(s) to consider? A. Whether the goals of intervention are closely aligned to staff goals. B. Whether the costs of implementing the intervention are balanced by the potential benefits to the client. C. Whether staff are motivated to do the intervention. D. Whether you are being paid enough to do the job.

2. Sometimes, a client is engaging in such significant problem behavior that the practitioner may feel the need to act quickly and implement an intervention that will result in rapid reductions of problem behavior. This may be acceptable in some situations, but one must guard against compromising full consideration of the long-term ramifications of that decision for expediency. In other words, the practitioner must guard against adopting: A. Lapses in judgment B. Being swayed by others too much C. “Situational ethics” D. Over-cautiousness

3. Professional standards are: A. Written guidelines and rules that give direction for conducting practice B. Provided by local boards C. Equivalent to “position statements” D. All of the above

4. Which of the following is NOT a right to effective behavioral treatment, as outlined by the Association for Behavior Analysis in 1989? A. The right to a therapeutic environment B. The right to treatment by a competent behavior analyst C. The right to the most effective treatment procedures available D. The right to treatments based on positive reinforcement

5. Which of the following people is practicing within his/her area of competence? E. José was trained as a behavior analyst at his local university. His training consisted primarily of working with children with autism. He is currently practicing behavior analysis in an adult facility for adults with mental retardation. F. Sally was trained as a behavior analyst working in organizational behavior management. Recently, she was offered and accepted a job as a behavior consultant in a local school district. G. Shu Lin was trained in experimental analysis of behavior. She examined canabanoids and how they interact with prenatal food restriction to affect choice making responding amongst different food alternatives. She was recently asked to consult on the food refusal behavior of a young child at risk for failure to thrive. H. Rahul earned his doctorate in special education and is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. His doctoral studies focused on the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. He has worked with children and adults, ages 3 to 35 years. He was recently hired to serve as a behavior specialist in his local school district.

1. Informed consent requires (mark all that apply): A. Explicit permission before any assessment or treatment begins. B. Full disclosure of the assessment and treatment procedures. C. That the person has the capacity to decide. D. Voluntary consent.

2. When an individual is deemed as incapacitated and cannot provide informed consent (mark all that apply): A. One may proceed with assessment or intervention without obtaining consent. B. Consent may be obtained from a surrogate or guardian. C. Consent may be obtained from staff with whom the individual works. D. The courts may appoint someone who can provide consent.

3. Dave received a referral for behavioral treatment of an individual’s self-injurious behavior. The individual has profound mental disabilities and is nonverbal. The staff who works with the client stated that the behavior emerged rather suddenly about a month ago, and has been getting increasingly worse. The staff haven’t attempted any systematic intervention for the behavior yet because they’ve been taken by such surprise by it. What should Dave do? A. Proceed directly to behavioral intervention without obtaining consent because the behavior is self-injurious. B. Investigate whether the problem might have a medical cause by determining if a medical evaluation has been done recently. C. Refer the individual to another therapist for talk therapy, since it is wise to attempt solving the problem through other disciplines first. D. Implement a punishment procedure to immediately suppress the self-injurious behavior. It is unlikely that reinforcement-based interventions will be successful.

4. On what two sources should behavior analysts base their practices? (Mark 2) A. Peer-reviewed reports in reputable journals B. Direct and frequent measures of behavior C. Personal accounts of successful interventions presented at non-scientific conferences D. Television infomercials (e.g., Hooked on Phonics)

True/False

1. “Ethics” is a fluid concept in that what is “right” and “wrong” changes over time according to cultural shifts.
2. Some practices may be legal but unethical.
3. Good behavior analysts follow the Golden Rule.
4. Major violations of professional codes of conduct typically result in being “frowned on” by an organization but rarely result in expulsion from the organization or revocation of licenses.
5. It is acceptable to state that you have a license that you do not possess if you feel it will make you more credible with a family or client with whom you are working.
6. There are some occasions where it is appropriate to proceed with treatment in the absence of consent.
7. Behavior analysts are especially at risk for conflicts of interest because they frequently provide treatment in individuals’ homes and because they visit clients and families frequently.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Explain what it means to be “self-regulating” in relation to ethics. What does one need to do to be self-regulating?
2. Name and explain at least 4 ways an individual can maintain and expand professional competence.
3. Explain the factors that go into making a determination as to whether an individual has the capacity to make an informed decision.
4. When informing an individual about a proposed treatment, what are the salient aspects of treatment that should be shared with that person?
5. What are at least 2 questions you should ask yourself to identify whether or not you treat clients with dignity?
6. What factors should you consider when trying to determine whether a proposed intervention is likely to be successful? Name at least 4.

Answer Key

Chapter 1
Multiple Choice

1. A 2. A, B, C, A, C, B, B, C, A, B 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. D 10. B

True/False

1. True 2. True 3. FALSE. The highest level of scientific understanding is control, and when functional or causal relationships are able to be demonstrated. 4. FALSE. Determinism is the assumption upon which science is predicted, that the universe is a lawful and orderly place, and events occur as the result of other events. 5. True 6. FALSE. Psychology in the early 1900’s was dominated with the study of consciousness, images, and other mental processes. 7. True

Short Answer/Essay

1. Answers should include some variation of the following response: there are three levels of understanding within science: prediction, description, and control. Each level of understanding contributes to the overall knowledge base within a given field. Description is the level of science involving the collection of facts about observed events that can be quantified, classified, & examined for possible relations with other know facts. Description often suggests hypotheses or questions for additional research. Prediction is the relative probability that when one event occurs, another event will or will not occur. Prediction is primarily based on repeated observation revealing relationships between various events. Prediction demonstrates correlation between events, and enables preparation. Control is the highest level of scientific understanding in which functional relations can be derived. The overarching purpose/goal of science is to achieve a thorough understanding of the phenomenon under investigation by seeking to discover real truths about the phenomenon.

2. Answers should include the attitudes of science: Determinism, Empiricism, Experimentation, Replication, Parsimony, and Philosophic doubt as well as a brief definition for each of the attitudes.

3. Answers will vary. Answers should include information about a functional relation such as: A functional relation is only achieved through control and involves a specific change in one event (dependent variable), that can reliably be produced by specific manipulations of another event (independent variable, and the change in the dependent variable was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors (confounding variables). In addition, answers should include an example of a functional relation for a human organism.

4. Answers should include each of the following defining characteristics of behavior analysis: Applied, Behavioral, Analytic, Technological, Conceptual, Effective, and Generality. Answers should include a brief definition of each of these characteristics.

5. Answers will vary. Answers should include a brief description of radical behaviorism, mentalism, methodological behaviorism, and structuralism at minimum. Learners may also include explanations of Watsonion psychology or S-R psychology and behavior as it was viewed in the early 1900’s. Answers should elaborate on each of the explanations of behavior by comparing and contrasting and/or providing concrete examples of how an individual with this philosophy would view behavior.

Chapter 2 Multiple Choice

1. C 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. D

True/False

1. TRUE 2. FALSE, Time-out and response cost are not examples of basic principles, but are examples of behavior-change tactics 3. TRUE 4. TRUE 5. FALSE, Extinction is not defined as removing a preferred item, but as withholding reinforcement for a previously reinforced response the effect of which is a gradual decrease in the occurrence of the behavior.

Matching

1. C 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. B

Short Answer/Essay

1. A response is a specific instance of behavior. Behavior usually refers to a larger set or class of responses that share certain topographical dimensions or functions. Examples will vary.

2. Two basic effects stimulus changes have on behavior (a) An immediate but temporary effect of increasing or decreasing the current frequency of the behavior and/or, (b) A delayed but relatively permanent effect in terms of the frequency of that type of behavior in the future

Fill-ins 3. A. Positive Reinforcement 4. B. Positive Punishment 5. C. Negative Reinforcement 6. D. Negative Punishment

7. Antecedent, behavior, consequence

8. A history of reinforcement is a unique set of experiences each individual accumulates over his or her lifetime. The history of reinforcement culminates into a unique repertoire of responses that have been selected, shaped, and maintained. Individual differences in responding to current stimulus conditions can be analyzed in terms of each individual’s unique history of reinforcement and repertoire. Individuals also present “varying sensitivities” to stimuli and differences in response mechanisms which also be taken into account when discussing individual differences.

9. Ontogeny describes how selection by consequences operates during the lifetime of an individual organism and is considered a “conceptual parallel” to Darwin’s natural selection (phylogeny).

10. Similarity both the operations, positive and negative reinforcement share the same effect on behavior, which is an increase. A difference between the operations positive and negative reinforcement is in the type of stimulus change that accompanies each operation (i.e., positive reinforcement = present or increase intensity of stimulus; negative reinforcement = withdraw or decrease intensity of stimulus).

11. Similarity both the operations, positive and negative punishment share the same effect on behavior, which is a decrease. A difference between the operations positive and negative punishment is in the type of stimulus change that accompanies each operation (i.e., positive punishment = present or increase intensity of stimulus; negative punishment = withdraw or decrease intensity of stimulus).

12. A principle of behavior (e.g., positive reinforcement) is a description of a functional relationship between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables that has thorough generality across organisms, species, settings, and behaviors. A behavior-change tactic (e.g., time-out from positive reinforcement; differential reinforcement of other behavior [DRO]) is technologically consistent method for changing behavior that has been derived from one or more basic principles of behavior.

13. Motivating operations alter the current value of stimulus changes as reinforcement or punishment. For example, an increase in sodium intake may make water more effective as reinforcement.

14. Stimulus control refers to the differential rates of operant responding observed in the presence or absence of antecedent stimuli. In operant conditioning, the antecedent stimuli acquire the ability to control operant behavior by having been paired with certain consequences in the past. For example, seeing a red stop light may occasion stepping on the brake because in the past stepping on the brakes in the presence of a red stop light has either (a) avoided accidents and/or (b) presented a safe stop.

Chapter 3
Multiple Choice

1. A
2. D
3. C
4. D
5. A
6. D
7. B
8. B
9. A
10. B
11. A

True / False

1. True.

2. False. A topographical definition classifies behavior in terms of the shape or form or the behavior.

3. False. The belief that individuals with disabilities should be physically and socially integrated into society to the maximum extent possible is called normalization.

4. True.

5. False. An ecological assessment provides descriptive data about the person’s environment but does not address the basic purpose of behavioral assessment.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Benefits of interviews include generating list of potential behaviors of concern, direct assessment of verbal behavior, identification of environmental antecedents and consequences, and to determine the extent to which significant others are willing and able to assist in intervention.

2. Standardized tests are administered in a specific way with consistent scoring procedures. Some tests assess behavior in relation to population norms. Many are indirect measures of behavior and most do not produce results that can be directly translated into target behavior. Curriculum-based assessments can be direct measure of academic behavior. Administration of standardized tests is often controlled by licensing requirements. Direct observation consists of direct and repeated observation of the client’s behavior in their natural environment. Observation requires the full attention of the observer on the person of interest for a specified period of time. Direct observation yields a descriptive, temporally sequenced account of antecedents, behavior, and consequences. Observations contain descriptions of target behaviors that can be used for intervention.

3. Reactivity refers to the effects of an assessment procedure on the behavior being assessed. It is more likely when observations are obtrusive and the person is aware of the observation. The presence of the observer in the setting is a potential source of reactivity. Unobtrusive observation procedures reduce the likelihood of reactivity. Behavior analysts should use observation methods that are as unobtrusive as possible. Repeating observations reduces the effects of reactivity. Effects of reactivity should be taken into account when interpreting data.

4. Habilitation is the degree to which a client’s repertoire maximizes short and long term reinforcers and minimizes short and long term punishers for that person and for others. Behavior analysts can use this principle to guide the selection of target behavior by prioritizing behavior that will increase a client’s access to reinforcers and decrease their exposure to punishers. The behavior analyst must try to identify behavior that will be the most useful to the client.

5. Normalization refers to the use of progressively more typical environments, expectations, and procedures to develop behavior in clients that is as close to the cultural norm as possible. It is a philosophy rather than a specific technique. Normalization impacts how behavior analysts select behavior and interventions. Age and setting appropriate behavior and interventions should be selected and outcomes should focus on the normalization of the client’s experience in relation to their community. This may result in different behavior or interventions being selected than would be chosen in a clinical environment.

6. Ethical considerations for the behavior analyst include whether they have the right to intervene, who has the authority to grant permission for assessment and intervention, whether that permission has been granted, whether the target behavior is socially valid, effects on the client and stakeholders of intervention, and whether or not the client’s functional needs will be met through intervention.

7. Observable and measurable terms are beneficial because they promote agreement among practitioners and stakeholders regarding the target behavior, the nature of the intervention, the replacement behavior, and the environmental variables related to the behavior. This agreement promotes greater understanding and can build consensus in relation to identifying target behaviors, determining outcomes, and evaluating progress towards those outcomes.

8. If a problem behavior is to be eliminated or reduced, the practitioner must identify an adaptive replacement behavior and develop contingencies in the intervention plan to ensure the new behavior is learned. This is important because problem behavior serves a function for the client and to eliminate the behavior without replacing it means that access to reinforcement or escape from punishers will be denied.

9. A general goal can result in the focus of intervention being placed on related and indirect behaviors that are not really the intended outcomes of the intervention. A more specific outcome goal should be used that addresses the specific, observable behavior which, when mastered, will result in the more global goal being achieved. For example, a general goal of on-task behavior can be achieved by directly targeting attention to materials, task completion, and remaining seated.

10. A behavior cusp is a behavior that exposes the person to new environments, specifically to new reinforcers and punishers, new responses, new stimulus controls, and new communities of maintaining or destructive contingencies. For example, learning to read. A pivotal behavior is a behavior that produces corresponding modifications or co-variations in other adaptive, untrained behaviors. For example, attending behavior.

Including clients, family, and/or staff in the goal determination process can minimize and resolve conflicts in the priorities of different stakeholders. Active participation can avoid and resolve goal conflicts by increasing communication and awareness of assessment outcomes. A process that allows each participant to provide input on the merits of potential goals or target behavior can often result.
Chapter 4
Multiple Choice

1. B
2. D
3. A
4. B
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. B
9. D
10. C
11. B

True/False

1. FALSE. Measurement is the process of applying quantitative labels to events.
2. TRUE.
3. TRUE.
4. FALSE. The amount of time that elapses between two consecutive instances of a response class is called interresponse time.
5. TRUE.

Matching

1. e 2. a 3. h 4. b 5. d 6. j 7. f 8. i 9. g 10. c

Short Answer/Essay

1. Answer should include the following: to obtain answers to questions about the existence and nature of functional relations between socially significant behavior and environment variables.

2. Answer should include some of the following: optimizing effectiveness, verify the legitimacy of practices touted as “evidence-based”, identify treatments based on pseudoscience, fad, fashion, or ideology, be accountable to clients, consumers, employers, and society, or achieve ethical standards.

3. Answer should include the following: a variety of procedures for detecting and recording the number of times a behavior of interest is observed. Devices include wrist counter, digital counters abacus wrist and shoestring counters, masking tape, pennies, buttons, paper clips, and pocket calculators.

4. Answer should include the following: whole-interval recording divides the observation into a series of equal time intervals and at the end of each interval they record whether the target behavior occurred throughout the entire interview. Partial-interval recording divides the observation period into a series of equal time intervals and at the end of each interval they record whether the behavior occurred at any point during the interval.

5. Answer should include one of the following: comparing the relative efficiency of two or more treatments or instructional methods, assessing learner competence in acquiring a set of concepts, as a dependent measure of a specific skill.

6. Answer should include: topography which refers to the physical form or shape of a behavior and magnitude which refers to the force or intensity with which a response is emitted.

7. Answer should include: Duration is appropriate for behavior which occurs continuously over extended periods of time (e.g., play). It is also appropriate if the goal of intervention is to increase or decrease the length of time a target behavior occurs.

8. Answer should include: The procedures were developed because it is not possible or feasible to observe behavior continuously and therefore frequent, brief intervals for observation are more manageable.

9. Answer should include: The main advantage of momentary time sampling procedures is that the observer does not have to attend to the participant(s) or behavior continuously as they must with other measurement systems. They are only required to attend for a brief, specific moment in time.

10. Answer should include the following: The variability in data that exists because of the way that it is measured and examined. All time sampling procedures provide an estimate of the actual occurrence of behavior. The procedure used will effect the data collected.

11. Answer should include the following: Measurement by permanent product measures the impact of a behavior on the environment by examining a durable product that remains after the behavior is finished. It is not a specific procedure but refers to the time that the behavior is measured (i.e., after instead of during). Permanent products can be natural, like completed worksheets, or contrived, like video tape.
Chapter 5
Multiple Choice

1. C
2. D
3. B
4. C
5. A
6. C
7. B
8. D
9. D
10. A
11. D

True/False

1. TRUE
2. FALSE: Observers should receive systematic training prior to data collection.
3. FALSE: Observers should be naïve and should not receive feedback about the extent to which their data confirm or run counter to hypothesized results or treatment goals.
4. TRUE
5. FALSE: A mean of 80% agreement does not imply accuracy – IOA simply means that 2 or more observers agreed that the behavior occurred or did not occur. Accuracy must be evaluated against a true value.

Matching

1. B
2. C
3. D
4. A
5. F
6. A
7. E
8. C
9. D
10. B

Short Answer/Essay

1. Valid measurement requires the following elements: measuring directly socially significant target behaviors, measuring a dimensions of the target behavior relevant to the question or concern about the behavior, and ensuring that the data are representative of the behavior’s occurrence under conditions and during times that are most relevant to the question or concern about behavior. Validity is compromised when any of these elements are suspect.

2. Three threats to measurement validity in Applied Behavior Analysis include the following: when measurement is indirect, when the wrong dimension of the target behavior is measured, or when measurement is conducted in such a way that the data it produces are an artifact of actual events.

3. Three common causes of measurement artifacts include: discontinuous measurement, poorly scheduled measurement periods, and using insensitive or limiting measurement scales.

4. Factors that contribute to human measurement error: poorly designed measurement systems, inadequate observer training, and expectations about what the data should look like.

5. Ways to reduce the negative effects of a complex measurement system include: decrease the number of simultaneously observed individuals or behaviors, decrease the duration of observation sessions, increase the duration of time intervals. Consider requiring additional practice during observer training, establish a high criterion for mastery of the observational code, and provide frequent feedback to observers.

6. Observer skills include learning the following: definitions for each response class or event to be measured, a code or symbol for each variable, a common set of recording procedures, and a method for correcting mistakes.

7. Observer drift usually entails a shift in the observer’s interpretation of the definition of the target behavior from that used in training. The drift causes unintended changes in the way data are collected and may produce measurement error. Observer reactivity may also cause measurement errors, however these errors are the result of the observer’s awareness that others are evaluating the data.

8. Four purposes for conducting accuracy assessments: 1. To determine early on in an analysis whether the data are good enough to serve as the basis for making experimental or treatment decisions, 2. Enable the discovery and correction of specific instances of measurement error, 3. To reveal consistent patterns of measurement error, which should lead to the overall improvement of the measurement system, 4. To assure consumers that the data are accurate.

9. Calibrating measurement instruments entails comparing the data obtained by the measurement tool against a true value. It is important to calibrate a measurement instrument, human or mechanical device so that measures are more accurate. Calibration of timing devices such as a stopwatch or countdown timer could be made against a known standard such as the “atomic clock.”

10. Four benefits for calculating interobserver agreement (IOA): 1. IOA may be used as a basis for determining the competence of new observers, 2. IOA over the course of an experiment can assist in the detection of observer drift, 3. A high level of interobserver agreement increases the confidence that the definition of the target behavior was clear and unambiguous and the measurement system not too difficult, 4. Consistently high levels of IOA across multiple observers increases the confidence that variability in the data is not a function of which observers are collecting data

11. Interobserver agreement should be assessed during each condition and phase of a study and be distributed across days of the week, times of day, settings, and observers.

12. Researchers should obtain and report IOA at the same levels at which they report and discuss the results of their study.

13. More stringent and conservative methods of calculating IOA should be used over methods that are likely to overestimate actual agreement as a result of chance. In addition, the degree of behavior change revealed by the data should also be considered when determining an acceptable level of IOA.

Chapter 6
Multiple Choice

1. C
2. D
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. A
8. C
9. D
10. B
11. C
12. D
13. A

True/False

1. False. Graphs are considered an excellent tool for feedback and use during personal behavior management programs.
2. True.
3. False. You should not connect data points across condition change lines; when a significant span of time has passed without data collection; across discontinuities of time; if data were lost or destroyed; or if data represent follow-up or postcheck measurements.
4. True
5. True

Matching

1. B
2. F
3. A
4. D
5. E
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. B
10. D
11. E
12. A
13. C

Short Answer/Essay

1. A low, stable level of responding
2. Rapidly increasing, variable trend
3. Gradually increasing, stable trend
4. Unable to discuss trend or variability using a bar graph
5. The benefits of graphic displays over other displays of behavioral data include: Provides practitioner with immediate access to ongoing and dynamic behavior change; allows for the exploration of interesting variations in behavior; device to aid in the interpretation of behavior change; conservative method for determining the significance of behavior change; graphs and visual analyses encourage and enable independent judgments about behavior change; graphs can serve as an effective source of feedback in personal behavior management plans
6. The fundamental properties common to all behavioral data include level, trend, and variability
7. Strengths of using bar graphs include: Quick and easy comparison of performance across participants or conditions; useful for displaying and comparing discrete sets of data that are not related to one another by a common underlying dimension by which the horizontal axis can be scaled; provides visual summary of different conditions of an experiment (e.g., baseline/intervention for a group of participants) Limitations of using bar graphs include: Bar graph does not have distinct data points representing successive response measures through time; Unable to discuss variability or trends in data paths
8. Cumulative graphs are preferable when the total number of responses made over time is important; when progress toward a specific goal can be measured in cumulative units of behavior; when the graph is used as a source of feedback for the participant; when the target behavior can occur or not occur only once per observation session
9. It is important for Applied Behavior Analysts to maintain direct and continual contact with the behavior under investigation because behavior is a dynamic and on-going process; changes in the behavior under investigation/targeted for change forms the empirical basis for important decision making, for example, whether to continue with the current procedure, to try a different intervention, or to reinstitute a previous condition.

Chapter 7
Multiple Choice

1. A
2. B
3. D
4. D
5. C
6. C
7. D
8. C
9. A
10. D
11. B
12. D

True/False

1. False, although at least one subject is involved most studies involve more than one participant
2. False, Subjectivity is not warranted, a needed level of objectivity will result from collecting baseline data
3. True
4. True
5. True

Matching

1. D
2. A
3. V
4. D, V
5. D, V

Short Answer/Essay

1. Determinism, empiricism, experimentation, parsimony, philosophic doubt 2. Description: yields a collection of facts about observed events; Prediction: Observations result in the discovery that two or more events consistently co-vary; Experimental control: Highest level of understanding, achieved when a predictable change in behavior can be reliably produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the person’s environment. 3. Two defining features: (1) behavior is an individual phenomenon and (2) behavior is a continuous phenomenon; Two assumptions about the nature of behavior: (1) behavior is determined and (2) behavioral variability is extrinsic to the organism. 4. Two assumptions: behavioral variability is an intrinsic characteristic of the organism and behavioral variability is distributed randomly among individuals in any given population. The methodological implications of following these assumptions include: the time needed to investigate variability may be time better spent and the practice of averaging the performance of individual subjects within large groups attempting to “statistically” cancel out variability are both detrimental practices to a science of behavior. 5. Find the sources of variability and attempt to control those variables to better understand behavior. Identify new experimental questions about the nature of behavior. 6. Essential components of all experiments in ABA: at least one subject, at least one behavior, at least one setting, a system for measuring behavior and ongoing visual analysis of data, at least one treatment or intervention condition, manipulations of the independent variable so that its effects on the dependent variable, if any, can be detected (experimental design) 7. Student answers will vary. Student should identify a measurable and observable dependent variable and an independent variable able to be manipulated. 8. Steady state strategy requires repeatedly exposing a participant to a given condition while trying to eliminate or control extraneous influence on the behavior and obtaining a stable pattern of responding before introducing the new condition. 9. The purposes of establishing a baseline level of responding: use the subject’s performance in the absence of the independent variable as an objective basis for detecting the effects of the independent variable when introduced in the future. Provides the opportunity to look for and record environmental events that occur just before and just after the behavior (antecedent-behavior-consequent relations); provides valuable guidance in setting the initial criteria for reinforcement; provides a level of objective measurement. 10. Three components of experimental reasoning used in single-subject research designs: Prediction (stability of baseline responding over time), verification (demonstrating that the prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged has the independent variable not been introduced), replication (repeating independent variable manipulations conducted previously in the investigation and obtaining similar outcomes).

Chapter 8
Multiple Choice

1. D 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. D 7. C 8. A 9. D 10. B

True/False

1. True
2. False. Extended designs, such as an A-B-C-B-C-A-C-A-C-A-C multiple treatment reversal designs are most often not preplanned by the experimenter.
3. False. A reversal design would not be an effective element of an experiment investigating the effects of a variable that cannot be withdrawn once it has been presented (for example instruction).
4. True.
5. True.
6. False. An alternating treatments design can be used with unstable data.

Matching

1. C 2. A 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. E & F 9. B 10. C

Short Answer/Essay
1. Given the following experimental designs diagram an example of how it would be implemented. a. A-B-A

b. A-B-A-B

c. Alternating Treatments Design

d. Multiple Treatment Reversal Design

2. Given the following experimental designs describe the logic and how experimental control would be demonstrated. a. Reversal design Insert/Refer to Figure 8-2 with caption. Experimental control is demonstrated with each additional presentation and withdrawal that reproduces the previously observed effects on the behavior increases the likelihood that the behavior changes are the result of manipulating the independent variable. b. Alternating Treatments Design Insert/Refer to Figure 8-9. In an alternating treatments design, each successive data point for a specific treatment plays all three roles. It provides a basis for the prediction of future levels of responding under that treatment, it provides potential verification of the previous prediction of performance under that treatment, and the opportunity for replication of previous effects produced by that treatment.

3. Given the following experimental designs state an advantage and disadvantage. a. A-B-A Advantage: Most powerful single-subject design for demonstrating functional relationships Disadvantages: Cannot be used in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment variables that cannot be withdrawn; behaviors may not reverse to baseline levels (irreversibility); social, educational, and ethical concerns may not allow for the withdrawal of an effective treatment; sequence effects

b. Alternating Treatments Design Advantages: Does not require treatment withdrawal; allows for quick comparison of the relative effects of treatments; minimizes sequence effects; can be used with unstable data patterns; can be used to assess generalization of effects; intervention can begin immediately Disadvantages: susceptible to multiple treatment interference; rapid back-and-forth alternation of treatments does not reflect the way interventions are typically applied which may be viewed as artificial or undesirable

4. Given a research question describe an appropriate research design.

a. You are interested in the effects of contingent attention on students’ study behaviors. A-B-A-B reversal design would be appropriate
d. You are interested in comparing the effects of two distinctly different study session procedures on next session quiz scores. An alternating treatments design (study session 1 compared to study session 2 procedures) would be appropriate.
e. You are interested in the effects of response cost on students’ disruptive behaviors. An A-B-A-B reversal design would be appropriate if social, educational, and ethical considerations have been addressed.
5. Given a graph illustrating an experimental design identify the design and describe the next steps to demonstrate experimental control.

(a) A-B design - Reverse back to A and then, once the baseline state has been recaptured reintroduce B
[pic]

(b) A-B design - Reverse back to A and then, once the baseline state has been recaptured reintroduce B

(c) A-B-A-B reversal design. Continue replications if necessary.

(d) Alternating treatments design. Reintroduce each condition if necessary; however differential effects are shown for the condition represented by the square data path in comparison to all other data paths.

Chapter 9
Multiple Choice

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. A
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. C
11. D

True/False

1. TRUE.
2. FALSE. The possibility of co-variation between different behaviors is a limitation of a multiple baseline design.
3. TRUE.
4. FALSE. The fact that the behavior must already be in the participant’s repertoire is a limitation of the changing criterion design.
5. FALSE. Conducting a reversal phase in one or more tiers of a multiple baseline design can strengthen the demonstration of a functional relation.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Answer should include: multiple baseline across behaviors to evaluate effects of intervention on two or more different behaviors of the same participant; multiple baseline across settings to evaluate effects of intervention on the same behavior of the same participant in two or more different settings; and a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the same behavior of two or more different participants.
2. Answer should include: Experimental control is demonstrated when each behavior is changed when and only when the independent variable is applied to the new setting.
3. Answer should include: One condition, multiple probe design is effective for evaluating the effects of instruction on skill sequences in which it is highly unlikely that the participant’s performance on later steps of the sequence could improve without instruction or mastery of earlier steps. A second condition is when prolonged baseline measurement may prove reactive, impractical, or too costly.
4. Answer should include: Limitations include (a) having to wait too long to modify certain behaviors, (b) a tendency for baseline phases to contain too few data points and (c) the fact that baselines begun after the independent variable has been applied to earlier baselines can mask the interdependence of behaviors.
5. Answer should include: Two or more different behaviors for one participant are selected and baseline measurement for each behavior is conducted. After steady state responding is obtained in baseline, the independent variable is applied to one behavior while maintaining baseline conditions for the other(s). When steady state or criterion-level performance is reached for the first behavior, the independent variable is applied to the next behavior.
6. Answer should include: A multiple probe design is used to analyze the relationship between an independent variable and the acquisition of a successive approximation or a sequence of behaviors. Intermittent measures, or probes, are taken on all behaviors at beginning of experiment. Probes are then taken each time the participant has achieved mastery of one of the behaviors or skills in the sequence. Just prior to instruction on each behavior, a true baseline measure is taken until stability is achieved.
7. Answer should include: Baselines begun after the independent variable has been applied to previous behaviors, settings, or subjects cannot be used to verify predictions based on earlier tiers of the design. Only baselines begun while the earlier behavior is still under baseline conditions can be used to verify predictions made for earlier behaviors.
8. Answer should include: Three situations include when a planned reversal is not desired or possible, limited resources preclude a full-scale multiple baseline design, and a new behavior, setting, or subject appropriate for a multiple baseline analysis becomes available.
9. Answer should include: the length of the phases, the magnitude of the criterion changes, and the number of criterion changes.
10. Answer should include: First problem is that large changes may not permit the inclusion of a sufficient number of changes in the design because the terminal level of performance is reached sooner. The second problem is that criterion changes cannot be so large that they contradict good instructional practices. They changes must be detectable but achievable.

Chapter 10
Multiple Choice

1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. C 8. B 9. B 10. D

True/False

1. FALSE. Attempting to cancel out variability through statistical manipulation neither eliminates its presence in the data nor controls the variables responsible for it. 2. FALSE. The phrase control of behavior is technically inaccurate because the experimenter controls only some aspect of the subject’s environment. 3. TRUE. 4. TRUE. 5. FALSE. A study can demonstrate a functional relation between the independent variable and a socially important target behavior – and thus be significant from an applied perspective – and yet contribute little to the advancement of the field.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Answer should include: A focus on individual subject behavior has enabled behavior analysts to discover and refine effective interventions for a range of socially significant behavior. The most useful information about a treatment is how individuals who have come in contact with it are affected by it. Information on group performance averages does not provide useful information for developing behavior change interventions.

2. Answer should include: Individual subject designs attempt to identify sources of variability and either control or manipulated them as an independent variable. Data that contains a lot of variability is likely to indicate to the behavior analyst that more research is required to identify the sources of that variability. In group comparison designs, statistical manipulation is used to cancel out variability. Causes of variability are attributed to chance and are not identified through statistical treatments.

3. Answer should include: First, the majority of studies that have advanced the field of applied behavior analysis have used experimental designs that incorporated one or more of those tactics. Second, examination of isolated experimental tactics is one step in learning the assumptions and principles that guide selection and arrangement of those tactics into an effective experimental design for a particular research question.

4. Answer should include: Treatment drift occurs when the application of the independent variable during later stages of the experiment differs from the way the treatment as applied at the outset of the study. Treatment drift is a threat to the internal validity of a study. Low treatment integrity is a major source of confound in an experiment, making it difficult, or impossible, to interpret the results with confidence.

5. Answer should include: External validity refers to the degree to which a functional relation found reliable and socially valid in a given experiment will hold under different conditions. The generality of findings in applied behavior analysis research is assessed, established, and specified through replication of experiments, both direct and systematic. 6. Answer should include: A complete and precise operational definition is the first step to achieving a high level of treatment integrity. It provides the basis for training for those who will implement the intervention and those who will judge the level of treatment integrity obtained. Precise definitions are a requisite for meeting technological dimension of applied behavior analysis. Failure to provide a precise operational definition hampers dissemination and proper use of the intervention. Lack of one makes replication and validation of the experiment impossible. 7. Answer should include three of the following: Seeking consumer opinion through surveys, questionnaires, performance scales, or interviews; empirically assessing the performance of individuals judged to be highly competent and experimentally manipulating different levels of performance to determine socially valid outcomes; comparing participants’ performance to normative standards; using a standardized assessment tool; asking experts to evaluate participant performance; testing participants’ new behavior in the natural environment. 8. Answer should include: The use of normative samples compares participants’ performance to the performance of a normative sample group; consumer opinion of behavior change and treatments can be assessed through questionnaires or interviews; an expert in the field can be called upon to judge the social validity of a some behavior changes; a standardized test instrument can be used to assess a participant’s performance or behavior in a particular area; the real world test involves assessing a participant’s newly acquired level of performance in the natural environment to evaluate mastery and generalization of the behavior change. 9. Answer should include: First, applied behavior analysts are concerned with producing socially significant, not statistically significant change. If a problem is solved, you can see that in the data. If the change is so small or unclear that statistical treatment is necessary, the problem has not been solved. Second, visual analysis is well suited for identifying variables that produce strong, large, and reliable results. Less likely to produce Type I and Type II errors. Third, statistical methods remove or cancel out variability in the data. If there is a significant amount of variability, more analysis should be conducted as the answer to the problem is not yet clear. Fourth, statistical tests require the data to conform to predetermined criteria for analysis. This results in less flexibility in experimental design which is highly valued in applied behavior analysis. 10. Answer should include: A more complete analysis and conceptual understanding of the principles that underlie successful demonstrations of behavior change. The field’s concept of analytic has changed. Applied behavior analysis is now considered analytic when it makes convincing demonstrations of behavior change and when the behavior change methods make systematic and conceptual sense. It must now be clear why things have worked.

Chapter 11
Multiple Choice

1. D 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. F 9. C 10. D 11. C 12. A 13. C 14. A 15. A 16. C 17. D 18. B 19. C

True / False

1) True 2) True 3) False. Reinforcement should be delivered immediately upon the display of the target behavior. Waiting even 30 s can result in the reinforcer following some other behavior and not achieving the desired result. 4) True 5) False. Establishing operations change constantly. 6) False. Reinforcement has an effect on behavior whether or not the individual realizes it. 7) T 8) T

Short Answer/Essay

1) Answers will vary. In the circular argument, the two variables should both be effects and unable to be separated from one another so that one could be manipulated, to test the effect on the other. In the non-circular argument, one variable should one that can be manipulated in order to observe the effect on the other. The explanation for why one argument is circular and the other is not should revolve around these concepts.

2) Answers will vary but should include an EO, an SD, a target response, and a SR+. There should be an indication that future responding increases as well. The EO should be relevant to the SR+ selected (e.g., if food is the reinforcer, the EO should involve food deprivation).

3) This statement is self-contradictory because if a “reinforcement program” didn’t “work” (i.e., didn’t increase the target behavior), then the program wasn’t a reinforcement program. Reinforcement is defined by its effect on the target behavior. If the target behavior didn’t increase, the target behavior was not reinforced.

4) Reinforcement is arbitrary in the sense that any behavior that is followed closely in time by a reinforcer gets reinforced. It does not matter if the behavior is desirable or not or whether the delivery of reinforcement was programmed/intentional or not. Behaviors are selected (i.e., they continue to occur as functional behaviors) because they produce reinforcement.

5) Automatic reinforcement means that a behavior produces its own reinforcement, without another person to deliver it. An example is scratching your skin. The act of scratching produces stimulation that may be reinforcing to an individual.

6) This statement is false because a conditioned reinforcer is effective across a wide range of EO conditions. Many reinforcers function to reinforce a wide range of behaviors. A generalized reinforcer, however, does not depend upon a specific EO to be effective (like most other reinforcers).

7) A reinforcer assessment is a direct, data-based method of presenting one stimulus contingent upon a response and measuring the extent to which that response increases over time. A reinforcer assessment verifies whether or not a stimulus functions as a reinforcer. A preference assessment measure preference for stimuli, but does not verify whether these stimuli are actually reinforcers or not.

8) All of these reinforcer assessment methods involve evaluating whether the stimulus maintains responding and, therefore, serves as a reinforcer. They also all involve utilizing different schedules of reinforcement. In a concurrent schedules of reinforcement assessment, two schedules of reinforcement are in place at the same time. An individual’s response allocation among two different responses (each associated with a different schedule) are measured. In a mixed schedule of reinforcement, two different reinforcement schedules are in place at different times, and each as its own discriminative stimulus. Typically, one schedule is response dependent and the other is response independent, and responding under each schedule is measured. In a progressive-ration schedule of reinforcement, the requirements for earning reinforcement are systematically increased over time. At what point responding declines is measured.

Chapter 12
Multiple Choice

1. B 2. D 3. D 4. D 5. B 6. C

True/False

1. True 2. FALSE. This is an example of a conditioned negative reinforcer. 3. True 4. True 5. True

Short Answer/Essay

1. The primary difference between an escape contingency and an avoidance contingency is the presence and absence of the aversive stimulus prior to the occurrence of the response. In an escape contingency, the aversive stimulus is present prior to the response, which terminates the aversive stimulus (thus allowing the person to escape that stimulus). In an avoidance contingency, the aversive stimulus is looming but not present prior to the response. The occurrence of the response prevents the presentation of the aversive stimulus (thus allowing the person to avoid that stimulus).

2. Answers will vary. All answers should identify a clear establishing operation (EO; the presence of an aversive stimulus), discriminative stimulus (SD; a cue), observable response, and the termination of the EO.

3. Answers will vary. All answers should identify a clear establishing operation (EO; the threat of an aversive stimulus—it is important for the student to identify that the aversive stimulus is NOT present, however), discriminative stimulus (SD; a cue), observable response, and the termination of the EO.

4. Negative reinforcement can be defined as the termination, reduction, or postponement of a stimulus, contingent upon a response, which results in an increase in the future probability of that response.

5. Either of the following is correct: People often think that “negative” reinforcement is the opposite of “positive” reinforcement and, therefore, assume negative reinforcement means punishment. However, the terms “positive” and “negative” refer to the presentation and removal of stimuli rather than the “goodness” or “badness” of the stimulus.

People confuse negative reinforcement and punishment because they both involve the use of “aversive” stimuli. However, it is important to note that in negative reinforcement, the aversive stimulus is present prior to the occurrence of a target behavior (resulting in an increase in the behavior over time), whereas with punishment, the aversive stimulus follows the occurrence of a target behavior (resulting in a decrease in that behavior over time).

6. Positive and negative reinforcement are similar in that they both produce increases in future target behavior. Positive and negative reinforcement are different in that positive reinforcement involves the presentation of a desired stimulus following a target behavior, whereas negative reinforcement involves the termination of an aversive stimulus following a target behavior.

7. Negative reinforcement and punishment are similar in that they both involve aversive stimuli. However, for negative reinforcement, the aversive stimulus is present prior to the occurrence of the target behavior, and for punishment, the aversive stimulus follows the occurrence of problem behavior. In addition, negative reinforcement produces an increase in the future occurrence of the target behavior, whereas punishment produces a decrease in the future occurrence of the target behavior.

8. Answers will vary.

9. This statement means that the ethical concerns about negative reinforcement are not unique to negative reinforcement. Similar concerns also exist for positive reinforcement. Specifically, in both cases, an establishing operation must be in effect to motivate a person to engage in a response that will produce reinforcement. The establishing operation for positive reinforcement involves depriving the individual of desired stimuli in order to motivate the individual to engage in a behavior that will produce that desired stimulus. For example, assume that the presentation of food is a positive reinforcer for saying, “Can I have something to eat?” In order to motivate a person to ask for food, he/she must be hungry and, therefore, deprived of food. For negative reinforcement, the establishing operation involves the presence of an aversive stimulus in order to motivate the individual to engage in a behavior that will terminate that stimulus. For example, assume that the termination of task demands is a negative reinforcer for saying, “Can I have a break, please?” In order to motivate the person to ask for a break, task demands (the aversive stimulus) must be present as an antecedent condition.

10. Answers will vary. Unconditioned negative reinforcers must be something that is related to our inherited capacity to respond to them (e.g., painful stimuli), and conditioned negative reinforcers must be stimuli that were originally neutral events that acquired their effects through previous pairing with existing negative reinforcers.

Chapter 13
Multiple Choice

1. B
2. C
3. D
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. D
8. A
9. C
10. D

True/False

1. T
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. F

Matching

1. J
2. B
3. D
4. G
5. K
6. F
7. L
8. A
9. I
10. C
11. H
12. E

Short Answer/Essay

1. Fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement require that a certain, constant number of responses occur before a reinforcer is delivered. A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement is similar, except that the number of responses that must occur before a reinforcer is delivered varies around a mean number. Fixed interval schedules of reinforcement provide reinforcement for the first correct response following a fixed duration of time has elapsed. Variable interval schedules of reinforcement is the same, except that the time elapsed varies around a mean. In both cases, variable schedules of reinforcement produce the most consistent pattern of behavior, whereas fixed schedules usually produce a post-reinforcement pause (i.e., a time period during which no responding occurs). Interval schedules of reinforcement tend to produce lower overall rates of responding than ratio schedules of reinforcment.

2. A scallop effect often occurs with fixed interval schedules of reinforcement. Because the end of the interval is predictable, there is often little responding early in the interval. However, as the end of the interval nears, responding tends to increase to higher rates, peaking at the end of the interval. Following the end of the interval, responding again decreases to low levels until the end of the interval approaches again. On a cumulative graph, this results in a visual pattern that resembles a scallop.

3. Examples will vary but should be consistent with the definitions of fixed and variable ratio schedules. (Fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement require that a certain, constant number of responses occur before a reinforcer is delivered. A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement is similar, except that the number of responses that must occur before a reinforcer is delivered varies around a mean number.) Ratio strain is demonstrated when the ratio of required responses to reinforcement is changed quickly. The effect is that responding decreases.

Chapter 14
Multiple Choice 1. C 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. C

True/False

1. True 2. FALSE. Positive punishment has occurred when the presentation of an aversive stimulus decreases the occurrence of the behavior 3. True 4. True 5. True

Matching

1. C,B 2. A 3. B 4. F 5. B,C 6. D 7. B 8. E

Short Answer/Essay

1. Side effects included in the chapter include emotional and aggressive responses, escape and avoidance behaviors, behavioral contrast, may involve undesirable modeling, negative reinforcement of the punishing agents behavior.

2. When using punishment as a treatment intervention, the suggested procedural guidelines help ensure that the punishment is as effective as possible and that practitioners will apply punishment with optimal effectiveness while minimizing undesirable side effects and problems.

3. All behavior is functional. By understanding the function a behavior is serving, it allows the practitioner to identify alternative behaviors that will 1) get the same amount or “quality” of reinforcement as the problem behavior, and 2) requires the same or less amount of effort to access the reinforcement. During a punishment procedure, this alternative response should be identified and provided through contingent access.

4. Both positive practice and restitutional overcorrection are punishment procedures. Positive practice involves the learner repeating a correct form of the behavior or a behavior incompatible with the problem behavior, a specified number of times. Restitutional overcorrection the learner is required to repair the damage or return the environment to its original state and then to engage in additional behavior to bring the environment to a condition vastly better than it was in prior to the misbehavior.

5. Ethical concerns revolving around the use of punishment as a treatment intervention consists of the client’s right to safe and humane treatment, the professionals’ responsibility to adhere to the doctrine of the least restrictive alternative, and the client’s right to effective treatment.

Chapter 15
Multiple Choice

1. G 2. D 3. D 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. F 8. C 9. A 10. E

True False

1. True 2. False 3. False 4. True 5. False

Matching

1. C 2. G 3. D 4. A 5. I 6. H 7. B 8. E 9. J 10. F

Short Answer/Essay

1. Nonexclusion time-out is recommended because as a rule, practitioners are ethically bound to employ the most powerful, but least restrictive alternative when using punishment. In addition, exclusion time-out can result in increased problems with compliance, requires a greater level of out of class supervision and results in lost instructional time as compared to nonexclusion time-out.

2. With planned ignoring the practitioner removes social reinforcers contingent on the occurrence of a target behavior. If social reinforcers do not maintain the behavior, or if the practitioner cannot control the reinforcers the procedure will not be successful. In addition, if the behavior is maintained by the attention of others special procedures will need to be put in place to ensure that the behavior is not reinforced.

3. A time-out room is any confined space outside of the instructional setting. An advantage of a time-out room is that it can be a place of safety for the individual or others. In a time-out room the opportunity to acquire reinforcement is reduced substantially. If the room is properly set up the behavior that led to time-out should rapidly decrease thus decreasing the number of occasions in which time-out will be used. However, the disadvantages include the necessity to escort the individual to the time-out room. In addition, the individual is precluded from receiving any benefits of remaining in the instructional setting (at least listening to instruction). Finally, it may be difficult to stop the individual from engaging is self-stimulatory behaviors that may serve as reinforcers

4. In order for time-out to be effective the time-in setting must be reinforcing. The more reinforcing the time-in setting the more powerful the effects of time-out will be.

5. The answers will vary based on the method chosen. Answers should fully describe the procedure and fully describe how it will be implemented.

Chapter 16
Multiple Choice

1. E 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. D 7. D 8. A 9. B

True/False

1. FALSE. Antecedent variables include both SD’s and motivating operations (MO’s). 2. True 3. FALSE. An abolishing operation has value-altering effect in which a decrease in reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event occurs. 4. FALSE. Behavior-altering effects can include other dimensions of behavior other than just frequency. 5. True

Short Answer/Essay

1. Answers should include the terms value-altering effects and behavior-altering effects accompanied by a brief definition of each.

2. Answers will vary depending on the learner’s response. Answers should include a) a general definition for both UMO’s and CMO’s, b) how each of them is similar and different in the learner’s repertoire, and c) the various types of effect each one possesses.

3. Answers should include the three different types of conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s): Surrogate (CMO-S), Reflexive (CMO-R), and Trasitive (CMO-T). The answer should include some detail about how each of these is neutral prior to being paired with another MO or reinforcement or punishments. In addition, answers should expand by providing definitions of each type of CMO.

4. Answers will vary based on the learner’s response. Answers should focus and elaborate on one of the following topics: a) deprivation and satiation UMO’s, b) UMO’s relevant to sexual reinforcement, c) temperature changes, or d) painful stimulation.

5. Answers will vary based on the learner’s response. Answers should include some similarities and distinct differences in the properties and considerations of each. An example should be provided to directly illustrate the arguments.

Chapter 17
Multiple Choice

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. B
7. B
8. C
9. C
10. D
11. A
12. D
13. C

True/False

1. False. Operant and respondent stimulus control are not identical. While both involve antecedent stimuli evoking a response, there is a difference between the function of the discriminative stimulus for operant behavior and the conditioned stimulus for respondent conditioning. Discriminative stimuli acquire their controlling functions through association with stimulus change that occurs following the behavior. Conditioned stimuli acquire their controlling functions through associations with other antecedent stimuli that elicit behavior.
2. True
3. False. Sometimes stimulus generalization is an undesired effect of intervention. For example, a child who calls every male “daddy” is displaying undesired stimulus generalization.
4. True
5. True
6. True
7. False. Transfer of stimulus control from prompts to the natural stimuli is accomplished via prompt fading.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Motivating operations and discriminative stimuli are similar in the following ways: (1) they both occur before the behavior of interest, and (2) both events have evocative functions. Motivating operations are different from discriminative stimuli because an antecedent functions only as a discriminative stimulus when in its presence a specific response is reinforced and the same response does not produce reinforcement in the absence of that stimulus. A motivating operation may be present under both of these circumstances.
2. The stimulus generalization process requires two stimuli. The practitioner consistently reinforces the occurrence of a target response in the presence if one stimulus and does not provide reinforcement when the target response occurs in the presence of the other stimulus. Examples will vary, but they should adhere to this definition.
3. Answers will vary. However, answers should provide clear examples of stimulus discrimination across classes and stimulus generalization within the class. For example, balls of different shades of red are all “red” (stimulus generalization). However, a green ball would not be considered in the same class because it is a different color (stimulus discrimination).
4. Answers will vary but should include an A=B relation and a B=C relation—both of which are trained—and a test of A=C (an untrained relation) to identify whether stimulus equivalence has occurred.
5. Four ways to transfer stimulus control from prompts to natural stimuli are: Most-to least prompts, least-to-most prompts, time delay, and graduated guidance. In most-to-least prompts, one begins with the most intrusive prompt (physical guidance) and slowly fades back to least intrusive prompts (verbal prompts). In least-to-most prompts, one begins with the least intrusive prompt and, if correct performance does not occur, the next more intrusive prompt is implemented. With time delay, variations in the time interval between the presentation of the natural stimulus and the presentation of a response prompt occur. This delay can be constant or progressive. Graduated guidance consists of quickly fading physical prompts within the prompt itself. For example, a practitioner may begin to physically guide a person through a task, but slowly remove his/her physical guidance within the step as the person begins to complete the step independently.

Chapter 18
Multiple Choice 1. D 2. A 3. D 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. B

True/False 1. True 2. True 3. False. Once a model evokes an imitative behavior, that behavior comes into contact with contingencies of reinforcement. These new contingencies of reinforcement then become the controlling variable for the discriminated operant. 4. False. Some infants and children with developmental disabilities do not imitate and require imitation training. 5. False. The delayed behaviors may have similar topographies as the imitated behaviors, but occur under the control of different controlling variables. The relation between discriminative stimuli or motivating operations and delayed behaviors are functionally different form the relation between a model and an imitative behavior. 6. False. To maintain quick and active imitation training, practitioners should allow no more that a few seconds between opportunities to respond. 7. True

Short Answer/Essay

1. The five elements of Striefel’s (1974) imitation training program are: 1. Assessing and teaching if necessary, prerequisite skill for imitation training. 2. Selecting models for training. 3. Pretesting 4. Sequencing models for training 5. Performing imitation training.

2. If a person does the same action as a model, and the behavior comes into contact with reinforcement, then the behavior becomes a discriminated operant. If the person then displays this behavior in the presence of another model, it is not considered imitation, but a discriminated operant. If a model is displayed that is novel (meaning the individual has never observed this behavior before and has no history of reinforcement with that behavior), and a person then displays the same behavior, we can say imitation has occurred. The text describes at least two examples that illustrate this. First, if a guitarist hears a novel section of improvised music and then immediately reproduces it, imitation has occurred. However, if one guitarist says to another, “Listen to this. I want to teach you this.” The first guitarist demonstrates the new section of music. They practice until the second guitarist learns it. On stage the first guitarist plays the section of new music, and the second guitarist immediately follows by reproducing the same music, imitation has not occurred. Rather the second guitarist’s reproduction is the result of a discriminated operant (as a result of the reinforcement history).

3. The five elements are: 1. Assessing and teaching if necessary, prerequisite skill for imitation training. This is important because learners cannot learn if they do not attend to the presentation of the model. Therefore, it is often to teach prerequisite skills, such as, staying seated, looking at the teacher, keeping hands in lap, and looking at objects prior to beginning imitation training. 2. Selecting models for training. At least 25 behaviors to use as models should be selected. These should range from gross to fine motor movements. 3. Pretesting. The pretest may show that the learner imitates some models without training. One should pretest all models at least 3 times. If the learner can perform certain models a specified number of times, then the practitioner should advance to the next level of training. 4. Sequencing models for training. Practitioners should use pretest results to sequence the models for training, arranging them from easiest to most difficult. “Easiest” models are those that the learner performed correctly at least some times during pretesting, and “most difficult” models are those that the learner never performed correctly during pretesting. 5. Performing imitation training. Imitation training consists of four conditions: preassessment (where a short pretest is given before each training session), training (during which practitioners provide repeated presentations of a model and reinforces approximations and/or uses prompts to get the imitation to occur), post assessment (during which the practitioner presents 5 previously learned models and 3 newly learned models to assess learning), and probes for imitative behaviors (where the practitioner will use 5 nontrained, novel models to probe for occurrences of imitation).

Chapter 19
Multiple Choice

1. A 2. E 3. D 4. A 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. C 10. D

True/False

1. True 2. FALSE. This is an example of a shaping within a response topography. 3. True 4. True 5. True 6. FALSE. Prompts should be faded as quickly as possible. 7. FALSE. One should not continue. This will only serve to increase frustration. One should back up to the last successful step before proceeding. 8. FALSE. One should make each successive step gradual and not make large changes in criteria if one wants to be successful with shaping. 9. FALSE. One should proceed to the next step quickly and not reinforce a behavior too long. If one does, one risks making the behavior too well established and difficult to move to the next successive approximation. 10. True

Short Answer/Essay

1. The consultant should look at the trends in the data. If steady progress toward the terminal behavior is observed, then the care giver is probably increasing criteria for reinforcement at the correct pace. If a large number of errors is occurring, then the pace is probably too fast. If there appears to be a long period of time where the previously-reinforced response occurs each time the response criteria are increased, then the pace of increasing criteria is probably too slow.

2. It is important to consider the following: The behavior should already occur at some level, and the behavior should be a member of the targeted response class. A good behavior to start with in the shaping process might be laying down for a couple of seconds. It is in the dog’s repertoire and it is part of the targeted response class.

3. Answers will vary. However the diagrams should look similar to those shown in the PowerPoint slides. That is, at each step, the successive approximation should receive reinforcement and increase, and the previous step should be placed on extinction and decrease.

4. Answers will vary. However, the example given for shaping across response topographies should include different forms of related behaviors that are part of the terminal response. The example given for shaping within the response topography should maintain the same form of behavior throughout, but should change along some other dimension (e.g., duration or intensity of the behavior). The explanation for why the behaviors fit these categories should be aligned with these criteria also.

5. Shaping is the reinforcement of successive approximations to a terminal behavior.

6. Answers will vary but should consist of a behavior being required to become progressively more inappropriate in order to obtain reinforcement.

7. A successive approximation is an intermediate behavior that is either a prerequisite for the terminal behavior or a higher order member of the same response topography as the terminal behavior.

8. Answers will vary but should be consistent with the definitions of each of the following: topography (gradually changing the form of a behavior), frequency (gradually changing the number of responses per unit of time required), latency (gradually increasing or decreasing the time between the onset of an antecedent stimulus and the occurrence of the behavior), duration (gradually increasing or decreasing the total elapsed time for the occurrence of the behavior), and amplitude (gradually increasing or decreasing the magnitude of a response).

Chapter 20
Multiple Choice

1. B
2. A
3. A
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. B
8. B

True/False

1. FALSE. All behaviors in the chain except the first and last behaviors serve these two functions.
2. True.
3. FALSE. Behavioral chains are found in many, many aspects of every-day life.
4. True.
5. True.
6. FALSE. It is very common for task analyses to change after they have been written. In fact, it is recommended that they be adjusted as necessary if problems develop.
7. True.
8. FALSE. Both the single- and multiple-opportunity methods can be implemented multiple times. The key difference between the two methods is that assessment stops after one error with single-opportunity methods of assessment, whereas in multiple-opportunity assessments, assessment continues after errors.
9. True.
10. FALSE. None of the methods has been show to be more effective than the others in the research literature.
11. FALSE. Backward chaining does not refer to teaching the steps in reverse order. The individual performs the steps in order, but begins learning the last step first.

Short Answer/Essay

1. A behavior chain is a specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition. Each step in the behavioral chain (with the exception of the first and last steps) serves a dual function: as an SD for the subsequent step and as a conditioned reinforcer for the preceding step.

2. The addition of a limited hold to a behavior chain is that it encourages both accuracy and rate of performance. The addition of a limited hold can create more fluent responding in the learner.

3. Answers will vary. When describing the forward chaining procedure, the student should have the learner begin by completing Step 1, then 1 and 2, and so on. When describing backward chaining, the student should have the learner begin by completing the last step, then the last two steps, and so on. When describing total-task chaining, the student should have the learner completing all steps, with the necessary level of assistance from the trainer on each step.

4. Answers will vary. When describing the single-opportunity assessment, the student should be clear that the assessment stops at whatever step the learner is unable to perform, and the learner receives a score of “-“ for all subsequent steps. When describing the multiple-opportunity assessment, the learner should be clear that the assessment continues, even if the learner makes an error. In the event of an error, the trainer should perform the step for the learner, mark that step as a “-,“ and continue to the next step.

5. You might want to interrupt a behavior chain if the chain is inappropriate or if you want to advance another set of skills in the individual. In order to interrupt a chain of behavior, one must identify the point in the chain in which the interruption will occur. The learner should be given the cue to begin the task, and when he/she reach the point where the interruption will occur, the trainer should give a verbal or physical (e.g., blocking) interruption and then prompt the new behavior. Following the interruption, the learner can be allowed to complete the task. When using interruption, one should expect some distress on the part of the learner because the interruption procedure temporarily blocks access to reinforcement.

6. Answers will vary. Example answers could be: An SD occurs at the right point in a sequence—remedy, rearrange the sequence of the task analysis. A similar SD in close temporal proximity to the target SD is cuing an incorrect response—remedy, separate the two problematic SD s. An irrelevant SD could be interfering—remedy, discrimination training. SD s in the natural setting could be different from those in the training setting—remedy, incorporate similar SD s into both settings or do some training in the natural setting. Novel stimuli in the environment are competing with relevant stimuli—remedy, discrimination training.

7. Answers will vary. Example answers could be: Completeness of task analysis—impact, a more complete analysis results in better performance. Length/complexity of the chain—impact, the more complex the chain, the more difficult it is to learn. Schedule of reinforcement—impact, the more responses in the chain, the leaner the schedule of natural reinforcement…a more dense schedule of reinforcement may be required. Extinction—impact, earlier responses in the chain will deteriorate more quickly as extinction continues…this will have an impact on subsequent steps because these steps serve as SD s for those steps. Stimulus variation—impact, unless stimulus variation is programmed into instruction, any variation of stimuli within the chain may produce decreased performance on the entire chain because the stimuli won’t occasion the correct response(s). Response variation—impact, when stimuli vary, this often necessitates variation in responding from the learner.

Chapter 21
Multiple Choice

1. D
2. C
3. D
4. A
5. B
6. D
7. A
8. C
9. B
10. A
11. D

True/False

5. True
6. FALSE. An extinction burst is a rapid increase in the frequency and/or intensity of the target behavior following cessation of reinforcement.
7. True
8. True
9. True

Matching

1. G
2. C
3. A
4. H
5. F
6. B
7. D
8. E

Short Answer/Essay

1. Extinction of a behavior maintained by positive reinforcement would consist of withholding the reinforcer previously maintaining the problem behavior, contingent upon the occurrence for problem behavior. For example, if a problem behavior was maintained by access to adult attention, extinction would involve the adult turning away from the individual contingent upon the occurrence of problem behavior. On the other hand, for a behavior maintained by negative reinforcement, extinction would involve no longer providing escape from an aversive stimulus; rather the individual would e required to continue interacting with the aversive stimulus. For example, if the problem behavior was maintained by escape from toothbrushing tasks, then extinction would involve not letting the individual out of toothbrushing and requiring him/her to continue with the toothbrushing task.

2. Extinction is characterized by a gradual decrease in the frequency or amplitude of the target behavior. The decrease is typically not immediate. Often, extinction is accompanied by an extinction burst, which is an initial increase in the frequency of the response. In addition, there can be an initial increase in the amplitude of the response—meaning that the intensity of the behavior may increase before it decreases. Extinction is also characterized by spontaneous recovery, which means that the target behavior typically reemerges after it has diminished. This is typically short-lived if the extinction procedure remains in place.

Chapter 22
Multiple Choice

1. A
2. D
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. E
7. B
8. A
9. A
10. A
11. A

True/False

1. True
2. True
3. FALSE. When selecting a response for a DRA/DRI intervention, one should select a response that is already in the learner’s repertoire so that the behavior will likely contact the contingencies of reinforcement.
4. True
5. FALSE. It is better to begin with an interval DRO and move to a momentary DRO. Research has shown that momentary DRO can maintain effects established by interval DRO, but it is not effective in establishing low rates of behavior.
6. True.

Short Answer/Essay

1. All differential reinforcement procedures use extinction for undesirable behavior. Thus, one mechanism that decreases the undesirable response is extinction. However, differential reinforcement also uses reinforcement for either incompatible, alternate, other, or low rates of behavior. If a behavior incompatible with the undesirable behavior is increased, the undesirable behavior must decrease. When alternate or other behaviors are increased, this typically results in a decrease in undesirable behavior.

2. Answers will vary. Answers should include a clear alternate response that is a desirable alternative to the problem behavior. The alternate response should result in some sort of negative reinforcement (escape from a nonpreferred activity) and the problem behavior should result in extinction (continued engagement in the nonpreferred task).

3. A DRO interval should be based on baseline rates of responding. The best way to determine the interval is to compute the average baseline interresponse time and set your DRO interval just slightly below this number (in order to make it more likely that the learner will contact the contingencies of reinforcement in place). This interval length can be increased slowly over time.

4. A DRO interval can be increased by a constant duration of time (say 15 seconds each time), proportionately (say by 10% each time), or based on the learner’s performance (using the IRT from the last session).

5. Answers will vary in the example. Full-session DRL involves delivering reinforcement at the end of an instructional session if the target behavior was below a predetermined criterion for the entire session. For example, if the target behavior is pencil sharpening, then the learner would need to sharpen his pencil only 2 times (if that is the criterion) throughout the entire class period. In interval DRL, the instructional session is divided into a series of smaller intervals, and the learner receives reinforcement if his/her behavior does not exceed the predetermined criterion for each interval. For example, the teacher could divide a class period into two intervals, and the learner could earn reinforcement for each interval during which he/she sharpened his/her pencil fewer than 2 times (the criterion).

6. A spaced-responding DRL contingency is most useful when the practitioner wants a behavior to occur with a specific IRT. That is, a spaced-responding DRL involves delivering a reinforcer following an occurrence of a behavior that is separated by at least a minimum amount of time from a previous behavior. This would be useful anytime a certain “pace” of behavior is important. One example might be using the bathroom. This behavior is expected to occur at certain intervals during the day.

Chapter 23
Multiple Choice

1. E 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. A 6. E

True/False

1. FALSE. Noncontingent reinforcement is an intervention strategy in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are delivered on a fixed-tome (FT) or variable-time (VT) schedule independent of the learner’s behavior. 2. True. 3. FALSE. Noncontingent reinforcement uses three distinct procedures: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and automatic reinforcement. 4. FALSE. Behavioral effects of high-probability request sequence suggests the abative effects of an abolishing operation by reducing the value of reinforcement for non-compliance to low-p requests and reducing the aggression & self-injury typically associated with low-p requests. 5. FALSE. When using a high-p request sequence effectively behaviors should be selected from the current repertoire and requests should be presented at a rapid pace. 6. True. 7. FALSE. Functional communication training does develop alternative behaviors that are sensitive to the establishing operations and this makes it different from antecedent interventions such as noncontingent reinforcement and high-p sequences that are not sensitive to establishing operations.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is an antecedent intervention in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are delivered on a fixed-time (FT) or variable-time (VT) schedule independent of the learner’s behavior. NCR may effectively decrease problem behavior because reinforcers that maintain the problem behavior are available freely and frequently. NCR functions as an abolishing operation (AO), and is referred to as presenting stimuli with known reinforcing properties. NCR uses positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and automatic reinforcement. When implementing NCR there are three key elements that should be remembered to implementing it most effectively. This includes: the amount and quality of stimuli with known reinforcing effectiveness of NCR, inclusion on extinction with NCR interventions, and varying the available stimuli with NCR intervention to reduce problems of changing preferences.

2. High-p sequence is an antecedent intervention that is also known as a high-probability request sequence. The delivery of a high-p request sequence involves the presentation of a series of easy-to-follow requests for which the individual has a history of compliance (i.e. high-p requests). Then when individual complies with several high-p requests, provide individual with target request (i.e. low-p). Behavioral effects of high-p request sequence suggests the abative effects of an abolishing operation by reducing the value of reinforcement for non-compliance to low-p requests, and reducing the aggression & self-injury typically associated with low-p requests. The high-p request sequence provides non-aversive procedure for improving compliance by diminishing escape-maintained problem behaviors. This technique may decrease excessive slowness in responding to requests and increase the time used for completing tasks. Considerations for using the high-p request sequence effectively include: selecting from the current repertoire, presenting requests in a rapid sequence, acknowledging compliance, and using potent reinforcers.

3. Functional communication training (FCT) is an antecedent intervention that establishes an appropriate communication behavior to compete with problem behaviors evoked by an establishing operation. Alternative responses can include: vocalizations, signs, communication boards, words or picture cards, vocal output systems, and gestures. FCT is an application of DRA because it selects a specific alternative response that is to be built up or developed in the individual’s repertoire. Effective use of FCT includes: dense schedules of reinforcement, decreased use of verbal prompts, behavior reduction procedures, & schedule thinning. FCT is different from NCR and high-p request sequence because it develops alternative behaviors that are sensitive to the EO’s.

Chapter 24
Multiple Choice

1. G
2. F
3. B
4. C
5. B
6. D
7. D
8. B
9. A
10. F
11. C

True/False

1. True
2. FALSE. FBA methods can actually be classified into three types including the two listed in the question, functional analysis and descriptive assessment, as well as indirect assessment.
3. FALSE. While it is true that a functional analysis consists of three test conditions: contingent attention, contingent escape, and alone; there are four conditions overall including the control condition.
4. True
5. True

Matching

1. C 2. AEC 3. A 4. E 5. A 6. BD 7. E 8. C 9. E [BD] 10. B

Short Answer/Essay

1. A functional behavior assessment allows a practitioner to obtain information about the purpose (or function) of a behavior for an individual. An FBA provides the opportunity to form hypothesis about the relationship between the behavior and the environment, and then test the hypothesis. 2. The topography, or form, of a behavior reveals little information about the actual conditions that account for it because behaviors can look very different but serve the same function, and behaviors looking exactly the same can serve completely different functions under different conditions. 3. Identifying the conditions that account for the behavior, or its function, proposes what needs to be altered to change the behavior. By only identifying the topography of a behavior we are only able to tell what its form is or what it looks like without clarity on what accounts for it. 4. Altering the antecedent(s) for problem behavior can change and/or eliminate 1) the motivating operation for problem behavior, or 2) the discriminative stimuli that trigger problem behavior. 5. The strategic approach utilized in a FBA if it identifies the source of reinforcement to be eliminated is altering consequent variables.

6. Understanding why a behavior occurs will help determine how it can be changed for the better. By gaining a better understanding about what function a behavior serves, the most appropriate intervention can be used. 7. Answers will vary depending on situational examples chosen by the learner. The answer should include a situation in which an intervention is utilized without regard to the function of the behavior being targeted. Additionally, the answer should illustrate how the intervention may not target the problem behavior at all, or even act to exacerbate the problem behavior. 8. Answers will vary. The answer should include points such as a FBA 1) develops an understanding of the function of a behavior, 2) can suggest various types of interventions 3) by understanding the conditions under which a behavior occurs difficulties can be prevented, 4) may assist in prevention efforts by identifying the conditions that pose risks for future development of problem behaviors. 9. The functional analysis method is the only FBA method that allows practitioners to confirm hypotheses regarding functional relations between problem behavior and environmental events. The other two methods, descriptive assessment and indirect assessment do not support these findings. 10. A functional analysis is also referred to as an analog because antecedents and consequences that are similar to those occurring in the natural setting are presented in a systematic manner, but the analysis is not typically conducted in a naturally occurring routine. 11. Answers will vary. Answers should include a clear discussion of the advantages such as: 1) its ability to yield clear demonstration of the variable(s) that maintain problem behavior, 2) it serves as the standard scientific method most often used in research on the assessment and treatment of problem behavior, 3) it enables the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments, 4) it provides opportunities to explore alternative treatment methods and less reliance on punishment procedures. Answers should also include an illustration of the limitations such as: 1) assessment process may temporarily strengthen or increase the undesirable behavior to unacceptable levels, or result in the behavior acquiring new functions, 2) the arrangement of conditions that set the occasion for, or potentially reinforce, problem behavior can be counter intuitive to causal observers, 3) some behaviors may not be amenable to a functional analysis because they occur infrequently, 4) if conducted in a contrived setting it might not detect the variable that accounts for the occurrence of the problem behavior in the natural routine, 5) the time, effort, and professional expertise required to conduct and interpret functional analyses can be an obstacle to its use in practice.

Chapter 25
Multiple Choice

1. B
2. A
3. E
4. B
5. A
6. D

True/False

1. True
2. True
3. False. Public accompaniment occurs when an observable stimulus accompanies a private stimulus. The observable stimulus is a public event, the private stimuli are not available to others.
4. True
5. True

Matching

1. D
2. E
3. F
4. G
5. A
6. C
7. B

Short Essay

1. Should contain statements or phrases indicating the student understands that the book was met with challenges from the field of linguistics and the field of psycholinguistics, Norm Chomsky’s review, and the general disinterest and negative reaction from behaviorists.

2. The student should answer consistent with Skinner’s definition as when a speaker’s own verbal behavior functions as an SD or an MO for additional speaker verbal behavior; verbal behavior about a speaker’s own verbal behavior.

Chapter 26
Multiple Choice

1. D
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. F
7. A
8. C
9. A
10. B
11. C
12. A
13. D

Matching

A
C
B

True/False

1. FALSE. It is important to write down the agreement so that the contract is specific. Also, the act of signing the contract is important to its success.
2. True.
3. FALSE. Contingency contracts have been found to be useful in a variety of settings, including homes, schools, and clinics.
4. True.
5. True.
6. True.
7. FALSE. It is common to combine token systems with other systems. In fact, the research literature shows this can be a very effective procedure.
8. FALSE. For maximum effectiveness, tokens should be delivered immediately following the target behavior.
9. True.
10. True.

Short Answer/Essay

1. The 4 important components of a task description are: 1) who will perform the task, 2) what the task is, 3) when the task must be completed, and 4) how well the task must be completed. 2. Answers will vary. Answers should include a description of the task (1) who will perform the task, 2) what the task is, 3) when the task must be completed, and 4) how well the task must be completed), a description of the reward (1) who will judge task completion, 2) what is the reward, 3) when the reward will be received, and 4) how much of the reward will be earned), and a task record. 3. Answers will vary. However, the process you describe should include the following: Hold a family meeting to discuss how contracts work. Next, ask family members to identify task he/she can perform within the contract and tasks he/she already performs in the home. Next, fill out a list of behaviors that could be included in the contract. Next, fill out a list of rewards people would like to earn. Finally, write the contract, and be sure to include all of the necessary components.

4. In a level system, students must acquire and achieve increasingly more refined behavior repertoires while the frequency of token reinforcement, social praise, or other desirable reinforcers are simultaneously decreased. As students advance through the levels, they earn more privileges, but their behavioral expectations also increase. 5. When a student doesn’t earn tokens and becomes upset, it is important for the behavior analyst to remain calm and neutral. Avoid getting into confrontations, power struggles, and arguments over tokens. Similarly, when an individual tests the system, the behavior analyst should remain calm and neutral, responding with comments like, “That’s your choice,” rather than getting into a verbal exchange/debate over the matter. 6. Three things to consider when using a response cost system as part of a token economy are: (1) any behaviors subject to response cost should be clearly defined and stated in the rules, (2) more serious inappropriate behavior should result in greater token losses, and (3) a student should never lose more tokens than he/she possess (avoid having learners go “in the hole”). 7. Management issues to consider are: a. Students need to be taught how to manage their tokens so that they are out of the way but readily available when needed. Students need to be taught how to store them safely so that they are not stolen. b. Preemptive measures should be taken to avoid counterfeiting and bootlegging. Select tokens that are not easily duplicated. c. Some students may hoard tokens and never exchange them, while others may exchange too freely and be unable to save for high quality items. Encourage spending for hoarders, and do not allow students with fewer than the requisite number of tokens to exchange (i.e., do not make “loans”). d. Chronic rule breakers deserve special consideration. It may be necessary to evaluate the quality of the reinforcers. It may be necessary to use a different system with them.

8. Interdependent group contingencies can be implemented in the following ways: a. When the group as a whole meets the criterion b. Based on the mean score of a group meeting criterion c. Based on the results of the Good Behavior/Good Student game. (examples of each will vary)

9. The determination of which type of group contingency to use should be based on the programmatic goals of the practitioner. If one wants to change the behavior of one person or a small group of individuals, then a dependent group contingency is the best choice. If one wants to differentially reinforce individuals for appropriate behavior, then an independent group contingency may be the best choice. If the practitioner wants to change everyone’s performance, than an interdependent group contingency may be best.

Chapter 27
Multiple Choice

1. E 2. A 3. E 4. F 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. E 9. D 10. C 11. B

True/False

1. True. 2. FALSE. Self-management is not synonymous with the term self-control. Self-control: implies that the ultimate control of behavior lies within the person, but the causal factors for “self-control” are to be found in a person’s experiences with his environment; self-control suggests a controlling self inside an organism; self-control is also used to refer to a person’s ability to “delay gratification.” 3. True. 4. True. 5. FALSE. Self-monitoring is a tactic that was originally conceived as a method of clinical assessment. 6. FALSE. Self-evaluation involves the comparison of a person’s performance by himself/herself with a predetermined goal or standard.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Answers will vary, but should include two of the following antecedent-based self-management tactics with a brief description/illustration of each: manipulating MO’s to make a desired (or undesired) behavior more (or less) likely, providing response prompts, performing initial steps of a behavior chain, removing materials required for an undesired behavior, limiting undesired behavior to restricted stimulus conditions, dedicating a specific environment for a behavior. 2. Self monitoring is a procedure whereby a person observes his behavior systematically and records the occurrence of nonoccurrence of a target behavior. Self-monitoring with self-evaluation is a procedure whereby a person observes his behavior systematically & records the occurrence of nonoccurrence of a target behavior and the person’s performance is compared by himself with a predetermined goal or standard. 3. Answers may vary slightly but should include the following six steps with a brief description/rationale for each: specify a goal and define the behavior to be changed, begin self-monitoring the behavior, contrive contingencies that will compete with natural contingencies, go public with your commitment to change your behavior, get a self-management partner, continually evaluate your self-management program and redesign it as necessary.
Answers will vary, but should include three of the following guidelines for self-monitoring with a description or illustration of each stated guideline: Provide materials that make self-monitoring easy, provide supplementary cues or prompts, self-monitor the most important dimension of the target behavior, self-monitor early & often, reinforce accurate self-monitoring.

Chapter 28
Multiple Choice

1. C 2. D 3. B 4. A 5. E 6. D 7. B 8. D 9. D 10. B

True/False

1. FALSE. The total environment where instruction occurs, including any aspects of the environment, planned or unplanned, that may influence the learner’s acquisition and generalization of the target behavior is referred to as the instructional setting. 2. True. 3. FALSE. Stimulus equivalence is the emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations 4. True. 5. True. 6. FALSE. A contrived contingency includes any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) designed and implemented by a behavior analyst or practitioner to achieve acquisition, maintenance, and/or generalization of a targeted behavior change 7. FALSE. An indiscriminable is a contingency in which the learner cannot discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement. 8. FALSE. CRF should be during initial acquisition of a skill for a learner and also when strengthening little-used skills for a learner. 9. True. 10. FALSE. The ripple effect and spillover effect refer to generalization across subjects or participants.

Short Answer/Essay

1. Answers will vary slightly. All answers should include the three major types of generalized behavior change: response maintenance, setting/situation generalization, and response generalization. Answers should provide a general definition of each with a brief discussion of the importance of each to a learner’s behavior. 2. Answers will vary. Answers should include two of the following advantages/benefits of programming common stimuli and a brief explanation: conducting instruction in natural settings is not always possible or practical; community-based training may not expose learners to the full range of examples they are likely to encounter later in the same setting; instruction in natural settings may be less effective and efficient than classroom instruction because the trainer cannot halt natural flow of events to contrive variety of training trials; instruction in simulated settings can be safer. 3. Answers will vary. Answers should include five of the following suggestions as stated by Baer (1999) with a brief rationale for its importance in the performance of a target behavior: use two or more teachers, teach in two or more places, teach from a variety of positions, vary your tone of voice, vary your choice of words, show stimuli from a variety of angles, have others present sometimes, vary the reinforcers, teach in varying lighting conditions, teach in varying noise level conditions, vary decorations, furniture, & their locations, vary times of day for training sessions, vary the temperature of the training settings, vary the smells in the training settings, and vary the content of what’s being taught (within limits possible). 4. Answers will vary. Answers should include three of the following factors that should be considered when teaching sufficient stimulus examples with a brief discussion of each: complexity of the target behavior, the teaching procedures employed, learner’s opportunities to emit the target behavior under various conditions, naturally existing contingencies of reinforcement, and the learner’s history of reinforcement for generalized responding.

Chapter 29
Multiple Choice

1. B
2. C
3. A
4. D
5. D
6. A, B, C, D
7. B, D
8. B
9. A, B

True/False

1. True
2. True
3. True
4. False. Most professional organizations do more than “frown on” code violations. Instead, they often exact sanctions on members who do not follow the rules, including revoking their certifications and/or licenses, as well as expelling them from the organization.
5. False. It is NEVER acceptable to present yourself as possessing licenses or certifications that you do not have.
6. True
7. True

Short Answer/Essay

1. Good behavior analysts are self-regulating. This means he/she continually seeks ways to calibrate him/herself to ensure that values, contingencies, and rights and responsibilities are integrated and an informed combination of these is considered. Continuing to stay abreast of current research in the field through professional reading and attending conferences can help the practitioner be self-regulating.
2. (1) Continuing Education Units are available by attending workshops and conferences. (2) Presenting at conferences or simply attending conferences, even if CEUs are not available. (3) Reading professional, high-quality, behavioral journals, such as the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and The Behavior Analyst. (4) Taking advantage of oversight and peer review opportunities, where you are required to present your data, discuss goals and outcomes, and explain why choices and decisions were made.
3. In order to be considered capable of making informed decisions, an individual must have (a) adequate mental process or faculty by which he or she acquires knowledge, (b) the ability to select or express his or her choices, and (d) the ability to engage in a rational process of decision making. Adequate mental process is only questioned if an individual has impaired or limited ability to reason, remember, make choices, see the consequences of his/her actions, or plan for the future. This can vary for each proposed procedure.
4. The salient aspects of treatment that should be reviewed with an individual are: (a) all important aspects of the treatment, (b) all potential risk and benefits of the procedure, (c) all potential alternative treatments, and (d) the right to refuse continued treatment at any time.
5. Questions you can ask yourself regarding the dignity of clients are: Do I honor the person’s choices? Do I provide adequate space for privacy? Do I look beyond the person’s disability and treat him/her with respect?
6. Is the client willing to participate? Are caregivers surrounding the client willing or able to participate? Has the behavior been successfully treated in the research literature? Is public support likely? Does the behavior analyst have the appropriate experience to deal with the problem? Will those most likely to be involved in implementing the program have adequate control of the critical environmental contingencies?

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Movie Review

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... initially resulting in an attempt to rob Commercial Corruption, a local bank. The two alleged criminals were apprehended by the police and informed of their rights. Here, I will identify the specific role that each played with the particular crime, the elements that lead to this conclusion, and the potential defenses the defending party might assert and any inconsistencies that might arise with these defenses. First, Billy Bad boy is charged with committing murder in the first degree. Billy is also charged with theft of firearm (stolen). Plus, Billy is charged with occupying a stolen vehicle during the commission of a robbery and speeding. Furthermore, Billy is charged with money laundering. The charges for Billy are valid because he intentionally shot and killed his estranged wife, Glamorous Gloria. Also, the charges of occupying a stolen vehicle are valid, because Billy drove with his friends to rob the bank, drove the getaway car and in the process of getting away, he was speeding, killed a pedestrian crossing the street. Also, the charge of conspiracy to commit robbery (bank) is valid, because Billy and his friends questioned Wanda regarding the layout of the bank, the amount of cash on hand, bank security, and hours of operation. Plus, the charge of manslaughter is valid because the murder of the teller and police officer would not have occurred had Billy and friends attempted to rob the bank. Lastly, the charge of money laundering is valid because he spoke with......

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Hsbc: the Worldwide Local Bank........for Money Laundering and Rogue Nations.

...HSBC: the Worldwide Local Bank........for Money Laundering and Rogue Nations. The details of the HSBC money laundering case are simultaneously enraging and sickening. HSBC agreed last month to pay the U.S. government $1.9 billion to settle a suit into widespread money laundering facilitation by the New York branch of Europe’s largest bank. But, this is not mere money we are talking about; it is the daily gang violence on the streets of our cities and towns, it is the increased likelihood that your children will be offered drugs in their schools; it is the abduction of children and selling them into the sex trade. Authorities estimate that the average annual income generated from a trafficked child is $200,000 per year. That money has to be laundered somewhere, by someone. Money laundering is taking the proceeds of crime (“illegitimate” money) and bringing it into the legitimate financial system so that the criminals can use that money without being tied to those terrible crimes – crimes like the manufacturing and distribution of drugs, selling people into the sex trade, trafficking in illegal weapons, and selling knock-off, unsafe products like toys with high levels of lead paint into the marketplace. By HSBC practices they encouraged this behavior and made a profit because of it. Those are some of the many possible effects of HSBC’s years of permitting hundreds of trillions of dollars to flow through HSBC Bank U.S.A with no money laundering controls being......

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Unethical Corporate Governance (Hsbc Case)

...Unethical Corporate Governance (HSBC Money Laundering Case: “Too Big to Fail” does not mean “Too Big to Jail”) About HSBC HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is one of the world’s largest banking and financial services organizations. In 1865, the first branches of the bank were first opened in Hong Kong and Shanghai. HSBC is named after its founding member, The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited. In 1991, it was founded in London by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation to act as a new group holding company. The company refers to both the United Kingdom and Hong Kong as its "home markets". HSBC has around 7,200 offices in 85 countries and territories across Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America, and around 89 million customers. As of 31 December 2013, it had total assets of $2.671 trillion, of which roughly half were in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and a quarter in each of Asia-Pacific and the Americas. As of 2012, it was the world's largest bank in terms of assets and sixth-largest public company, according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine (Witty Traders, 2014). HSBC consists of four business groups: * Commercial Banking; * Global Banking and Markets (investment banking); * Retail Banking and Wealth Management; * Global Private Banking. HSBC has a dual primary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and......

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Hsbc Operational Management Report

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... Then, the strategy of HSBC’s expands in China’s rural areas will be mentioned with both evaluation of advantages and disadvantages. Following, the strategy of HSBC on how to enter and operate in the other emerging markets will be discussed in terms of successful cases and setbacks. Finally, the influence from world economic crisis on HSBC and future potential opportunities for HSBC will definitely be focused on. Before the WTO accession in 2001, China’s banking industry relied on directed lending practices from government, in turn created many China’s most successful enterprises under centrally planed economy. This approach resulted in thousands of state-owned enterprises, which were unprofitable and inefficient and made the state-own banks widespread lost because of largely unrecoverable debt and hoards of loans cannot be performed. Since initially opened in...

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