Free Essay

Battle of Ideas

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mrsgraham
Words 749
Pages 3
Battle of the Ideas: A review of economic concepts
ECON-101
Amara Henderson-Graham
Grandview University
Professor David W. Hannum
October 9th, 2012

Commanding Heights: Battle of Ideas The neoclassical counterrevolution was a response to the interventionist dependence revolution of the 1970’s which has diagnosed the problem of underdevelopment to be due to the predatory behavior of the developed world. The neoliberal school of thought redefined underdevelopment instead to be a result of poor allocation of resources brought about by the distortionary price controls and regulations used as tools of state intervention. It posited that too much state involvement in the economy is at the root of slow economic growth. The fundamental assumption in this perspective is that an unregulated market performs better than one with government regulation. It is convinced that although markets also run the risk of failing; market failure is much less costly than government failure. Where the dependency theorists advocated the reform in the international economic system, the counterrevolution thinkers insist that the speedy solution is the promotion of free markets that are supported by permissive governments that allow the market to perform its self-regulating functions. The prescription of the neoliberals to stimulate economic growth include not only the promotion of competitive free markets but also the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the promotion of free trade, the expansion of trade through advancement in exports and the well reception of investors, and the elimination of government regulations on prices. Commanding Heights: Battle of Ideas puts together the arguments of the neoliberal school of thought as it emerged and influenced economic policy in the 20th century. The documentary particularly contrasted neoclassical counterrevolution approach to the structurialist-interventionist modes that depicted socialist struggles in the developed world.
The Keynes-Hayek rivalry of ideas also surfaces as the major themes for the battles in economic thought, much of what we see going on in the ongoing struggle in today’s world for economic balance and success. Socialism and its variants basically adhered to the policy of state intervention or central planning to promote equitable development. Soviet Russia has marked history to be the pioneering nation to unite against the market economy and smash capitalism. Lenin had introduced the tenants of state control on what he called the commanding heights of the economy- steel, railroads, coal, the heavy industries which are obviously the capital goods needed in promoting industrialization. Stalin had furthered the agendas through central planning, the control of every aspect of the economy by the government. Almost a third of the world followed Russia’s example and commanded Communist regimes with China as the best example. These historical results seem to suggest that indeed the neoclassical counterrevolution perspective seems to get it right, at least for the developed world. But how can the relative economic success of the communist/socialist states of Russia and China be explained? Today, these grey areas suggest that there is no one way of handling the affairs of nations although ideas that fuel economic thinking have serious implications on development. It seems as if we are literally living on economy that hasn’t seemed to find the right balance and longevity. Prior economic situations worked and simply because during their time, there was war and with war came many jobs. However, when war is over, it seems the economy hits a high inflation rate and before we know it, starts spinning out of control and people are losing houses, not paying bills and not spending money which we know creates supply and demand.

So the question is, then, how do we take past examples of economic success and mold them to fit today’s economy properly, without losing GDP and having to outsource all our jobs? Presidents such as Kennedy, Nixon, and Carter even tried to use old tactics and only temporarily succeeded. Free markets still make up a chunk of the economy in today’s world, and it just goes to show there is an ongoing battle between the powers of government and the forces of the marketplace over who gets to control the economies of the world’s greatest nations. From this film and the concepts we have learned in class, I have gathered that even the most brilliant of minds have trouble ‘balancing’ out an economy and it truly does depend on the ‘Invisible Hand’ theory; situations in an economy will work themselves out-eventually.

Reference
The PBS website provides video documentation at (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/hi/story/ch_menu.html.)

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Case a New Front in the Battle of Ideas

...Case 2-1 A new front in the battle of ideas 1. Does the global economic crisis signal that the American model of free market capitalism is fundamentally flawed? No, the global economic crisis does not signal that the American model of free market capitalism is fundamentally flawed because America government should definitely provide a support role for the corrective measures to protect its own economy, for example use of various fiscal policy for the economic stimulus, when the various decisions in the private sector of their country are believed to lead to negative economic outcomes, such as depression or recession, which leads to the wide hardship for America. 2. Keynes and Hayek aren’t necessarily household names, but they did get a boost when economist Russell Roberts created a rap video titled Fear the Boom and Bust with filmmaker John Papola. The video is available on Youtube after viewing it you should be able to answer the following question: Are you a Kenyesian ? or do you side with Hayek? I would side with Hayek, because Keynes believed that intelligent, well-meaning planners and by manipulating economic aggregates such as demand and employment can surely bring happy means to the economy. Hayek believed that individual decisions, imbalances between specific prices and demand or the interest rates and also the specific plans for long-term productive projects, are pillars of a true economy. To support, Keynes said that it was politically impossible to......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Trial by Battle

...Christian Hampton Julie Mell Medieval History Section 5 19 March 2015 Trial by Battle In the early 12th century the practice of settling disputes, arguments, and legal trials through means of battle is not only customary but considered divine in its own right. The Christian’s support of this form of justice is not only used to settle the trial of Ganelon, but also fuels the passion of Christian’s against the Muslim army. The belief that God will lead the righteous to victory mirrors the “superstitious” mentality of feudal judicial practices, in “Song of Roland” this is shown on a much larger scale. Trial by battle began as a practice that settled feuds or disagreements between individuals, the crusades incorporated this feudal practice into the frame of international conquest. Emphasis on more admirable values also meshed into the “crusading mentality”, one value in particular, the importance of personal loyalty to one’s lord, is what causes kings and peasants alike to have an undying loyalty to their God. Loyalty to God is demonstrated by Charlemagne, characterized through the epic as a divine king who receives visions, in the form of dreams, from God and is guarded by the angel St. Gabriel. What’s interesting is the symbolism of Charlemagne’s and his most faithful knight Roland’s, swords. The swords draw a connection between feudal duty and service and religion. Roland’s Durendal has relics from various saints and the Virgin Mary, Charlemagne’s Joyeuse holds the...

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Courage

...stupidity? Courage is defined as the state or quality of mind or spirit that enables one to face danger, fear, or vicissitudes with self possession, confidence, and resolution; bravery. Stupidity is defined as a stupid act, remark, or idea. But where is the line drawn between the two? Many acts that are considered courageous are simply stupid acts that do not end badly. If someone attempts something stupid but is successful is it still stupid? The threshold between courage and stupidity is crossed many times throughout life and almost everyone has their own opinion on the topic. Some people would tell you that the difference between them is ignorance while others would say it is the amount of thought given to the act before you attempt it. Some good examples of this would be charging into a battle. Charging into a battle could be many things but two of them are courage and stupidity. While some may charge into a battle for glory and fame others will take the risk and consider it to be worth it for the sake of others. It really is your own opinion whether either of those circumstances is one or the other. Going into the battle for glory and fame is usually seen as a stupid act as you will only be remembered if you are successful in battle. Even then after you die who will really remember who you were, what you did, and why you gave up your life. The people who are remembered are those who win and get to write the history of what happened. Something else to......

Words: 983 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Nothingness

...struggle is to save the Union, And is not either to save or destroy slavery” -Abraham Lincoln (1862) THE BACKGROUND CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR (C.W. JOURNAL #1). The Civil War wasn’t only about the fight of freedom for the black people, but also the economics, and the states against the federal rights, lead them to the call of battle. To me, they were important factors that people had their own desire of having the life they wanted. The Economic and social differences between the North and the South became more notable each day. The North needed the South, and the South needed the North. The southern economy was depending on cotton in which they needed the salves to work on. The North had the industries that purchased the raw cotton and turned them into finished goods. This created a major difference in economic attitude, and the North meant the change of society, evolved with different cultures and classes. Other fact that lead them to war was the disagreement the states had against the government. The government felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification. When nullification would not work, the states felt that they were no longer respected and moved towards secession. ELECTION OF 1860 (C.W. JOURNAL #2). The Democratic Party split into Northern and Southern due the slavery issues. In the Northern democratic party, which stood for popular sovereignty......

Words: 2459 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Little Big Horn

...Christopher Williams History 102: American History Since 1877 April 27, 2014 The battle of Little Big Horn was a very significant battle in American history. Many of the battles in American history show the strength of the American military and the smarts of the leaders at that time. On the contrary, when it comes to the battle of Little Big horn it was one of the few low points in American military history. Even though history will prove that General Custer was one of the best General and leaders to ever lead but this battle is one of the low points of his career. This battle goes to show just how important it is to plan properly and ensure that you follow instruction that are given to you from your superiors. To begin the Battle of Little Bighorn took place at the river in Montana Territory on June 25, 1876. This was the first problem for the American Fighters because they had a very little knowledge of the terrain and the actual skill level of the Indians. Whenever you are a part of anytime of battle it is very important to ensure that you have as much intelligence as possible but that was not the case with General Custer. General Custer felt as though because of his war knowledge and his reputation that this would be another show of force in which him and his men would just run over the Indian and take exactly what they came from. As history shows whenever a military unit is overconfident they tend to become complacent which ultimately lead to failure of the mission...

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Battle of the Somme

...Keegan- History Short term Significance of the Battle of the Somme The Battle of the Somme was a war planned late in 1915 as a joint French-British attack. The French Commander in Chief, Joffre, conceived the idea as a battle of attrition, the aim being to drain the German forces of reserves, although territorial gain was a secondary aim. However, the German attack Verdun made the Somme offensive even more pressing because the French army was under severe pressure there. The battle of the Somme was fought from the 1st July 1916 until later in same year where on November the 16th it was brought to an end. The massive amount of casualties in this time, as well how the war was fought Is what has made the battle so historic. For example, It’s best known for the mass amounts of soldiers who died and more specifically how they died In such a short space of time and why. The style of warfare was different and more brutal than ever before, for example better technology and large scale operations which seen over 1.7 million shells were fired at the German’s alone and made the war a huge test for the countries involved who relied heavily on individual decisions, as well as man power. The first day of the Somme (1s July 1916) proved to be massively significant due to the sheer numbers of soldiers lost. Up to 60 000 British soldiers became casualties thanks to enemy fire (one third of the British military) British hopes were high going in to battle for the first time. Indeed, the......

Words: 1703 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Hoplite Book Review

...Book Review of Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience Kyle Bonds History 3300, Dr. Kicklighter 09 October 2013 Kyle Bonds Dr. Joseph Kicklighter 9 October 2013 History 3300 Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience Review Collected and edited by Victor Davis Hanson, Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience is a collection of nine scholarly essays specifically about the Hoplite warrior: describing the weapons used, how the identification and retrieval of casualties was conducted, the style of phalanx battle from the perspective of the actual soldier fighting as well as sacrifices and battle rituals. He reveals a new experience to the reader using these works, one that sheds new light on the hoplite warrior. Born on September 5th, 1953, Victor Hanson is a military historian and columnist specializing in the study of the classics and ancient warfare. Most notably known for his contributions on modern warfare and contemporary politics for the National Review he has published a number of books on ancient warfare and the classics most on Greek warfare and the Peloponnesian Wars. Keeping his love for the classics intact he received his Ph.D in that field from Stanford University in 1980. Hanson recently relinquished his position and California State University where he began teaching in 1984 where his solely responsible for the creation of the classics program. He currently writes two articles per week for the National Review. ......

Words: 1450 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Carnage and Culture

...examples of battles in which do not quite fit his argument, the background of the nine battles he uses support his claim; thus, making his theory agreeable overall. Furthermore, the title Carnage and Culture best illustrates Hanson’s theory on the western culture. The reason being why the west always wins their wars is due to the culture- “The Western Way of War”. This culture follows with characteristics in which represent the West: being freedom, individualism, civic militarism, superior weapons, organization, discipline, morale, initiative, flexibility, and command. All of these characteristics are shown through the West in the battles fought against the Non-West. Hanson talks about nine different battles in which helps back up his theory. Western warfare, a common foundation and continual way of fighting, that has made Europeans the most deadly soldiers in the history of civilization. With this being said, Hanson believed that with the western culture, the armies produce better quality arms and soldiers. Culture being such a big part of the Western way of life, the people believed in themselves and their rights to freedom. Although, for a long time the Western expeditionary forces were outnumbered and often deployed from their home they continued to fight off the superior enemies. This led to the Western culture to slaughter mercilessly their opponents. The cultural background is what Hanson’s theory is as to why the West continues to win their battles. Each and......

Words: 1298 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

His !!$ Week 1 Wkst

...Phoenix Material French Revolution and Napoleonic Era Worksheet 1. Essay In 250 to 300 words, explain how the following ideas and ideals influenced the events and motivated the participants in the French Revolution: • Liberty • Equality • Brotherhood • Hubris • Fiscal irresponsibility • Democracy • Technology The ideas of fiscal irresponsibility and hubris are hand in hand when it comes to the French Revolution because the country was in a state of financial crisis thanks to their King, Louis XV and continuing under the rule of his son Louis XVI. Funds were lacking and loans were in place with interest rates and fees that were going to be near impossible to pay back which threatened the structure of the countries financials. Taxation was going to be the only out in the eyes of the King but needed aristocracy approval. The people began to lose faith and felt as if the King was attacking their liberty with his tax exemptions which were unfair, and lead them down the path in search of civil liberties, equality of the people and ridding of the ranks, and a want for endorsed democracy. Eventually all titles were abolished and the declaration of the rights of man and citizen was bestowed upon the people. The king however was just part of the problem, with foreign war and the fiscal crisis, and then inflation as well. The idea of having a democracy gave all men a change to be declared free and equal. The technology used during the revolution......

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Patriot Movie Review

...of battles, and insight to life during war. Due to the bias nature of the film and a few historical inaccuracies, the nationalism in this movie becomes overwhelming. This film was set in the 1770’s in early South Carolina. Benjamin Martian, an ex French and Indian war icon, is the father of seven children who rejected a proposal to go to battle and be apart of the Continental Army. While trying to avoid any involvement in the battle, the war comes close to home and the leading antagonist Colonel Tavington killed Thomas, his 15-year-old son. Martin began seeking revenge by creating a militia that consisted of peasants and farmers. The militia had an objective to keep General Cornwallis in South Carolina. Their efforts were successful through their strategic planning by killing off his men and cutting him off from supplies. Although they succeeded in the surrender of Cornwallis, Gabriel, Martins son, also became a victim of Tavington and was killed. Gabriel’s death evoked one last fight between Martin and Tavington. Martin had the victory over him, which lead to Tavington’s death and helped drive the Continental Army to achieve victory over the British. The portrayal of the militias in this film consisted mostly of farmers and low class people taking the initiative to protect their families such as Martin did. The militia not only played an important role in the film but also lead to the victory in Yorktown, which was briefly shown at the end of the movie. Other battles......

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Coke vs. Pepsi

...Coke vs. Pepsi: Battle of the Brands Posted Apr 10th 2007 4:40PM by Eric Buscemi Filed under: Products and services, Consumer experience, Competitive strategy, Coca-Cola (KO), PepsiCo (PEP), Marketing and advertising, Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE), Battle of the Brands This post is part of our Battle of the Brands feature. Let us know which brand you prefer, and watch out for more Battle of the Brands posts. Some people drink Pepsi, some people drink Coke, The wacky morning DJ says democracy's a joke. -- Cake, Comfort Eagle Unless you are a rare RC Cola drinker, your carbonated beverage decision in the supermarket comes down to the two heavyweights: the flagship products from the Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) and PepsiCo Inc (NYSE: PEP). But the battle between these brands spans much further than the supermarket shelves. From which brand restaurants stock, to what countries each operates in, this rivalry is all-encompassing and global. But instead of a list of countries or restaurant chains, lets take a deeper look at the actual products. Cola and Beyond We don't have space to list, nor would you have time to read, every different variant of Coca-Cola and Pepsi, which would force me to include failed ideas such as Crystal Pepsi. Suffice it to say, you won't find many original ideas here, and when a successful idea comes from either company, an imitator just as quickly appears from the other. Coke/Pepsi, Diet Coke/Diet Pepsi, Cherry Coke/Wild Cherry Pepsi, Coke with......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Lottery by Shirley Jackson

...portrayed this dark and dreary idea as a game the characters are playing. Outline: “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson vs. “The Most Dangerous Game” by Richard Connell I. Introduction: a. Traditional acts and survival instincts is the key to win or lose the game of death b. Will one allow society or your own reasoning decided if one survives the game of death c. The battle of death is the game that no one knows the result of until the end II. “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson a. Jackson portrayed death as a fun family oriented game b. All people of the village, children, men and women gather on a beautiful summer day to stone one innocent person as a tradition c. The bystander effect plays a role in the death of the villagers d. The villager loses the battle of death because society blindly practices traditions, good and bad, unquestionably III. “The Most Dangerous Game” a. In “The Most Dangerous Game” Connell portrayed death as a Hunter’s game. b. The General is the hunter and Rainsford is the Prey. Man vs. Man c. The game of death is put to the test for three days d. Man wins he battle against death using animal instinct and human reasoning IV. Conclusion e. “In the Lottery” the villager lost her battle of death due to others but in “In The Most Dangerous Game” the hunter won his battle of death based on his own survival skills f. The dark and dreary game of death is a battle that one has to choose to......

Words: 1418 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Mlk vs Ghandi

...Bello Louissaint ENC 1101-20013 Professor Kristen Holt February 26, 2014 The Battle of Two Civil Legends When you hear the names Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr., You think of the men of colored that paved the way for their respective races and nation. Gandhi with his homeland of India from British rule and MLK with the nation of America. Many figures have compared to two but no one has ever attempted to pit these two legends against each other and not in the form of a rap battle. Well, ERB can claim to be the first. With the melodic rhymes and catchy hook. Who exactly won this battle of civil greats, in my esteemed opinion, it would be the Mahatma. Gandhi case presentation and his flow was too beastly for MLK in this battle. First and foremost, in the battle Gandhi states that MLK should “you should jot down my ideas…….plagiarize his whole verse” (ERB).; Mahatma was referencing the fact that MLK followed his ideology. Although, it can be said that he did in fact use some of the ideals of Gandhi, MLK did not use fasting as a way of protest. MLK, himself has stated that Mahatma was a driving influencing in his way of fighting for civil justice but again, he did not steal his ideals like Gandhi claims. Furthermore, Gandhi goes on to state that MLK should leave his ideas at the door like the real Martin Luther (ERB).. Martin Luther gained his fame for nailing his complaints against the Catholic Church in the 14th century, at the time the church would sell......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Book Review: War by Lawrence Freedman

...phenomenon from sociological and ethical perspectives; and then provides a series of extracts from leading strategists in section E. Finally in the last two sections, the author dwells on general discussions relating to the history of warfare and ideas of strategists from the previous sections. Nevertheless, this review deliberates only on section A, B and C. The first section, The Experience of War, illustrates the character of war and draws attention to the intricate sensations it precipitates amongst the participants of war. The author endeavours to provide the reader with a sense of the extent in which wars have been endured and perceived by those involved. As such, this section features chronologically a series of memoirs of war from the perspective of the trooper to commander, the civilian as well as the victorious and the defeated. Appropriately, this section highlights the experiences of human caught up in warfare from the Napoleonic wars until the Bosnian conflicts. It provides amazing firsthand accounts and portrays oral and written records from extracts by: a Royal Naval Rating at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, a German Seaman at the Battle of Jutland in June 1916, Field Marshall Rommel’s reflection on the Defeat in the Battle of Alamein in November 1942, a Doctor’s report at Nagasaki in August 1945, an observer of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia in June 1992 and many others. The second section focuses on the causes of war by examining extracts of major......

Words: 1638 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Warefare

...defined as an organized effort by a government or other large organization to stop or defeat something that is viewed as dangerous or bad (War, 2016).” War consists of a lot of violence, and unfortunately we as a society, think that is the best way to get our point across and the best way to solve problems. It is a situation that affects so many people. Not just those involved in the actual fighting in the war, but their families, their friends, and each country included in the war. When we send soldiers in to fight a battle, a lot of them will not make it back home to see their loved ones again. They may not even understand or agree with the reason behind the war. They just know they were called to serve their country and that’s what they will do. Based on the history of the United States of America, we have been at war for about 90% of the time since 1776. Some of the wars that have been instrumental within our history and that I will be discussing are World War 1, Battle of the Bull Run and Crusade. The process of warfare throughout the ages of time has evolved substantially; and these changes that have been implemented have drastically changed the way that we as a society view war and all that it entails. Let me say that since I have been a part of two wars I can say there are changes that have and will effect warfare. Crusades with chainmail and swords were the way of war in the middle ages. Civil War was muskets and on line. World War was with automatic weapons,......

Words: 3306 - Pages: 14