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Behavior Management

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Behaviour Management

Introduction: * first port of call should be school code of discipline * aim of most successful behaviour management strategies is to emphasise the positive and reduce incidents of negative behaviour

Emotional Development: * teachers can play a vital role in the emotional development of pupils * by focusing on creating emotional competence in pupils, a lot of behavioural issues can be prevented * modelling pro-social behaviour such as appropriate facial expressions and tone of voice can be effective in doing this, the opposite is also true * by over reacting to an undesirable behaviour, the teacher is reinforcing that behaviour

Self-Esteem * A lot of bad behaviour is rooted in low self-esteem * pupils with repeated experience of rejection/failure respond by attention seeking and disruptive behaviours * self-esteem linked to gap between an individual’s self image and their ideal self * self-esteem is an evaluation of out traits and characteristics * Laurence (1996) indicates correlation between teacher and student self-esteem * teachers in powerful position to influence academic and emotional development of pupils * creating warm positive and caring classroom environment is important * talking to pupils about their interests/families/hobbies can help to gain an insight into the pupil and deal with self-esteem issues * use emotional vocabulary in the classroom * encourage the vocalisation of emotional experiences * explicit teaching of instructions to handle difficult situations e.g. bullying, is part of SPHE curriculum but can also form part of incidental learning in the classroom * teacher should communicate to pupils that they are liked, respected and worthy of attention * Humphrey’s (1996) send the following messages to pupils: * your behaviour is always right for you * your are special and unique * you are capable in what you do * you please me * successful experiences build self-esteem

Classroom Management: * Good classroom management promotes the social and emotional development of children as well as providing an efficient learning environment * Should establish classroom routines but also be flexible in responding to the unexpected * Life Cycle of Classroom Management: 1. Establishment phase: ground rule laid down, routines and structures put in place, teacher must be predictable and consistent 2. Consolidation and Maintenance: (around Christmas time) consistently apply rules, use positive reinforcement and regular praise, consciously address issues, don’t let things slide 3. Cohesion phase: (term 3) rules and routines accepted as part of the natural routine
It’s helpful to include pupils in the creation of a classroom based behaviour agreement that they have ownership of * contracts should be positively phrased * each pupil has a right to safety, learning, communication and respect

Aims of Behaviour Management: * integrate pupil fully into school life – behaviour can be stressful for the pupil, time out/suspension will affect their education * enable pupils to access curriculum to the best of their ability – pupil may be expressing frustration with academics * allow other pupils to continue with their learning – recurring disruptions effect the whole class * minimise teacher stress * it’s not about controlling all pupils but teaching pupils self control and personal responsibility

Constructive Confrontation: * coercive management style is ultimately counterproductive * constructive confrontation avoids emotive language * teacher states facts without opinion, calmly identifies feelings, uses silence, puts responsibility back on pupil
Preventative Strategies – Meece 2008 * use differentiated leaning – modify tasks to ensure success for all pupils regardless of level * teach learning strategies explicitly, e.g. counting with fingers * have clear and consistent routines with visual reminders around the classroom * involve pupils in self-evaluation and goal setting * praise pupils often, catch them being good * teach pro-social skills such as waiting, sharing * use active learning methodologies such as co-operative learning to promote social interaction * make sure pupils are familiar with the codes of behaviour * control classroom environment, no clutter, appealing displays etc.

Motivation: * Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 1. Children have physiological and psychological needs * 2 types of motivation – intrinsic/extrinsic * Intrinsic – task completed for internal satisfaction * Extrinsic – task completed to reach a satisfying consequence e.g. social approval and tangible rewards * younger pupils have an external locus of control * use of rewards is a fundamental principle of behaviourism

Dreikurs Goals of Misbehaviour * gain attention * gain power and control * gain revenge * display feeling of inadequacy

Learned Helplessness * child takes little independent initiative * prefer easy problems to hard ones * makes negative comments about themselves when they perform badly * attribute good grades to luck, problems being easy or teacher being nice

Glasser – Control Theory * children need a sense of belonging * children are motivated by wants, they want to belong * class meetings help foster sense of belonging * need to feel important * need to have fun and freedom * belonging provides initial motivation, as they experience success, they see that knowledge is power and want to work harder

Bandura and Social Learning Theory * influence by behaviourist school of thought * behaviourists believe environment causes behaviour * Bandura argues that behaviour can impact on and change the environment * observational learning occurs without reinforcement, modelling is sufficient * best known for Bobo doll experiment * children who witnessed adult aggression more likely to be verbally and physically aggressive * children influenced by the same sex role models * boys had tendency to greater aggression

Behaviourism * behaviour is a function of its consequences * focuses on the observable and quantifiable * environment is the only variable in behaviour * learning involves behaviour change and learning is a result of environmental changes * sees children as blank slates * all behaviour can be explained by stimulus-response-reward * fundamental principle of behaviourism is reward * Two types of conditioning: 1. Classical Conditioning
Something neutral paired with a stimulus that evokes a reaction even when the stimulus is no longer present e.g. Pavlovian dog experiment 2. Operant Conditioning
Person performs behaviour to get a reward

* Skinner was the most influential behaviourist * children can have their behaviour modified through application of consistent and firm reinforcers * ideas absorbed in education as behaviour management and behavioural objectives * best used in conjunction with ecological approaches (seating, class environment, routine)

Challenging Behaviour
Kelly, Carey (2004) nationwide study – definition: * isolation from peers * prevention of participation in activities * reduced opportunity for involvement * excessive demands on resources * possibility of physical danger

Types of Aggression:
Reactive – responds to a trigger – easy to identify trigger
Proactive – acts in deliberate way with clear thought process – hard to identify the trigger

ABA – Applied Behaviour Analysis * method used to observe, measure and change behaviour * particularly useful for autistic children * all behaviour has a reason * all behaviour is learned and behaviour can be changed by altering consequences * uses operant and classical conditions * uses ABC approach (Antecedent – Behaviour – Consequences * rewards and reinforcement are central to ABA – 3 types 1. Social rewards – praise and touch 2. Activity rewards – e.g. swimming 3. Token/Tangible rewards – sweets/stars/bonus points

* Positive reinforcement occurs when something is added to the environment to cause a recurrence of an action * reinforcers must be valued by the individual and are often individualised * negative reinforcement occurs when a person engages in behaviour to remove an aversive stimulus e.g. nagging

Disadvantages of Reward Systems: * over-used rewards lose power * can create a long-term dependency on extrinsic motivation * often rewards don’t generalise outside the classroom

Serious Incidents: * occur when the safety of a pupil or teacher is threatened or compromised * stressful for all concerned * Following behaviours classified as seriously challenging: 1. Self injurious behaviour such as cutting or biting 2. Physical aggression to others such as hitting or punching 3. Inappropriate sexual behaviour such as stripping 4. Ritualistic behaviour such as rocking back and forth 5. Substance and alcohol abuse 6. Non-compliance

* Behaviour broken into a series of steps: 1. Trigger 2. Escalation 3. Outburst 4. Recovery * It’s possible to intervene at the trigger and escalation phases if one is aware of the warning signs e.g. physical proximity of teacher and time out

Dealing with a Serious Incident: * appear calm * learn to be aware of your response and give yourself wait time * avoid contributing to the issue with your own behaviour * work for an effective outcome, not a winner/loser outcome * think of the safety of all present * maintain control of your body language

Life Space Interview (LSI)/I-ESCAPE – debriefing * Firstly, Isolate the pupil from others in a non combative way and find a quiet place to talk * Explore the pupil’s point of view, let them tell you what happened and why it happened * Summarise the content and feelings of what the pupil said and give them an opportunity to clarify * Connect the behaviour and the feeling – You felt upset because ...’ * Alternative behaviours – explore what may have happened if a different action had been taken * Practice the alternative strategy * Enter back into class

Four Question Technique: * What did you do? * What happened when you did it? * What could you have done differently? * What would have happened if you had acted differently?

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