Free Essay

Bells Palsy

In: Science

Submitted By abdulhaqhaqmal
Words 735
Pages 3
Bell's palsy is a form of facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of the cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) causing an inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. Often the eye in the affected side cannot be closed. The eye must be protected from drying up, or the cornea may be permanently damaged, resulting in impaired vision. In some cases denture wearers experience some discomfort. The common presentation of this condition is a rapid onset of partial or complete paralysis that often occurs overnight. In rare cases, it can occur on both sides resulting in total facial paralysis. Bell’s palsy is defined as a one-sided facial nerve paralysis of unknown cause. Several other conditions can also cause facial paralysis, e.g., brain tumor, stroke, myasthenia gravis, and Lyme disease; however, if no specific cause can be identified, the condition is known as Bell's palsy. It is thought that an inflammatory condition leads to swelling of the facial nerve. The nerve travels through the skull in a narrow bone canal beneath the ear. Nerve swelling and compression in the narrow bone canal are thought to lead to nerve inhibition or damage.

Usually it gets better on its own with most people achieving normal or near-normal function. Corticosteroids have been found to improve outcomes, when used early, while anti-viral drugs have not.[3][4] Many show signs of improvement as early as 10 days after the onset, even without treatment.

Bell's palsy is the most common acute disease involving a single nerve and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis (>80%). It is named after Scottish anatomist and Edinburgh graduate Charles Bell (1774–1842), who first described it. It is more common in adults than children.
Bell's palsy is characterized by a one-sided facial droop that comes on within 72 hours.
The facial nerve controls a number of functions, such as blinking and closing the eyes, smiling, frowning, lacrimation, salivation, flaring nostrils and raising eyebrows. It also carries taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, via the chorda tympani nerve (a branch of the facial nerve). Because of this, people with Bell's palsy may present with loss of taste sensation in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue on the affected side
Although the facial nerve innervates the stapedii muscles of the middle ear (via the tympanic branch), sound sensitivity and discuses are hardly ever clinically evident.
Although defined as a mononeuritis (involving only one nerve), people diagnosed with Bell’s palsy may have "myriad neurological symptoms" including "facial tingling, moderate or severe headache/neck pain, memory problems, balance problems, ipsilateral limb paresthesia’s, ipsilateral limb weakness, and a sense of clumsiness" that are "unexplained by facial nerve dysfunction
Some viruses are thought to establish a persistent (or latent) infection without symptoms, e.g., the varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr viruses, both of the herpes family. Reactivation of an existing (dormant) viral infection has been suggested . as a cause of acute Bell's palsy. Studies suggest that this new activation could be preceded by trauma, environmental factors, and metabolic or emotional disorders, thus suggesting that a host of different conditions may trigger reactivation
Once the facial paralysis sets in, many people may mistake it as a symptom of a stroke; however, there are a few subtle differences. A stroke will usually cause a few additional symptoms, such as numbness or weakness in the arms and legs. And unlike Bell's palsy, a stroke will usually let patients control the upper part of their faces. A person with a stroke will usually have some wrinkling of their forehead. One disease that may be difficult to exclude in the differential diagnosis is involvement of the facial nerve in infections with the herpes zoster virus. The major differences in this condition are the presence of small blisters, or vesicles, on the external ear and hearing disturbances, but these findings may occasionally be lacking (zoster sine herpete). Reactivation of existing herpes zoster infection leading to facial paralysis in a Bell's palsy type pattern is known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2.Lyme disease may produce facial palsy.[12] Sometimes the facial palsy occurs at the same time as the classic erythema migrans rash.[12] Other times, it occurs later.[12] In areas where Lyme disease is common, it may be the cause of facial palsy in half of cases.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Bells Palsy

...Bells Palsy Bell’s palsy is a condition that causes the facial muscles to weaken or become paralyzed. It's caused by trauma to the seventh cranial nerve, and is not permanent (There have been cases where the patient has not recovered). Bell's Palsy is not as uncommon as one might think. Worldwide statistics set the frequency at just over .02% of the population. Statistically this is one of every 5000 people over the course of a lifetime and 40,000 Americans every year [1]. Diabetics are more than four times more likely to develop Bell's palsy than the general population and the last trimester of pregnancy is considered to be a time of increased risk for Bell's palsy [2]. In 2004 I was diagnosed with Bells Palsy and it was at this point I decided that I needed to do all necessary research to make sure I would make a full recovery. Soon after diagnosis I learned that a number of factors not limited to but including; Herpes Simplex One, stress, insufficient sleep, upper respiratory infections, Rubella, Mumps, and Lyme disease could potentially cause Bells Palsy. Treatment usually consists of a physician prescribing an antiviral or steroid medication as this is thought to speed up recovery time. Symptoms usually last for less than 3 months but can last longer in extreme cases. In addition to antiviral or steroidal medication, there are alternate treatment options for someone looking to make as full a recovery as possible. One treatment, although controversial is......

Words: 407 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Bells Palsy

...Rationale I have selected Bell’s palsy as a minor health subject for critical analysis for three principal reasons. Firstly, it is the most common disorder affecting the facial nerves (Ardour, 1978). Secondly, research has noted that there appears little consensus in the literature regarding the causes and management of Bell’s palsy. Additionally the diagnosis is one of elimination. Tiemstra and Khatkhate (2007) demonstrate there are many other conditions which can mimic symptoms (See appendix one). I therefore wanted to analyse the available literature in order to be able to competently and safely recognise the condition in the urgent unscheduled care environment. Background Petruzelli (1991) states that Bell’s palsy is an acute paralysis of the facial nerve first described by the Scottish surgeon and anatomist, Sir Charles Bell . Niparko (1993) elaborates that it is a generally unilateral paralysis or weakness of facial musculature consistent with facial nerve damage and dysfunction. The anatomy of the facial nerve can be found in appendix two. Pietersen (2002) states that the cause is unknown, however, whilst the exact aetiology of Bell’s palsy is still debated, viral infections, vascular ischaemia, autoimmune inflammatory disorders and heredity have been postulated as causative. (Adour 1982, Burgess 1984, Lorber 1996). Murakami et al (1996) proposed that reactivation of herpes simplex virus in the geniculate ganglia was causative. A herpes simplex cause is......

Words: 3268 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Bells Palsy

...Hannah Mae Laguros BELL’S PALSY Definition: Acute peripheral CN VII (facial nerve) palsy of unknown cause Aka: prosoplegia, refrigeration palsy, ipsilat. Facial paralysis Anatomy * INNERVATIONS 1) Motor: to facial muscles, stapedius, post. digastric, stylohyoid 2) Parasympathetic: to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual salivary glands 3) Sensory: taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue Epidemiology * Annual Incidence 10-40/100,000 * Lifetime incidence 1:60 Cause * Widely accepted cause is HSV-1, however not proven * HSV mediates inflammatory/immune response which leads to myelin sheath degeneration, & edema which causes compression and further damage of CN VII Clinical Features 1. Sudden onset symptoms, usually hours w/ maximal weakness w/in 48 hrs 2. Unilateral 3. Eyebrow sagging 4. Inability to close eye 5. Loss of nasolabial fold 6. Decreased tearing 7. Hyperacusis 8. Loss of taste to anterior 2/3 tongue 9. Mouth droop Evaluation & Diagnosis * Bell’s Palsy is a clinical diagnosis based on * typical presentation * absence of other explanation or other underlying disease * absence of cutaneous lesions * otherwise normal neuro exam * Proceed with imaging (MRI) if * Atypical Presentation * Slowly progressive over 2-3 weeks * If no improvement in symptoms in 6 wks * Electrophysiology (CMAP) performed if complete facial......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Bell's Palsy

...Bell’s Palsy * Sir Charles Bell first described the anatomy and function of the facial nerve in the 1800s. * Bells Palsy describes the sudden paralysis of the facial (VIIth) cranial nerve which renders the patient unable to control the facial muscles on the affected side. * Also called the facial paralysis, is a disorder of the 7th cranial (facial) nerve, characterized by unilateral paralysis of the muscles * The aetiology is unclear although for some cases the presumed pathophysiology of Bells Palsy is due to inflammation from a viral infection. * It may recur on the same or opposite side of the face, and can be transient and permanent. * This disorder can occur at any ages but most often in adults between 20 and 60. * The incidence is equal in men and women. * 80% of clients recover completely within a few weeks to a few months (3/4 recover without treatment). * 15% recover some function but have permanent facial paralysis. POSSIBLE CAUSES * Blockage of the seventh cranial nerve (Facial) * Infection from herpes simplex virus * Meningitis * Compression of the nerve by a tumor * Haemorrhage * Trauma to the facial nerve RISK FACTORS * Pregnancy increases the risk threefold – mainly seen in third trimester to first week post partum * Diabetes * Viruses: Herpes Simplex Virus and Herpes Zoster Virus Sensory Loss of taste SYMPTOMS * Sudden onset (over hours) unilateral lower motor......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cerebral Palsy

...CEREBRAL PALSY Presented to Cerebral Palsy is defined as an abnormal development or damage affecting the motor centers of the brain, accompanied by neurological and physical abnormalities. According to CDC, Cerebral Palsy is the most common motor disability found in children. It affects movement, posture, and balance. In the majority of cases children are diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy by the age of three. Statistics show that on average every two to three children in one thousand fall victim to this disorder. The combined total of all children and adults in the United States living with Cerebral Palsy is estimated to be around 800,000. Symptoms vary from child to child as well as the age of onset. Some signs to look for are any disturbances in the development of learning. Such as if the child is having trouble learning to crawl, walk, rolling from side to side, or sitting by the appropriate age that developmental milestones should be achieved. If the child is only using one hand to grab things while keeping the other hand balled up into a fist. Another common behavior to look for is the child dragging one entire side of the body while trying to crawl with the use of only the opposite side. More causes for concern would be stiff muscles, exaggerated muscle reflexes, muscles not stiff enough resembling a flopping of the limbs, and difficulty with speech and eating. The website Cerebral Palsy Help......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Apply Effective Communication Skills in Nursing Practice

...Practice INTODUCTION: I am going to talk about Cerebral Palsy which is a nervous system disorder. In this disorder clients have dysarthria, a speech impediment, that makes it difficult for them to communicate. In nervous system the ability to communicate may be impaired by factors that include: * Damage to the speech centres in the brain, * Damage to the temporal lobes, which hinders the perception and interpretation of stimuli, * Damage to the cranial nerves responsible for movement of the lips, tongue, pharynx and larynx, * Limited motor function that hinders non-verbal communication gestures, * Visual or hearing deficits, * Altered levels of consciousness or mental status. ( Maureen farrell et al:(2005) Australia, Medical Surgical Nursing “Neurological Function” (see pp1896-1910), * Funnel, koutoukidis, et al:(2005) Australian, “Neurological Health” (see chapter 43, pg745). CEREBRAL PALSY: Cerebral Palsy comprises a group of neuromotor disorders resulting from prenatal, perinatal or postnatal cerebral hypoxia or damage. Thesedisorders is highest in premature infants or in infants who have experienced a difficulty birth resulting in cerebral damage. There are three common types of cerebral Palsy, although some individual may have symptoms of more than one type. The three types of cerebral palsy are spastic, athetoid or dyskinetic, and ataxic. CEREBRAL PALSY IN ADULTS: Children with special needs grow......

Words: 1171 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Case Study

...is presumed to have some reinforcing function 2. Acquired disorders: due to an injury. 3. Akathesia: A syndrome characterized by an inability to remain seated, with motor restlessness and a feeling of muscular quivering; may appear as a side effect of antipsychotic and neuroleptic medication. 4. Asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR): A primitive reflex, also called fencer’s response, found in infants, usually is no longer evident by 3 months of age. When neck is turned in one direction, the arm shoots out on the same side and flexes on the opposite side; similar changes occur in the legs. 5. Athetoid diplegia: A form of cerebral palsy primarily seen where there is no muscle control in which the legs are more affected than the arms. 6. Athetoid hemiplegia: A form of cerebral palsy which is a form of dyskinetic cerebral palsy associated with athetosis (constant random, writhing involuntary movements of the limbs. One side of the body is more affected than the other; usually, the arm is more affected than the leg. Because the motor neurons that control one side of the body are located in the opposite cerebral cortex, a right-side hemiplegia implies damage to or dysfunction of the left side of the brain, and vice versa. 7. Autonomy: Self-determination. 8. Beneficence: obligation to act to help the individual. 9. Binet and Simon: Mental testing movement. 10. Bootleg reinforcement: The reinforcement that an individual receives (usually attention......

Words: 2892 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Hesta

...Being the new girl Today is my first day at the junior high My first class is social studies Mrs. Rein. When I walk in she hands me a paper and says chair number 12 as she rolls her eyes and walks away. I hurry up and grab my chair as soon I get to sit down BAM I fall straight on my butt …….moment of silence then all of a sudden a burst of laughter I get up and the teacher says are you ok I said yes and she says good now don’t let it happen again. I sit down and immediately put my head down and waited to the bell rang I got up threw my paper on Mrs. Rein’s desk and dash out the room. I stayed in the bathroom until it was time to go. The whole bus ride home I thought, about what happened. As I came through the door my mom gave me a wet kiss and asked me how was my day I wiped her kiss away rolled my eyes and stormed to my room my mom came in the room and ask me was I ok. I wiped my eyes and said everything’s great and sat back as she hit me with a pillow and says hey, everything’s going to be just fine I’ll have my new job in just a couple days and maybe if everything’s not good by then you could probably move back with your dad k she got up and said dinner would be done in a hot second I said what are we having she said steak and closed the door. After we ate dinner my mom took us to Milles ice-cream and we picked out a couple of toppings to put on our ice-cream my mom just got the usual blue berry frozen yogurt my brother got a peanut-butter swirl crunch cone with......

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Reviewing a Concert

...10 compositions preformed with an intermission in between. Some major compositions that were preformed included the hit songs “call me maybe” and “counting stars”. I was quite surprised when I initially saw the program and the songs listed, because it was hard for me to comprehend how a group with bells could produce songs that we are so accustomed to hearing on the radio. Once the concert got started, I enjoyed seeing how all the bells complimented one another by the different sounds they produced. The concert itself was quite entertaining to me. I was really impressed by how 14-year-old kids could play together and be so professional. Another thing I observed was how some of the members of the ensemble played multiple instruments, which was really impressive. From the start the members of the ensemble tried to get the audience involved in the performance. The director after the first couple of songs introduced the students individually. It was a nice way of getting to know the members of the ensemble on a personal level. It was hard to say any one member of the group stood out from the others because they all worked in sync but the one of the members David played multiple bells at the same time. The audience really seemed to enjoy the music, which was surprising to me. The crowd was older, and I initially thought they would not know many of the...

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Time Check

...143993 Daniel Olivan EN12 (R70) March 27, 2015 Time Check July 21, 2014. It was another Monday and it was a school day. I woke up early and drove to Ateneo de Manila University where I took up chemistry with materials science engineering. It was my first year in college and the semester just started a month ago, so I was only beginning to get to know the people in my course. On that Monday, my first class was chemistry and good thing that it was only a 50-minute class. I cannot take in all the formulas that Dr. Valera just discussed. My stress level was already too high. It was 8:20 am. My blockmates, Mariel, Diego, and Magin wanted to eat first before their next classes start. They have class at 9:30 while my next one was at 10:30, so we all headed to JSEC which was a cafeteria. After choosing a table, I volunteered to reserve the table and keep guard of their bags while the three of them went to food stalls to order. I checked my phone and it was 8:30 already but still I see no sign of him. Magin was the first one who got back and sat down with his bacon and eggs with fried rice. I expected that he would have mentioned his name, but he didn’t. Instead, he talked about how difficult it was to remember all of the dates in our upcoming history exam next week. I agreed and started asking him what the coverage of the exam was, so that he wouldn’t notice that I wasn’t paying much attention to what he was saying. The truth was I just...

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

All About Pigs

...study grammar and vocabulary, and create projects that will count as major assignments. Expectations You will be expected to be an integral part of the classroom through active participation in class discussions, activities, and through completion of your assignments. Our class can only be as good as our weakest link. So hopefully you will be a strong contributor to our class and in turn you will learn a lot and have fun in the process. Rules  Be Prepared o You come prepared with all materials and homework daily  Be Polite  Be Prompt o You must be in your seat working when the bell rings or else you will be marked tardy  Follow all school rules These rules cover everything and they will be discussed in greater detail on the first day of class. *Remember that the bell does NOT dismiss you. You should not begin packing your belongings until I have dismissed you after the bell. Bathroom Policy You will be given 6 bathroom passes at the start of each six weeks. You may use these at your discretion; however, they should not be used when I am in the middle of a lesson. Wait until we break for individual or group activities. You should go quickly so that you do not miss out on too much instruction. However many unused passes you have at the end of each six weeks will count as extra points...

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Liberty Bell

...Sound of the Freedom- The Liberty Bell Figure 1 Liberty Bell Forever Stamp Figure 1 Liberty Bell Forever Stamp Meaning can be found even in the most mundane of objects. For instance, consider the USA First Class stamp. On its upper left corner, the number 2008 shows that this stamp was produced in year 2008. The right side of the stamp says “USA FIRST-CLASSS FOREVER”, meaning that this postage stamp is valid for First-Class postage in the United States no matter when it is used. There is an extraordinary metal bell is in the middle of the stamp – the Liberty Bell, a venerable historic relic that I am going to analyze in the rest of this research paper. The bell was first known by the world as a metal musical instrument in ancient China. Tuned bells in that age were created and played to be performed only for imperial families and noblemen, as a symbol of power and status. Later on, bells became widely used in different religions. For example, bells played an important role in the Eastern world of Buddhism and Hinduism as temple bells. In western world, bells were commonly used as church bells or town bells for gathering people together. In 1752, the Quaker William Penn, legislator and founder of the Pennsylvania colony in 1682, had decided and commissioned the bell to be cast in London, and brought to North America to hang in the State House of the colony of Pennsylvania. “They had ordered very......

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Classroom Management Routines

... B. Routines. Describe one routine for each situation. Secondary Situations: 1. Beginning of class. Prepare to study. 2. End of class. Exiting the classroom. 3. Transition between classes. Two minute drill. 4. Distribution of materials. Passing out papers. 5. Field trip. Start of field trip. 6. Lunch. Entering the lunchroom. 7. Fire or disaster drills. Exiting the classroom. C. Procedures. Outline a three step procedure for each routine. 1. Beginning of class routine. Prepare to study. a. Students must sharpen pencils before class starts. b. Students must be seated by the time the last bell rings signaling start of class. c. Students must have appropriate materials for classroom tasks arranged on desk. 2. End of class routine. Exiting the classroom. a. Students must be seated before dismissal. b. Students are dismissed when teachers says; not when the bell rings. c. Students must exit the classroom in an orderly fashion. 3. Transition between classes routine. Two minute drill. a. A student (chosen at start of each week) turns lights off and on several times to signal to the other students to start the two minute drill. b. Students must finish up what they are doing and gather any material or resources they need to take home. c. Students should return to their desks and place binders and books into their backpack or book bag. 4. Distribution of materials routine. Passing out papers. a. If desks arranged in rows then the students sitting at......

Words: 717 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

He Was Dead

...I was so pleased for the opportunity I had been offered of the schools principal! He took a look at my grades and he was rapidly in dialogue with my parents about school stuff. I thought that this would be my final opportunity to show who I really am. Something I wasn`t able to at my former school. So this would be my second chance and I was so excited! Before my first day at the new school I started getting a little nervous. A bit like performance anxiety when an actor is on stage for the first time. But unfortunately I never managed to control my anxiety. The thoughts about my new classmates were killing me! How were they like? Were they going to accept me for who I am? What if no one would talk to me? So many thoughts about my upcoming “new life”. I was so excited but at the same time so frightened. It was 7 o’ clock in the morning. My dad entered my room and did a great scene when he dropped the tray with bread and some freshly squeezed juice. I hoped this would be the first of many laughs that day! After my dads accident I took some of my favourite clothes on, so I would look presentable at my first day in “my new life”. When I was fairly pleased with the choice of my outfit I asked my dad to hurry up. He was incredibly slow when it came to getting ready in the morning. It was like he didn’t understand the concern for my first day at the new school. I knocked severely on the door and yelled loudly: “daddy! Why are you so slow?” He answered: “honey just mind your...

Words: 959 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Hurry

...• From the archives oposit hilton kae JOHN MOGO CLASS SIX NORTH END TERM COMPOSITION Hurry hurry has no blessings... The bell of brek kraid dong dong dong obonyo the bell bita bit the bel with a lot of gusto we run outside classrum like cows with mad cows disis obonyo bit the bel infront of the time with two minits we knowed he was have many money and wanted to eat sambus min john at the chest of the fence. Me and juma and john and kevin we don't have money so we disaid to play polis and a thif. Me and john was polis and juma was athif. We stat raning afta him he wented behind the classrom and I teld tom " cut for him like this I cut for him like that we kach him there". One God am tell you juma was ran like a gasel I said in my head me this run has difited me and I stop wea kina obonyo was eating sambusa and leave other stupids to chase juma, Then I so olweny and thinked this is the olweny who give me disk yesteday beacause I say steelwire and he said "steelwaya is dholuo take the disk you should say steelwool" I thoughted and myself and said maybe olweny is saying true because even my grandmother says steelwaya and my my grandmother nyakochia don't know english. So I went awenta uptu wea josphine giri wa drinking porij I beg them give small asayi give me small yawa kumbe this pipo were mesharing me they had putted salt in porij and they give me the porij kwiklikwili and teld me drink only small one sip. i say in my head" eeh jogi kawuono beyo adwa lungo ma......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2