Premium Essay

Benefits Of Chloride And Sodium Salt

Submitted By
Words 318
Pages 2
Even though our home state of Georgia may not experience harsh and infamous winters, icy and slippery roads are still a pressing issue throughout other parts the country. More than one hundred thousand Americans are injured and over one thousand and five hundred are killed on snowy, slushy or icy pavement every winter. Snow plows cannot always solve this issue, and rarely do, which is where chemistry comes in. In order to melt ice quickly and efficiently, the melting point of the ice must be lowered so the temperature of the air is not low enough to keep the ice in a solid state. Salt has the capability to do just that. Although Sodium chloride and Magnesium chloride each have their own benefits and have classically been used as defrosting...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Pros And Cons Of Sodium Chloride

...According to the Federal Highway Administration,Nearly 70 percent of the U.S. population lives in regions of annual snowfall.As a result, over 1,300 people are killed and more than 116,800 people are injured in vehicle crashes on icy roads covered in snow,sleet,or hail every year.7 To alleviate the risk factors, City officials use Sodium chloride,rock salt, to assist in the melting process of ice to reassure safe environmental driving conditions. Is Sodium Chloride(NaCl) the best? Recent studies have suggested that Sodium Chloride, while it is currently in use, is not the best solution in regards to environmental safety or effectiveness due to the damage associated with its usage ; Chloride-based deicers contaminate groundwater, are not...

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Care Plan (Hyponatremia)

...will: Display heart rate, BP, and laboratory results within normal limits. Between 9am-12pm 5/7/152) The patient will: display absence of cardiac dysrhythmias, muscle weakness, paresthesias, twitching, spasms, and dizziness between 9am-12pm 5/7/15 | Assess: Identify the patient at risk for hyponatremia and the specific cause, sodium loss or fluid excess.1) Monitor I&O. Calculate fluid balance. Weigh daily.(Indicators of fluid balance are important, because either fluid excess or deficit may occur with hyponatremia.) 2) Assess level of consciousness/neuromuscular response. (Sodium deficit may result in decreased mentation (to point of coma), as well as generalized muscleweakness/cramps, convulsions.)3) Maintain quiet environment; provide safety/seizure precautions.(Reduces CNS stimulation and risk of injury from neurological complications)4) Encourage foods and fluids high in sodium, e.g., milk,meat, eggs, carrots, beets, and celery. Use fruit juices and bouillon instead of plain water(Unless sodium deficit causes serious symptoms requiringimmediate IV replacement, the patient may benefit fromslower replacement by oral method or removal of  previous salt restriction.)5) Observe for signs of...

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Dehydration Paper SCI/241 October 27, 2012 Water consumption is important to the body in order to maintain optimum health and function properly. The content of this paper will look at a few of the functions of water in the body and what can happen if enough water is not taken in, resulting in dehydration. Following the functions of water, I will discuss dehydration and its stages and symptoms. I will also cover the essential electrolytes in the body, sodium, potassium, and chloride their location, functions, intake recommendations, and the dangers of taking in too much of each. Alcohol and caffeine can have a negative effect on how the body uses water, so I will discuss and explain how both of these substances affect water in the body. Lastly, this paper will discuss ways to avoid becoming dehydrated. Water makes up over half of our body weight. In men, it is approximately 60 percent of their body weight and for women it is approximately 50 percent (Grosvenor & Smolin, 2006). Some of the main functions of water in the body are to help lubricate joints, regulates body temperature, and helps remove waste from the body and aids in the digestion process. When a person experiences joint pain, it is a sign of lack of water. Cartilage within the joints is about 80 percent water and provides a smooth surface for the joints to move on, but that is only the case if enough water is consumed. Lack of water means less lubrication for the joints causing......

Words: 1482 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

What You Eat Is What You Get

...Get Name: Daniel C. Monares Year and section: 1A7 Date of submission: August 2, 2013 Submitted to: Table of Content Page Number Page Number 1.) Argentina Meatloaf 3 3.) PureFoods Liver Spread 7 Ingredients 3 Beef or Pork Liver 7 Sodium Nitrite 3 Water 8 Phosphates 3 Starch 8 Sodium Erythorbate 3 Flour 8 MSG 4 Sugar 8 Vegetable Protein 4 Iodized Salt 8 Cornstarch 4 Vegetable Protein 9 Sugar 4 Spices 9 Water 4,5 MSG 9 Iodized Salt 5 Flavor 9 Pork 5 Sodium Nitrite 9 Beef 5 4.) Heinz Tomato Ketchup 10 Mechanically Separated Chicken 5 Ingredients 10 Water 10 2.) PureFoods Corned Beef 5 Tomato Paste 10 Ingredients 5 Sugar 10 Cooked Beef 6 Vinegar 10 Beef Broth 6 Salt 11 Iodized Salt 6 Onion Powder 11 Sugar 6 Spice 11 Phosphate 6,7 Spice Extracts 11 MSG 7 5.) Mang Tomas 12 Sodium Nitrite 7 Ingredients 12 1.) Argentina Meatloaf Ingredients: sodium nitrite, phosphates, sodium erythorbate, msg, vegetable protein, cornstarch, sugar, water, iodized salt, pork, beef, mechanically separated chicken Sodium Nitrite: -A white to yellowish crystalline that is very soluble in water and is hygroscopic. It is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula of NANO2 -It is usually used as a food preservative because it fixes the color of fish or meat. It is also used as......

Words: 4474 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Cystic Fibrosis

... This disease is still very life threatening even though science, medicine, and  technology have come a long way since the mid 20th century. In the past fifty years, cystic  fibrosis patients have gone from dying as infants to having their average life expectancy be from  35­40 years old, (Kaneshiro.)   Cystic fibrosis is caused by a mutation of the CFTR gene. This gene makes a protein  called CFTR or (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.) This protein balances the salt and  water content on epithelial surfaces by providing a channel for the movement of chloride ions in  and out of cells, (Genetics and Nutrition.) The CFTR protein can be altered if there is a fatal  mutation in the CF gene. Although there are so many different mutations of this gene, the most  common is found in almost ninety percent of all cystic fibrosis patients. This mutation is just a  simple deletion of three nucleotides. These three nucleotides were to create the amino acid  phenylalanine, but with CF, that is never made. The CF protein never makes it to the cell  membrane and can never regulate sodium chloride travel, (Genetics and Nutrition.)   This CF gene is found on chromosome number seven. In order to have cystic fibrosis, the  person needs to have two copies of a mutated CF gene on this chromosome, one being from the  mom and one from the dad. This is because cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder and  the normal gene is...

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Great Salt Lake Ecosystem

...Great Salt Lake Ecosystem The Great Salt Lake is the remnant of Lake Bonneville that covered much of Western Utah and parts of Nevada and Idaho during the Pleistocene Era. It is a terminal lake, three and a half to eight times saltier than the oceans, which supports brine shrimp and flies along with algae and bacteria that have adapted specially to this extreme environment. It has three contributing rivers that flow into it, the Bear, Provo/Jordan, and the Weber. There are no fish that can survive in the lake, but it has become a resting ground for some two to five million migratory birds making it an important bird refuge (United States Geological Survey, 2013). Although the saltiness and general lack of organisms would make the Lake to appear as simple it is a fragile, complex ecosystem. Structural and Functional Dynamics of Great Salt Lake The structure of the Great Salt Lake lends to very dramatic changes in the size and volume of the lake with even small changes in water amounts. The Lake only averages 14-16 feet in depth with the deepest part around 34 feet, and an elevation of 4200 feet above sea level. At its lowest point of 4191.35 in 1963, or just eight feet lower than its historic average, the Lake saw a decrease of surface area from 1700 square miles to 950 square miles (United States Geological Survey, 2013). With just an increase of 11.6 feet of elevation the surface area jumped to more than 3300 square miles. The Lake serves the millions of......

Words: 964 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Onion Skin Cell Lab

...Cell * Slide * Cover Slip * Iodine * Salt * Water Procedure: Part 1: 1) Attain an onion skin cell sample which has been soaking in tap water from your science teacher. 2) Prepare a wet-mount slide for the onion skin cell directed by your teacher. 3) Add iodine to the onion and place a cover slip on top of the onion. 4) Observe the slide under all magnifications and sketch Proper Biological Diagrams for each power. (4x, 10x, 40x) Part 2: 1) Repeat the same lab procedure as you did with soaking onion skin cells in tap water last day, but now using the onion and soaking it into saltwater. 2) Prepare a wet-mount slide for the onion skin cell done by your teacher. 3) Add iodine to the onion and place a cover slip on top of the onion. 4) Examine the slide under all magnifications and sketch Proper Biological Diagrams for each power. (4x, 10x, 40x) Hypothesis: If tap water is added to the onion skin cells then the water will absorb and swell up because, osmosis is occurred and it becomes completely inflated. If saltwater is added to the onion skin cells then the cells would wrinkle up and probably shrink because, once the onion is placed in salt solution, it will dehydrate since it’s hypertonic. The water would leave the cell by diffusion to get an osmosis balance. Observations: Quantitative Variables: * Amount of salt * Amount of water * What time you start......

Words: 1935 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Science Investigatory Project

...Aratilis (Muntingiacalabura) Leaves Extract as Anti-BacterialLiquidHand Soap Ellen May G. Adenic Iloilo City National High School March 2016 Problem The study intends to find out the Effectiveness of Aratilis Leaves as Liquid Anti-Bacterial Hand Soap. Specifically, the study would like to answer the following questions: 1. Can I make hand soap from Aratilis leaves extract? 2. Is there a significant difference between Aratilis leaves and commercial product soap? Hypothesis Null Hypotheses 1. There is no significant study that aratilis leaves extract can be effective as anti-bacterial liquid hand soap. 2. There is no significant difference between Aratilis leaves and commercial product soap anti-bacterial property. Alternative Hypotheses 1. There is a significant study that aratilis leaves extract is effective as anti-bacterial liquid hand soap. 2. There is a significant difference between Aratilis leaves and commercial product soap anti-bacterial property. Introduction There are many Aratilis Tree planted all around us but not known as anti-bacterial agent, so the researcher has decided to make the aratilis leaves as anti-bacterial liquid hand soap.Aratilis tree is well known in our country, for many people have been planted it in some places whether the soil is healthy or not, it still grow as an ordinary tree. People thought that the only use of tree is to bear fruits to be eaten... but this tree is also extra-ordinary for......

Words: 2491 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Chem Syllabus

...CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate CSEC® CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS Effective for examinations from May–June 2015 CXC 21/G/SYLL 13 Published by the Caribbean Examinations Council. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the author or publisher. Correspondence related to the syllabus should be addressed to: The Pro-Registrar Caribbean Examinations Council Caenwood Centre 37 Arnold Road, Kingston 5, Jamaica Telephone Number: + 1 (876) 630-5200 Facsimile Number: + 1 (876) 967-4972 E-mail Address: Website: Copyright © 2013 by Caribbean Examinations Council The Garrison, St Michael BB14038, Barbados CXC 21/G/SYLL 13 Contents RATIONALE ................................................................................................................................... AIMS ............................................................................................................................................. CANDIDATE POPULATION ............................................................................................................. SUGGESTED TIME-TABLE ALLOCATION ........................................................................................ ORGANISATION OF THE SYLLABUS .................................................

Words: 24316 - Pages: 98

Premium Essay


...the mixture is more volatile (boiling point is lower) than the soluble solid, the soluble solid will remain while the liquid evaporates. The procedure employs the use of an evaporating dish and a Bunsen burner. | Crystallisation | Another method of dissolved solids from a liquid mixture (solution)The impure salt is dissolved in water at a high temperature to create a concentrated solution.The mixture is then cooled and the salt crystallises, leaving the impurity in the solution.This crystallised slat contains much less of the impurity than before. The salt can then be filtered and dried.Sugar cane industry. | Assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials, identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations Yes, fractional distillation can separate a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen because they have similar (but not the same) boiling points. Could filtration successfully separate sand from a sand-salt mixture? No. Without water the salts in the sand and salt mixture will not separate out via filtration because filtration requires an insoluble solid plus a liquid mixture, which in this case would be salt + water Describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists * the process of determining the % by mass of one substance in a mixture * It is used to determine whether mining is economically feasible * to determine the composition of......

Words: 6530 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

You Are What You Eat

...put into our body will affect us in many ways.   Food is something that can’t only be something that tastes good.   It needs to be something that doesn’t hurt your body.   There are so many benefits to eating healthy.   For example, it can give you more energy throughout the day.   Studies show that something like a bowl of oatmeal is one of the best ways to start of your morning.   Eating healthy can also make you stronger physically.   Putting the right food in your body can do as much as burning off fats.   Overall, it keeps your body at its best and can help you move forward at your best. Some people in the world like to see you are what you eat as describing the particular foods that people eat.   For example, someone may only like vegetables such as a vegetarian, and others may only eat sushi.   To narrow it down, some people may like mashed potatoes, and others may like to eat macaroni and cheese.   The food that people prefer can characterize them in many different ways.   To say that you are what you eat, can mean a variety of thing to other people.   Depending on how you look at it, it can mean anything from a healthy stand point to the way you characterize people in the kinds of food that they prefer.   Eating healthy is a major part of the body that can give us many benefits in life. What we choose to eat, can define us in ways that we may or may not like.   Choosing what we eat can also show what kind of person we decide to be.   Either way, this statement......

Words: 1458 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Tanner Industry-Waste Treatment

...MEDITERRANEAN Pollution prevention opportunities in the Tanning sector industry CLEANER within the mediterranean region production Regional Activity Centre for Cleaner Production (RAC/CP) Mediterranean Action Plan Ministry of the Environment Spain Autonomous Government of Catalonia Ministry of the Environment Centre for Cleaner Production Initiatives Pollution Prevention Opportunities in the Tanning Sector Industry within the Mediterranean Region Note: This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form of educational and non-profit purposes without special permission from the Regional Activity Centre for Cleaner Production (RAC/CP), provided acknowledgement of the source is made. RAC/CP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this material as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purposes whatsoever without prior permission in writing from RAC/CP. If you consider that some part of this study could be improved or there is any lack of precision, we would appreciate if you could notify it to us. Study finished on January 2000 Study published on October 2000 Additional copies or information could be requested to: Regional Activity Centre for Cleaner Production (RAC/CP) C/ París, 184 – 3ª planta 08036 Barcelona (Spain) Tf. (+34) 93 415 11 12 - Fax (+34) 93 237 02 86 e-mail: Web page: Page 1 of 162 Pollution...

Words: 36551 - Pages: 147

Premium Essay

Seawaters of cold drinking water, and you enjoy it. Do you think to yourself where did this begin. It comes from seawater. Seawater has been strongly transformed to pure drinking water for personal drinking. Seawater properties are primarily salt. The eradication of the physical and chemical properties shift seawater into a current recyclable unit. Reverse osmosis and multi flash distillation are two approaches that a few countries are using to turn seawater into drinking water, but there are some risks and assets to this procedure that individuals should examine. Physical and Chemical Properties of Seawater Seawater has water and various salts. Atoms and molecules are present in the physical and chemical properties. Potassium, magnesium, sulfate, calcium and bicarbonate are seen in seawater alone. This is the salinity of seawater alone. Sodium Chloride is about 86% of the chemical compound. Magnesium sulfate is about 11%, 3% is related with the combination of potassium bromide and calcium bicarbonate. The moderate combination of all salts dissolved in seawater fluctuates somewhat. (Fischetti, 2007) The Mediterranean Sea has about 40,000 milligrams of salt per liter whereas the Pacific Ocean has about 33,000 milligrams of salt per liter. Conversion of Seawater to Drinking Water Seawater is converted into drinking water in two parts; Reverse Osmosis and Multistage flash distillation. Multistage flash distillation uses cold water and with high flash pressure it......

Words: 731 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Soft Drinks

...soft drinks in the U.S. was 49 gallons, 15 gallons more than the next most popular beverage, water. The roots of soft drinks extend to ancient times. Two thousand years ago Greeks and Romans recognized the medicinal value of mineral water and bathed in it for relaxation, a practice that continues to the present. In the late 1700s Europeans and Americans began drinking the sparkling mineral water for its reputed therapeutic benefits. The first imitation mineral water in the U.S. was patented in 1809. It was called "soda water" and consisted of water and sodium bicarbonate mixed with acid to add effervescence. Pharmacists in America and Europe experimented with myriad ingredients in the hope of finding new remedies for various ailments. Already the flavored soda waters were hailed as brain tonics for curing headaches, hangovers, and nervous afflictions. Pharmacies equipped with "soda fountains" featuring the medicinal soda water soon developed into regular meeting places for local populations. Flavored soda water gained popularity not only for medicinal benefits but for the refreshing taste as well. The market expanded in the 1830s when soda water was first sold in glass bottles. Filling and capping the gaseous liquid in containers was a difficult process until 1850, when a manual filling and corking machine was successfully designed. The term "soda pop" originated in the 1860s from the popping sound of escaping gas as a soda bottle was opened. New soda flavors constantly......

Words: 5213 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Hsc Chemistry Notes

...materials such as those from the petrochemical industry. As the fossil organic reserves dwindle, new sources of the organic chemicals presently used have to be found. In addition, chemists are continually searching for compounds to be used in the design and production of new materials to replace those that have been deemed no longer satisfactory for needs. This module increases students’ understanding of the implications of chemistry for society and the environment and the current issues, research and developments in chemistry. 1.1 Construct word and balanced formulae equations of all chemical reactions as they are encountered in this module: • Acid reactions: o acid (aq) + base (aq)  salt (aq) + water (l) o acid (aq) + active metal (s)  salt (aq) + hydrogen (g) o acid (aq) + metal carbonate (s)  salt (aq) + water (l) + carbon dioxide (g) • Cracking of long chain alkanes (e.g. decane) to give a shorter chain alkene & alkane o Thermal cracking (heated with steam in absence of O2 to 750-900°C) Initiation: C10H22  2C5H11· Propagation: C5H11·  C3H7· + C2H4 Termination: 2C3H7·  C6H14 o Catalytic cracking zeolite (heated in absence of O2 to 500°C)...

Words: 34562 - Pages: 139