Free Essay

Benito Mussolini

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Viking1
Words 1636
Pages 7
-------------------------------------------------
Referat
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Pe tema: Benitto Mussolini
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Pregatit de:
-------------------------------------------------
Balica Marin
-------------------------------------------------
Clasa 10-v
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
2013
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Plan:
* 1 Scurtă trecere în revistă a dictaturii lui Benito Mussolini * 2 Biografie timpurie * 3 Conflicte cu Mișcarea Socialistă Italiană și anii primului Război Mondial * 4 Dictatorul Fascist Mussolini, "Il Duce" * 5 Intervențiile armate în Etiopia, Spania * 6 Al Doilea Război Mondial * 7 Moartea lui Benito Mussolini
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Benito Mussolini
-------------------------------------------------

Benito Mussolini | |
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (n. 29 iulie, 1883, Predappio lângă Forlì – d. 28 aprilie, 1945, Giulino di Mezzegra lângă Como) a fost conducătorul fascist al Italiei între anii 1922 și 1943. A creat un stat fascist utilizând propaganda și teroarea de stat. Folosindu-și carisma, controlul total al mediei și intimidarea rivalilor politici, a ruinat sistemul democratic de guvernare existent. Intrarea sa în cel de-al Doilea Război Mondial alături de Germania lui Hitler a făcut din Italia o țintă pentru atacurile Aliaților, ceea ce a dus în final la căderea dictaturii fasciste mussoliniene și moartea lui. În noiembrie 2004 a fost votat al 34-lea mare italian într-un sondaj de opinie TV. * 1 Scurtă trecere în revistă a dictaturii lui Benito Mussolini * 2 Biografie timpurie * 3 Conflicte cu Mișcarea Socialistă Italiană și anii primului Război Mondial * 4 Dictatorul Fascist Mussolini, "Il Duce" * 5 Intervențiile armate în Etiopia, Spania * 6 Al Doilea Război Mondial * 7 Moartea lui Benito Mussolini

Ca prim-ministru al Italiei pentru o perioadă de aproape 21 de ani, și mai apoi președinte al Republicii Sociale de la Salo (Repubblica Sociale di Salò), Benito Mussolini ar fi vrut să redea Italiei gloria Romei Antice și strălucirea Renașterii Italiene.
Economic, pe plan intern, a reușit să reducă sensibil șomajul și să îmbunătățească serviciile prestate de Căile Ferate Italiene, să organizeze Poliția Statului, să înceapă lupta împotriva Mafiei din Sicilia și sudul Italiei.
Prețul acestor aparente realizări economice deosebite a fost denigrarea practic totală a poporului italian și a primului său ministru în afara teritoriului țării, în special la Liga Națiunilor Unite.
A invadat Etiopia în 1935 și a participat la Războiul civil din Spania (1936 - 1939) de partea generalului Francisco Franco, fiind în același timp criticat de Marea Britanie și Franța, ambele puteri coloniale.
Benito Mussolini nu a fost, în mod evident, nici religios și nici moral. Deși, la începutul anilor 1920 a interzis organizațiile catolice ale tineretului italian, mai târziu, în 1929, a îmbunătățit - într-un fel - relațiile cu Biserica Romano-Catolică prin semnarea Concordatului cu Papa Pius XI, la 11 februarie 1929. Conform documentului, papei este recunoscută suveranitatea Papalității asupra Vaticanului, iar catolicismul devine religie de stat în Italia. În schimb, Papalitatea recunoștea statul italian. Astfel se încheia o dispută veche din 1871.
-------------------------------------------------
Biografie timpurie
Născut la Dovia, în Italia, în 29 iulie 1883, ca fiu al unei învățătoare de țară și al unui fierar. Școala elementară o face în Dovia. Natura sa rebelă și indisciplina sa "naturală" se văd încă din timpul frecventării școlii secundare, la Predappio, pe care a terminat-o cu greu, la 14 ani, fiind de mai multe ori aproape de exmatriculare. Trimis apoi la Faenza, la un liceu al Călugărilor Silezieni, se revoltă din nou, contra ordinii și diciplinei impuse, fiind exmatriculat. Trimis în cele din urmă la un liceu public din Forlí, îl termină cu dificultate datorată, din nou, naturii și comportamentului său anarhice. După terminarea liceului, pentru o scurtă perioadă de timp, a predat într-o școală elementară. În 1902, pleacă în Elveția unde trăiește pe apucate, prestând tot felul de munci necalificate. În timpul șederii sale în Elveția, a intrat deseori în conflicte cu poliția locală pentru vagabondaj și încăiereri. În 1904 se întoarce în Italia pentru satisfacereaserviciului militar obligatoriu. Predă, din nou, în școli elementare, între 1907 - 1908. În 1909, se mută în Trent, Austria, astăzi Trento, Italia, unde a lucrat pentru un ziar de orientare socialistă, lucrând, în același timp, la câteva din scrierile sale timpurii. Din nou, intră în conflict cu autoritățile locale, de data asta cu cele din Austria, pentru poziția sa public revanșardă față de pretențile teritoriale ale Italiei la regiunea din jurul orașului Trent. Ca urmare, este expulzat dinAustria. După reîntoarcerea în Italia, editează un ziar socialist în Forlí, și, ulterior, devine editor la un alt ziar socialist, "Avanti!", considerat la vremea respectivă cel mai important ziar socialist din Italia.
-------------------------------------------------
Conflicte cu Mișcarea Socialistă Italiană și anii primului Război Mondial
La declanșarea Primului Război Mondial, Benito Mussolini intră în conflict deschis cu conducătorii Partidului Socialist Italian pentru poziția sa deschis și vehement exprimată de intrare a Italiei în război împotriva Germaniei.
Ca rezultat direct al "nesupunerii" sale față de politica partidului, la 25 noiembrie 1914, Mussolini este expulzat din Partidul Socialist Italian.
Imediat, Mussolini înfințează propriul său ziar, Il Popolo d'Italia (Poporul Italiei, în limba română), în care scrie editoriale virulente prin care încerca să determine schimbarea opiniei publice în sensul dorit de el cu scopul de face ca Italia să intre în război.
Când Italia a intrat în război, Benito Mussolini s-a încris ca voluntar în armată, devenind caporal, precum un alt caporal celebru, Adolf Hitler.
În război, a servit efectiv pe câmpul de luptă, din septembrie 1915 până în februarie 1917 când a fost rănit și apoi demobilizat.
-------------------------------------------------
Dictatorul Fascist Mussolini, "Il Duce"
În martie 1919, mai exact la 23 martie, Mussolini fondează la Milano primul grup politic de orientare fascistă (a se vedea Fascism), fasci di combattimento ['fa:ʃʃi di kombat:i'me:nto ].
Inițial programul grupului său politic avea o orientare strict naționalistă, căutând să atragă categoria largă a veteranilor Primului Război Mondial. Ca un laitmotiv, Mussolini insista pe refacerea gloriei Romei antice.
Mai târziu, realizând că grupul său țintă de veterani de război nu este suficient pentru realizarea țelurilor sale politice, Mussolini adaugă o altă componentă programului său fascist, care se adresa specific italienilor bogați, proprietari de companii și terenuri.
În octombrie 1922, Mussolini organizează "Marșul asupra Romei" (Marcia su Roma). La ordinul său, mii de fasciști se îndreaptă spre Roma pentru a prelua puterea. Intimidat și temându-se de un război civil, regele Victor Emanuel III îl desemnează pe Mussolini drept prim-ministru. În anii următori, Mussolini preia treptat întreaga putere, luându-și titlul de "Il Duce" și impunând în Italia cultul propriei personalități.
-------------------------------------------------
Intervențiile armate în Etiopia, Spania
În 1935 și 1936, având ca bază de operații militare Somalia, care era deja o colonie italiană la acea vreme, forțele militare italiene invadează (la 3 octombrie 1935) și cuceresc cu ușurință Etiopia, țară pașnică, practic lipsită de forțe armate.
Absolut fără nici o glorie, folosind armament dintre cel mai modern pentru acea vreme (tancuri, tunuri, mitraliere, mortiere, puști, pistoale, gaze de lupta, etc.), armata italiană măcelărește, în maniera clară a unui genocid atât populația pașnică cât și pe acei care s-au încumetat cu vitejie să opună agresorilor doar arcuri cu săgeți și sulițe.
Cu aceeași ocazie, armata italiană cucerește cu ușurină evidentă și restul rămas necucerit al Somaliei, cât și teritoriile pe care se găsesc astăzi Djibouti și Eritreea.
În 1936, când Războiul Civil din Spania a izbucnit cu furie, divizând națiunea spaniolă în două, atât Adolf Hitler cât și Benito Mussolini hotărăsc, de comun acord, să sprijine prin toate modurile posibile liderul rebel spaniol, generalul Francisco Franco. Printre alte ajutoare militare, așa cum ar fi armament, muniție și bani, Mussolini trimite trupe italiene (circa 70.000 soldați între 1936-1938), care participă în lupte, în mod deschis, de partea naționaliștilor generalului Francisco Franco.
-------------------------------------------------
Al Doilea Război Mondial
După ce germanii invadaseră și ocupaseră aproape total Franța, trupele fasciste italiene intră în sudul Franței. Câteva zile mai târziu, Franța capitulează.
Cu excepția acestei "victorii de paie", trupele italiene au avut parte doar de dezastre oriunde s-au aflat: în Africa de Nord, în Grecia și, la sfârșitul războiului, chiar în Italia. De fapt, pentru o bună bucată de vreme, trupele germane au susținut puternic trupele italiene chiar pe teritoriul italian salvându-le de la un dezastru mai timpuriu. Dezastrul, soldat cu colapsul total al funcționalității armatei italiene, s-a produs odată cu deschiderea celui de-al doilea front de luptă în Italia în 1943 și înaintarea inexorabilă a aliaților de la sud spre nord.
Marele Consiliu Fascist s-a întors împotriva lui Mussolini în iulie 1943 acuzându-l de toate dezastrele militare italiene și retrăgându-i toate prerogativele de conducător. Mussolini a fost apoi arestat din ordinul regelui Victor Emanuel III, care l-a desemnat ca prim-ministru pe mareșalul Badoglio. Noul guvern a trecut de partea Aliaților.
Mussolini e eliberat de un comando german condus de Otto Skorzeny și instalat în fruntea unui stat-marionetă, în nordul Italiei, așa-numita Republică de la Salo.
-------------------------------------------------
Moartea lui Benito Mussolini
În primăvara lui 1945, când era clar că Axa pierduse războiul, după înfrângerea totală a armatelor germane din nordul Italiei, Benito Mussolini, împreună cu amanta sa, Clara Petacci, încearcă să fugă spre Elveția.
Cei doi se ascund într-o vilă, pe malul lacului Como, vilă ce fusese pregătită de mult ca refugiu în caz de dezastru. Partizanii italieni comuniști îi capturează la Dongo și fără judecată, „pentru crime împotriva poporului italian”, îi execută prin împușcare.[1] Cadavrele lor sunt duse la Milano și atârnate cu capul în jos, agățate de călcâie de o bară de acoperiș, împreună cu cadavrele altor câtorva demnitari fasciști, în fața unei benzinării mari a companiei Esso din Piazzale Loreto. La spectacol au asistat mii de italieni și numeroși militari ai armatei americane. Înainte de a fi atârnate, cadavrele au fost lăsate o vreme pe jos, în piațeta Loreto, înconjurate de mulțime. Unii loveau cadavrele cu picioarele, iar craniul lui Mussolini a fost strivit . Mai târziu, rămășițele pământești ale „Ducelui” au fost înmormântate în secret, de teama unor demostrații ale credincioșilor săi suporteri și/sau epigoni. În 1957-1958, la cererea văduvei sale, Benito Mussolini a fost deshumat și înmormântat lângă Predappio.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Business Folde Rinevitbale

...Influences/ turning points in Mussolini’s early life • Benito Mussolini was born in Dovia di Predappio, a small town in the province of Forlì in Emilia-Romagna on 29 July 1883. In the Fascist era, Predappio was said to be "Duce's town", and Forlì was "Duce's city". • Mussolini was named Benito after Mexican reformist President Benito Juárez. • Benito was the eldest of his parents' three children. • Mussolini's early political views were heavily influenced by his father, Alessandro Mussolini, a revolutionary socialist who idolized 19th-century Italian nationalist figures with humanist tendencies (Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings) such as Carlo Pisacane. • As a youth, Benito Mussolini showed much intelligence, but was boisterous and disobedient. His father instilled in him a passion for socialist politics and a defiance against authority. • He did not have a good relationship with his father and gained a reputation for bullying and fighting during his childhood. At age 10 he was expelled from a religious boarding school for stabbing a classmate in the hand, and another stabbing incident took place at his next school. He also admitted to knifing a girlfriend in the arm.  • He qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901. • In 1902, Mussolini emigrated to Switzerland, partly to avoid military......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Italian Fascism vs. German Nazism

...Instructor: Max Fassnacht May 4, 2015 Fascism and Nazism came during a time when there was an economic crisis that was sweeping through Europe. Fascism and Nazism was two familiar totalitarian regimes that was able to arise from Germany and Italy. In Germany, the National socialist party was conducted by Adolf Hitler, while Benito Mussolini conducted the fascist party in Italy. Italy and Germany’s future was based on the education in the schools, since education played an important role between these two nations. The people’s image of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler as two leaders was profoundly the important factors to their popularity. The most essential tool that was allowed in both countries and played a very important role in both political parties was propaganda, which gave both parties the ability to influence the perspectives of the people to their partiality. Italy and Germany are two natural allies, but however they are both different from each other and can be connected in many salutations. “Largo ai Giovani”, Italian for "make way for the young" (Clayton, 2009) was just one of the mottos that was used by Benito Mussolini’s regime. Mussolini’s saying highlights one of the most important aspects during the Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany’s education system. The education system in both countries was not just used for learning but also was the key element to creating their future soldiers. The education system had another important element......

Words: 1295 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Why Did Fascism Rise in Europe During the 1920s? Could It Have in the 1930s Us?

...Assignment #2- Why did Hitler and Mussolini rise to power, and how did they use it? Could a Hitler or Mussolini have acquired power in the United States during the 1930s? Cameron Combs HS240N Assignment#2 Dr. Chico What kind of economic environment would embrace Fascism? What kind of society would allow their country’s freedoms and future to be placed into one dictator’s hands? Germany was surrounded by perceived forces of evil. The exploitation of fear from the French to the West and the Russians to the East would break the spirit of the German people. The fear of these two forces against a nationalized Germany would be used by Adolf Hitler to gain power. In Italy, Benito Mussolini used alliances with the Catholic Church, unions, and industry bosses to gain political power. That, along with using brute force against his political opponents, Mussolini’s form of Fascism was gradually built with eleven years of severe political maneuvering. Both Hitler and Mussolini took advantage of a political environment to form a new lofty ideal, fascism, an ideal that would lead to a second escalation in the early 20th century. World War I ended very badly for the Prussians. They were broken into smaller nations. Lands were taken from them. Their methods of wealth gathering from previous investments were seized away from them. Any possible modes of financial stability were looking bleaker with the continuance of the reparations coming out of the Great War. Even when the......

Words: 958 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hitler and Mussolini

...Kaitlyn Daignault December 2, 2012 Research Paper Hitler and Mussolini The relationship between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini helped to instill fear throughout the rest of Europe through the 1930s and 1940s. The powerhouse duo was very similar in many ways including persuasion and public speaking; however they also had different key qualities to make them unique. Having risen to power years earlier during the 1920s, Benito Mussolini was the senior of the two, and an initial inspiration and mentor for a young Adolf Hitler. Mussolini’s ideas of a fascist Italy became a building block for Hitler and Nazi Germany. However, early on their relationship was not a good one as Mussolini saw himself as superior. Mussolini had little respect for Hitler and the Nazi Germany as a whole. He did not agree with Hitler’s beliefs regarding racialism and his desire of an Aryan race. As time continued Mussolini’s view of Nazi Germany and Hitler would change completely. As the Germans became the powerhouse of Europe, Mussolini was forced to take a backseat to Hitler throughout World War II. A young Benito Mussolini began his rise to power in Italy as early as 1918. It is then that he realized that in order for Italy to grow as a dominant force in Europe, a dictatorship was necessary. With his good looks and his persuasive speeches, a young Mussolini was able to gain the support of the Italian people. Although the content of his speeches was often incorrect, opinions......

Words: 2190 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Fascism

...Extended Project To what extent / How did Adolf Hitler's childhood affect and shape him later in life? Why was the rise of fascism in Europe so popular in the 1930’s? Assess did Hitler become the war mongering man he was due to his childhood or was it events leading up to World War II that made him bring the Nazi’s to power and become a dictator. Was Hitler’s intention to save Germany from the economic depression it was in through military power and expansion or was it more based on the ideology of the Aryan race and the deluded hatred he had towards the Jews? Or was it both? Be sure to talk about his ancestry, his parents and schooling. Anything leading up to World War II such as Hitler’s 9 month imprisonment Include how bitter he was after World War I and resented the new German government (Weimer Republic) Include how previous personal encounters with Jews made him hate them. Explain how not only the General German public hated the Jews because of propaganda but how most of the Western world resented the Jews in the early-mid 20th century. Include Austria and events that might have happened in Austria which could have affected Hitler as a child. Hitler: The man and his ideas Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in a little Austrian town called Braunau am Inn. His father was a customs official who Hitler did not get on well with. Also Hitler didn’t particularly excel at school and did not enjoy his schooling except for History lessons. In 1907......

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Rise of Fascism in Europe

...strikes during which Italian workers had occupied the factories where they worked. The Italian government of the time was unable to maintain order and control these upheavals. The state of affairs gave Benito Mussolini the opportunity to rise to power in Italy. Teacher, journalist and soldier, Mussolini advocated extreme right-wing policies. Promising order and upholding the ideal of patriotism, Mussolini had gathered around him his own private brigade and army. Mussolini's followers carried out a campaign of violence against opposing political parties and against all those who did not share their ideals. By 1922 Mussolini had enough power to demand representation in the actual government of the country. When this demand was turned down, Mussolini and his followers decided to make the challenge of force. On 28th October 1922 supporters of Mussolini converged on the city of Rome from various parts of the country, in what was to be called "La Marcia su Roma" (The March on Rome). King Victor Emanuel III and the army refused to resist them, and they enetered Rome unopposed. The King then asked Mussolini to form a government and assume the post of prime minister. This famous march on Rome heralded the rise of Fascism to importance in Italy. The fascist Party was formed in Milan by Mussolini in 1919 and its members were known as "camicie nere" (the Black Shirts), because of the black shirts they wore as uniforms. The word fascism is derived from the Latin "fasces", a bundle of......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Italy During Inter

...Italy During the Inter-War Years Italy had joined World War 1 on the side of the Allies after the promises at the secret Treaty of London signed in 1915. Via this treaty, Italy was promised large sections of the Adriatic Sea region – Istria, Dalmatia and Tyrol. During the war came the disaster of Caporetto. Italians -forced to fight the entire Austrian army and 7 German divisions- lost a total of 300,000 men. The defeat impacted heavily on the psychology of the Italian populace. By the end of the war, Italy was fewer by more than a million men and had spent more than it had in the last 50 years. The only consolation would be the achievement of the territories that had brought Italy to war in the first place. After the victory, Italy sent its delegation to the Treaty of Versailles. Along with the promised territories, Italy also aimed to gain lands such as Fiume, which had a majority Italian population. Disaster struck when Italy’s demands were ignored by the Big Three. The promises of the Treaty of London were not kept -indeed Winston Churchill refused to even recognize the Treaty. The Italian government was humiliated in front of its public, as the public was dismayed at all the war costs amounting to nothing. It was this feeling that led to a rise in irredentism in Italy and collected support for the notion of a ‘mutilated victory’. The public desired for Italy to rank alongside the Big Three powers. It was with this feeling that nationalist poet Gabriele D’Annunzio led......

Words: 982 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Fascism

...first time Mussolini used the term ‘totalitarian’ was in a speech at the Fascists Party’s fourth national congress in 1995*1 , he declared the ‘goal that is defined as our ferocious totalitarian will be pursued with even greater ferociousness’*1 . There is no doubt that Benito Mussolini was a very determined dictator. His aim was to create a long lasting Fascist Italy*1. In order to achieve his aim he required the total involvement and participation of every member of the state, in other words he needed to ‘Fascistize the masses’*1. Unfortunately Fascism was a very ambitious plan that failed to properly execute its aims*2. In order to delve deeper into the ways that Mussolini failed in his totalitarianism aims, we must first define what totalitarianism is. The essence of totalitarianism can be seen as a regime’s total control of the everyday life of its citizens, of its control, and more particularly of their thoughts and attitudes as well as their activities *3. A totalitarian dictatorship must have an elaborate ideology, a single mass party which is led by the ‘dictator’, a system of terror, near complete control over weapons of armed combat, control over all means of effective mass communication including the press, radio and cinema, and finally central control over the entire economy*3. While Mussolini dabbled in all of these areas he failed to execute them in an effective manner. It is interesting to note Hannah Arendt’s theories on totalitarianism, like Mussolini, she......

Words: 3158 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Dream Pilgrimage

...Pilgrimage If I were to choose who to take with me on a pilgrimage, I would choose Jesus, Mao Zedong, Josef Stalin, Benito Mussolini, and Adolf Hitler. I bet while reading this list you immediately thought that this would be an extremely horrible idea, but the thought of having the world's greatest spiritual teacher taking a pilgrimage with four ruthless dictators? Now that could get interesting. Mao Zedong, Josef Stalin, Benito Mussolini, and Adolf Hitler are all well-known leaders who caused mass genocides throughout China, Russia, Italy, and Germany. Getting them together would be seemingly impossible, so supposing they would agree to this with no problems, I think the fastest and most efficient means of travel would have to be through time (time machine). The purpose of this journey would be to show Hitler, Zedong, Stalin, and Mussolini what they had done, hoping that by actually experiencing the pain and anguish that they had caused, it would provoke them from making such heinous mistakes. By taking each of these “leaders” back in time to when each ruled and having them be in the mist of the people they had tortured (ex. Hitler being in the midst of the Jews. Either in a concentration camp, or in hiding...), I think that they would have a totally different perception. Each would experience each others' journey. Since there would be six men, they would only spend about two days in each destination. And because we would have a time machine, if they decided to,......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Mussolini’s Economic Policy in the Years 1922-39 Was a Complete Failure?

...How far do you agree that Mussolini’s economic policy in the years 1922-39 was a complete failure? Having come to power in 1922, an immediate concern for Benito Mussolini was the current state of the Italian economy, specifically its obvious inability to support military expansion and move into a state of total war, with the aim of creating and developing an Italian Empire, which was Mussolini’s chief aspiration. Furthermore, the weak economy maintained and strengthened the north-south divide, due to its negative effects being focused on the poorer south, while some northern industrialists benefited from the increased focus on production. Therefore, in order to counter the depression and prepare the Italian economy for conflict, Mussolini employed several policies, in order to stimulate the financial system and cut public spending, specifically increasing production and revitalising the Lira. As well as revaluating the inflated currency, these policies included boosting food production and converting to self-sufficiency, or autarky, all the while promoting nationalism and strengthening commitment to the regime. Whether these were a success is debatable, while Italy did convert to total war in 1939, the consequences were far reaching and crippling. Therefore a deep, detailed analysis, of Mussolini’s policies, their aims and effects, is necessary in order to gauge to what degree, if any, his economic policies failed. An example of Mussolini’s economic policy would be the......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

How Successful Was Mussolini's Foreign Policy in the Years to 1939?

...How successful was Mussolini's foreign policy in the years to 1939? During the years 1922-39 Mussolini committed to many different foreign policies. Mussolini’s foreign policy aims for Italy were to build national prestige, increase domestic support for the regime, gain dominance over the Mediterranean, and spread fascism abroad to establish his empire. He had to consider factors whilst formulating his foreign policy plans such as trading, alliances (military back-up/defence), resources within the empire and war to ensure that his regime would be a success. In many ways, Mussolini’s foreign policy was a success in the short term. His foreign policies can be judged whether or not to be successful by looking at his aims, as previously stated, and if these aims were achieved. Mussolini entered the Spanish Civil War in 1936 as part of an anti-Bolshevik campaign and to help spread fascism abroad, one of the clear aims of Mussolini. Italy sent planes and troops to help nationalist General Franco’s revolt against Spain’s socialist government and despite Mussolini expecting a short war it lasted 3 years. Mussolini’s intervention of this war was to achieve dominance over the Mediterranean, to spread fascism abroad, stop French left-wing influence in Spain and to gain an ally in a strategic area. In the battle of Guadalajara, in March 1937, Italian troops were defeated and 400 soldiers were killed and 1,800 wounded, 500 were taken prisoner and 25 artillery pieces, 10 mortars,...

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

How Far Did Mussolini Achieve His Aims in Foreign Policy?

...How far did Mussolini achieve his aims in Foreign Policy? One of the first things that Benito Mussolini wanted to do was to expand Italy and give it and empire to rule over like France and Great Britain. He wanted Italy to be recognized as one of the dominant forces in Europe. The first of his conquests was Abyssinia. This he begun on the 40th Anniversary of the humiliating defeat Italy suffered at Adowa under the Liberals: Mussolini wanted to complete a fete that the Liberals couldn’t. As a means of propaganda to show that Italy was more powerful and united under Fascism than it had been under the Liberals. Mussolini gloried and reveled in the creation of an East African Empire. Britain and France, who Italy were allying with secretly allowed for and gave concession to his Abyssinian war. However, because they were both democracy’s, under internal condemnation and pressure, they had to publicly criticize Mussolini and Italy’s actions. This really infuriated Mussolini at the sheer hypocrisy shown by the 2 countries, as they both had large empires. This was also done because the public saw this as a brutal violation of another League of Nations country. Furthermore, in private Britain and France tried to mediate a deal, the Laval Pact. But this didn’t help the situation, because they had to side with the League of Nations, who enforced sanctions on Italy. However, this made Mussolini immensely popular at home, what one might call his finest hour. The sanctions didn’t......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mussolini

...During Benito Mussolini’s reign, he and his Fascist regime utilized political intelligence, propaganda, and Mussolini’s own charismatic demeanor to form a cult of personality. This personality cult was used to perpetuate Mussolini as Il Duce and Italy as a Fascist state, while presenting Il Duce as a mythic hero who could do no wrong. The “Cult of the Duce” was in many aspects the unifying force of the Fascist regime, and acted as a common denominator for various political groups and social classes in the Fascist party and Italian society. Through massive organized rallies, early teachings with revised textbooks in elementary schools, and various forms of media propaganda, the “Cult of the Duce” was created, and presented Fascism with a model of centralized power and authority that solely revolved around the mythical and spectacular authority of one man, Il Duce. The emergence of the “Cult of the Duce” was to create an idealized, heroic, and at times god-like public image of the Italian dictator. The focus of this operation was to prove Mussolini as the sole Fascist savior of Italy and to gain the support and loyalty of the Italian people. Declining post war conditions helped develop a need for the “Cult of the Duce”; “The parliamentary paralysis, social disorder, and economic difficulties of the first years after the Great War greatly enhanced the popular appeal of a youthful and energetic politician like Mussolini who projected the image of a “strong man” capable of......

Words: 1924 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Lsakjdl

...Second Ethio-Italian War The Italian invasion of Ethiopia known as the second Italo-Ethiopian war was a major event of its time. It tested the League of Nations effectiveness and was considered as one of the reasons for WWII to start. It started in 1935 and ended in 1936 until the Italians defeat in 1941. The war was conducted between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy and armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire. Italy tried to conquer Ethiopia in 1890 but was defeated with the less trained and organized Ethiopian army. A border incident in 1935 between Ethiopia and part of Somalia, then occupied by the Italians, gave the fascist Italian empire, led by Benito Mussolini, a reason to revenge the 1890 defeat. In 1928 Italy and Ethiopia signed a treaty declaring that the border between the Italian occupied Somalia land also known Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia be 21 leagues (roughly 116 Kilometers) parallel to the coast of Benadir, the coastal region of Somalia. By contradicting the treaty the Italians built a fort beyond the agreed limit at Welwel oasis, a town inside Ethiopian border. This led to confrontation between the two countries also known as the Welwel incident. The incident left 150 Ethiopians and 2 Italians dead. The Ethiopian government represented by King Haile Selassie I appealed to the League of Nations. The king declared that this was sign of aggression, asking the league to condemn Italy for its violation of the league’s treaty, followed by actions to...

Words: 3160 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Faith

...Allen Vesells Benito Mussolini Benito Andrea Mussolini on of Alessandro and Rosa Mussolini; eldest of three was born July 29, 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, Forlì, Italy. Following his father’s footsteps he was an ardent socialist as a young man but was soon thrown out from the party because of his support of World War I. he went on to create the Fascist Party in 1919 eventually making himself dictator over Italy. Over using his forces during World War II he was killed by his own people on April 28, 1945 in Mezzegra, Italy. Benito as a young boy was extremely intelligent but was extremely boisterous and disobedient when it came to respecting authority. He faced many problems in school from bullying to defying school authorities. Despite his problem in school, he eventually received a teaching certificate and worked as a school master. Mussolini Moved to Switzerland in 1902 to promote socialism and gained a great reputation for his magnetism and rhetorical talent. Swiss authorities expelled him from the country after participating in political demonstrations. He continued promoting the socialist agenda once returning to Italy and was arrested for a short period of time. Upon release from prison he became the editor Avanti (meaning "Forward") which gave him a larger platform of influence. He condemned Italy for being apart World War I but later saw how the war opened a door for his country to become a great power. Of course, he lost fellow socialist, and was expelled...

Words: 524 - Pages: 3