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Beren Robinson’s Field Study

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Beren Robinson’s Field Study The field study by Beren Robinson is an exceptional study of threespine sticklebacks, which relate to ecology evolution. The original findings of researchers differ from Robinson’s field study. Robinson’s hypothesis states the threespine sticklebacks diverse phenotypes are the creation of natural selection supporting the discrepancy in the population. The variables in the study are diet and environmental conditions. Ecologists use evidence and observation to quantify results by using information from other studies and experiments. Robinson’s field study relates to evolution and natural selection, and each play an important role in ecology. Robinson’s field study should alter variables of life span, growth rate, and body size to understand the evolution of the threespine stickleback species.
Original Observations of Researchers The field study by Beren Robinson is a study to determine how the threespine stickleback species of fish have evolved. The threespine sticklebacks went through an increased era of time. Only two species of threespine sticklebacks inhabit in a lake. Original observations of researchers suggest that opposing selective pressures in open-water and shallow water are factors in the evolution of the threespine sticklebacks (Smith & Smith, 2009). Robinson’s study proves a different analysis and suggests natural selection is a key factor. The study by Beren Robinson and the department of Zoology at the University of Guelph starts with the sampling of a population of threespine sticklebacks. From the sampling Robinson observes the habitats of open-water and shallow water fluctuates morphologically. Therefore, Robinson’s hypothesis states the threespine sticklebacks diverse phenotypes are creation of natural selection supporting the discrepancy in the population. To test Robinson’s hypothesis he nurtures two forms of offspring in two identical laboratories (Smith & Smith, 2009). The variables in study are diet and environmental conditions. The results reflect that each offspring kept their differences. The first condition of the hypothesis suggests that the phenotypic variation in morphology among the two offspring is genetic (Smith & Smith, 2009). Robinson conducts a second trial to observe the feedings of the two offspring to test for trade-offs. The types of foods used in the trial were a prey found in open water called Brine Shrimp Larvae, fast moving arthropods, and larger amphipods (Smith & Smith, 2009). The fish are released into an aquarium one at a time and observed over time (Smith & Smith, 2009). Robinson found that morphological differences and the foraging efficiency were link among the two offspring. The study results in suggesting trade-offs in individuality relates to the thriving development of the two food supply and habitats (Smith & Smith, 2009).
Research Findings Ecologists use evidence and observation to quantify results by using information from other studies and experiments. Robinson uses other studies and observations from the lakes of British Columbia before he gathers his hypothesis. The studies before Robinson’s study suggest that the species of fish evolved from the open-waters and shallow waters of the environments. Robinson proves previous studies wrong by concluding that natural selection occurs in the population of the threespine sticklebacks and symbolizes the early stages of speciation. Ecologists use experiments in laboratories to receive precise information. Robinson performs a hypothesis and generates specific tests before revealing his results. The tests are important to discuss because the test hold the evidence to support the research findings.
Evolution and Natural Selection Evolution is similar to natural selection because each evolution and natural selection involves change overtime. Evolution is the “the process by which species of organisms arise from earlier life forms and undergo change over time through natural selection” (Evolution, 2012). Evolution undergoes a gradual change over time. Elements of ecology states that, "Natural selection is the differential success of individuals within a population that results from their interaction with the environment" (Smith & Smith, 2009). Natural selection relates to Charles Darwin’s theory and explains the evolution of organisms. Natural selection also describes that one population may survive and the other population may die off. Ecology relates with evolution and natural selection because species undergo changes as a result of the environment. Elements of ecology states that ecology is “the scientific study of the relationship between organisms and their environment” (Smith & Smith, 2009). Ecology is like evolution and natural selection because the species undergo changes as a result of the environment. Evolution and natural selection play an important role in the study by Beren Robinson. Evolution of the study suggests that the fish evolve through the process of natural selection. Robinson’s case study provides specific scientific proof that natural selection is occurring in the population of the threespine sticklebacks. Therefore, each evolution and natural selection plays an important part in the case study.
Follow-up Study A follow-up study consisting of life span, growth rate, and body size is appropriate for the threespine sticklebacks. The variables allow a more in-depth look at the evolution of the species. The case study should involve 100 threespine sticklebacks in aquariums, and focus on genomics. The study should focus on the physical traits of the threespine sticklebacks as well as the behavior patterns, adaptations to environments, food sources, disease, and predators. The study will reveal specific regions, which are essential for environments, and determine the patterns of change in the evolution of various traits of the threespine sticklebacks.
Conclusion
Robinson’s field study reveals different results when comparing previous studies. Many aspects of the study relate to ecology and evolution. The hypothesis and variables in the study are proof that natural selection and evolution are key factors in the study. Ecologists use evidence and observation to quantify results by using information from other studies and experiments. Robinson’s field study relates to evolution and natural selection, and each play an important role in ecology. Robinson’s field study should alter variables of life span, growth rate, and body size to understand the evolution of the threespine stickleback species.

References
Evolution. (n.d.). Retrieved April 27th, 2012, from http://science.yourdictionary.com/evolution
Smith, T.M., & Smith, R.L. (2009). Elements of ecology (7th ed.). San Fancisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings/Pearson.

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... Beren Robinson Field Study Tony Keulemans BIO/315 June 4, 2012 Olayinka Mintah Beren Robinson Field Study A field study by Beren Robinson on the threespine stickleback fish in the lake of coastal British Columbia showed some evidence of divergent natural selection. First, the study will be described. Next, the findings for the study and how the findings support evolution and natural selection. Finally, a proposed second study will be given. Study Description Beren Robinson reason for the field study was to determine if the constraints of two distinct environments affect the evolution of the stickleback species. He sampled a population where only a single species that tended to be the intermediate in morphology and habit to the limnetic or open-water and benthic or near shore water species. He then hypothesized that the individuals represented distinct phenotypes that were products of natural selection promoting divergence within the population. Robinson thought that trade-offs occurred when one task resulted in the cost of performance and fitness of other task. For example the limnetic species feeding on the plankton in open waters at the cost of being able to feed on sediments in shallow water while the benthic species feed on sediments in shallow waters at the cost of feeding on plankton in open waters. So Robinson’s decide to first variable to test was if the morphological differences between the two species were heritable or an expression of......

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