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Better Place Article

In: Business and Management

Submitted By BartekS
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ticleBetter Place - Car 2.0
Artykuł ten ma na celu przybliżenie działalności firmy Better Place, która jeśli sama nie zrewolucjonizuje przyszłości transportu, to na pewno w znacznym stopniu przyśpieszy ten proces. Firma wywodzi się z Izraela, i mówiąc krótko, zajmuję się budowaniem i zarządzaniem infrastrukturą pozwalającą na komfortowe korzystanie z samochodów elektrycznych. Sama siebie określa jako pierwszą w historii firmę typu ERGO (Electric Recharge Grid Operator). Wpierw przytoczę genezę powstania przedsiębiorstwa, Źródło: Magazyn Wired gdyż moim zdaniem jest bardzo interesująca, a następnie opiszę sam model jej działania i planowany dalszy rozwój. W celu głębszego zrozumienia fenomenu działania, gorąco zachęcam do zajrzenia do źródeł, podanych na końcu artykułu. Better Place -geneza Powstanie firmy Better Place zaczęło się od pojedynczego pytania: „Jak uczynić świat lepszym do roku 2020?”, które zadano w 2005 roku gościom zaproszonym na Forum Młodych Liderów, będące elementem Forum Ekonomicznego w Davos. Jednym z gości był trzydziestoparoletni Shai Agassi, wysoko postawiony menedżer w SAPie, jednej z największych firm informatycznych na świecie. W niedalekiej przyszłości miał zostać jej prezesem. Zastanawiając się nad odpowiedzią na zadane pytanie, Shai doszedł do wniosku, że czymś, co w znaczny sposób uczyniłoby świat lepszym w perspektywie roku 2020, byłoby ze względów środowiskowych i politycznych, uniezależnienie sektora transportu od ropy naftowej, z założeniem, że takie działanie musiałoby dotyczyć od razu całego kraju, aby stał się on przykładem dla kolejnych. Historia zaczęła się toczyć, jak opowiada Shai podczas wywiadów, w ciągu dnia prowadził międzynarodową korporację, a wieczorami studiował alternatywne sposoby zasilania sektora transportu. Zaczął od studiów nad biopaliwami, po kilku miesiącach stwierdził, że nie można tego systemu zastosować w skali całego globu, następnie sięgnął po rozwiązania z zakresu ogniw paliwowych, ale tutaj przeszkodą była zbytnia niedojrzałość tej technologii. Koniec końców, doszedł do wniosku, że najlepszą alternatywą dla ropy jest elektryfikacja. (aby zapoznać się z konkretnymi argumentami Shaia – patrz źródło nr 1) Po dogłębnej analizie rozpisał koncepcyjnie swój pomysł i przekazał go do weryfikacji wysoko postawionym urzędnikom wielu państw. Większość była nastawionych entuzjastycznie, ale nie szły za tym żadne działania, aż w pewnym momencie zadzwonił do niego Shimon Peres, Prezydent Izraela, i zaprosił go na spotkanie. Po bardziej szczegółowym wyjaśnieniu Prezydentowi działania stworzonego przez siebie systemu, ten zorganizował mu w ciągu 2 tygodni spotkania z najwyżej postawionymi osobami w Izraelu, aby też mogły odnieść się do całej idei. Po dwóch tygodniach kalkulacji i rozmów

ustalono, że jeżeli Shai pojawi się z kapitałem w wysokości 200 mln dolarów i przyprowadzi prezesa jednego z głównych koncernów motoryzacyjnych, który potwierdzi, że jest w stanie wyprodukować mu samochód, o którym była mowa w wolumenie niezbędnym dla ludności całego Izraela, to dostanie kraj pod inwestycję. Po dwóch latach Shai przyprowadził inwestorów i Carlosa Ghosn’a, prezesa koncernu Renault/Nissan i w 2007 roku oficjalnie otworzono firmę.

Idea działania Shai Agassi często określa swój pomysł na elektryfikację nazwą „Car 2.0”. Poprzednią wersję systemu, „Car 1.0”, wszyscy znamy doskonale - źródłem energii jest tu ropa naftowa, siecią dystrybucji stacje paliwowe, a samochody wykorzystują silniki spalinowe. Tak funkcjonuje obecnie 95% sektora transportu. W przypadku modelu „Car 2.0”, źródłem energii przestaje być ropa naftowa, a zaczyna być prąd, najlepiej produkowany ze źródeł odnawialnych, siecią dystrybucji stają się z jednej strony stacje ładowania zlokalizowane w domowych garażach, na parkingach pracowniczych i w miejscach publicznych, z drugiej zaś stacje wymiany baterii, o których więcej w kolejnym akapicie, a silnik spalinowy ustępuje miejsca elektrycznemu, którego sprawność jest znacznie wyższa.

Źródło: Shai Agassi, Konferencja TED: A new ecosystem for electric cars

Źródło: Shai Agassi, Konferencja TED: A new ecosystem for electric cars

Kluczowe rozwiązanie – sieć stacji wymiany baterii Badania wśród kierowców jednoznacznie wykazały, że dla przeciętnego użytkownika jedną z głównych barier dla przesiadki z samochodów spalinowych na elektryczne jest obawa, że w trakcie pokonywania dłuższej trasy należałoby się co kilkadziesiąt lub kilkaset kilometrów zatrzymywać i czekać, aż bateria ponownie sią naładuję. Aby pokonać tę, głównie mentalną przeszkodę (zdecydowana większość kierowców nie przejeżdża średnio Źródło: Better Place w ciągu dnia więcej niż 50 km), Better Place zapewnia kierowcom sieć stacji wymiany baterii, gdzie w ciągu 5 minut można wymienić zużytą baterię na

nową i jechać dalej. Pomysł ten wzoruję się na działającej już w starożytności poczcie konnej, która pracowała na bazie sieci rozsianych po kraju stannic, w których kurierzy mogli wymienić zmęczone konie na wypoczęte i dalej kontynuować podróż. Sieć budowana jest tak, aby móc swobodnie poruszać się po kraju wykorzystując samochody elektryczne o zasięgu 200 km produkowane przez koncern Renault/Nissan. W uproszczeniu, wizyta na stacji wygląda w ten sposób, że nie wysiadając z samochodu, zautomatyzowany system sam wymienia nam zużytą baterię na nową. Pokrywając więc, w przemyślany sposób terytorium całego kraju tego typu stacjami można zapewnić samochodom elektrycznym nieograniczony zasięg i tym samym, pozbyć się głównej przeszkody na drodze adaptacji samochodu elektrycznego przez przeciętnego użytkownika.

Model Biznesowy Jak firma Better Place chce zarabiać pieniądze? Sam Shai Agassi często przyrównuje samochód elektryczny do telefonu komórkowego, a swoją firmę do operatora telefonii komórkowej. Operatorzy komórkowi nie zarabiają pieniędzy na sprzedaży telefonów, często oddają je za przysłowiową złotówkę. Na sprzedaży telefonów zarabiają oczywiście ich producenci – Nokia, HTC itp., a to na czym zarabiają operatorzy, to abonamenty albo opłaty pre-paid, innymi słowy ilość wykorzystanych minut. Przekładając to na realia samochodów elektrycznych, Renault/Nissan jest Nokią, Better Place to Tmobile, a przejechane kilometry to wykorzystane minuty. Czyli, co otrzymujemy płacąc „kilometrowy” abonament naszemu operatorowi, firmie Better Place? Serwis i dostęp do całej ogólnokrajowej infrastruktury - wszystkich publicznych punktów ładujących w kraju i sieci stacji wymiany baterii - jednym słowem wszystkiego, co jest potrzebne do komfortowego korzystania z samochodu elektrycznego.

Finansowanie i dalszy rozwój Mogłoby się wydawać – przecież to walka z wiatrakami, lobby paliwowe nigdy nie dopuści do zmiany obecnego modelu motoryzacji. Niech nadzieją na to, że może być inaczej będzie fakt, że w ciągu trzech rund finansowania, które przyniosło firmie 750 mln dolarów kapitału, w firmę zainwestowały między innymi tak prestiżowe banki i fundusze inwestycyjne jak Morgan Stanley, HSBC, Lazard Asset Management, czy też VantagePoint Venture Partners. Wydawać się może, że są to wystarczająco mocni gracze, aby w razie czego przeciwstawić potomkom Standard Oil. Firma w lipcu tego roku oficjalnie rozpoczęła sprzedaż abonamentów w Izraelu. Oprócz tego, budowanie infrastruktury trwa niezależnie w Australii, Danii, Japonii i na Hawajach.

Autor: Bartosz Sobota, SKN CleanTECH, www.skncleantech.pl

Źródła:

1. Project_Better_Place_White_Paper_7_10_08; http://www.betterplace.com/the-companypressroom-whitepapers-detail/index/id/future-of-transportation-shai-agassi 2. Video; TED: Shai Agassi: A new ecosystem for electric cars; http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/shai_agassi_on_electric_cars.html 3. Video; Shai Agassi at 2010 Technion Board of Governors; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0KRAGPH2js 4. http://www.betterplace.com 5. http://www.renault-ze.com

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