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Beyond

In: Historical Events

Submitted By spoilerss
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Marine
Main article: Marine ecosystem
Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. They generate 32% of the world's net primary production.[1] They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts, in the water. Approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has an average salinity of 35 parts per thousand (ppt) of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems.[2]
Marine ecosystems can be divided into the following zones: oceanic (the open part of the ocean where animals such as whales, sharks, and tuna live); profundal (bottom or deep water); benthic (bottom substrates); intertidal (the area between high and low tides); estuaries; salt marshes; coral reefs; and hydrothermal vents (where chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria form the food base).[1]
Classes of organisms found in marine ecosystems include brown algae, dinoflagellates, corals, cephalopods, echinoderms, and sharks. Fishes caught in marine ecosystems are the biggest source of commercial foods obtained from wild populations.[1]
Environmental problems concerning marine ecosystems include unsustainable exploitation of marine resources (for example overfishing of certain species), marine pollution, climate change, and building on coastal areas.[1]
Freshwater

Freshwater ecosystem.
Main article: Freshwater ecosystem
Freshwater ecosystems cover 0.80% of the Earth's surface and inhabit 0.009% of its total water. They generate nearly 3% of its net primary production.[1] Freshwater ecosystems contain 41% of the world's known fish species.[3]
There are three basic types of freshwater ecosystems: * Lentic: slow-moving water, including pools, ponds, and lakes. * Lotic: rapidly-moving water, for example streams and...

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