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# Bible Among the Myths

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1. What is the dry adiabatic lapse rate (give a number with units)? The cooling and warming of unsaturated air of 10C every 1000 meters or about 5.5F for every 1000 feet.
The rate of change of any meteorological factor with altitude, esp atmospheric temperature, which usually decreases at a rate of 0.6°C per 100 metres (environmental lapse rate). Unsaturated air loses about 1°C per 100 m (dry adiabatic lapse rate), whereas saturated air loses an average 0.5°C per 100 m (saturated adiabatic lapse rate) 2. Is the moist adiabatic rate greater than or less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate?
Less .During saturated ascent, the release of latent heat via condensation partly offsets the conversion of thermal energy into work as parcels expand, reducing the cooling rate of the parcel to less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate (that observed for unsaturated parcels.) The saturated adiabatic lapse rate is 6 degrees per 1,000 meters. The dry adiabatic rate is 10 degrees per 1,000 meters. When a mass of saturated air rises in the atmosphere adiabatically,its temperature falls with height at a rate which is considerably less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate on account of continuous addition of the latent heat of condensation that accompanies the adiabatic cooling of saturated air and the consequent separating out of excess water vapour in the form of drops of liquid water.

3. A parcel of air becomes cooler than its environment if lifted. Is this a stable or unstable condition?
Unstable. For a dry air parcel, the only way to change its temperature is to change its pressure 4. The lapse rate in a saturated layer of the atmosphere is dry adiabatic. Is this layer stable or unstable?
Unstable. Air that is saturated with water has reached the dew point temperature and is carrying as much moisture as that parcel of air is capable of holding at that temperature. This saturated parcel of air has a saturated adiabatic lapse rate (also known as wet adiabatic lapse rate) of 0.5°C/100 m (5°C/kilometer or 3.3°F/1000 feet). The saturated adiabatic lapse rate does vary with temperature.

5. A stable air stream flows up and over a mountain range. At an elevation of 2000ft on the windward side of the mountain range, the air stream is saturated at a temperature of 10°C. No precipitation falls as the air stream traverses the range. At an elevation of 2000ft on the leeward side of the mountain range (assuming no heating due to sunshine), would the temperature be greater than 10°C?
No. Wind flow perpendicular to the mountain range, or nearly so, being within about 30 degrees of perpendicular. 6. Does a Chinook Wind form in an unstable flow?
No. A strong Chinook can make snow one foot deep almost vanish in one day. The snow partly melts and partly evaporates in the dry wind. Chinook winds have been observed to raise winter temperature, often from below -20°C (-4°F) to as high as 10-20°C (50-68°F) for a few hours or days, then temperatures plummet to their base levels. 7. True or false: the atmospheric temperature profiles associated with the formation of sleet and freezing rain differ mainly in the depth and temperature of the subfreezing layer based at the surface.
True: The rain, falls back into the air that is below freezing but since the depth is shallow, the rain does not have time to freeze into sleet.

8. True or false: the atmospheric temperature profile associated with snow reaching the surface includes a substantial layer where temperatures are above 0°C.
False: because it melts at any temperature above 0C 9. True or false: In the Northern Hemisphere, the deflection to the East of a northward-moving parcel (due to the Coriolis force) is analogous to the increase in spin observed as a skater's arms are drawn toward his axis of rotation.
True. As an air parcel moves poleward, the distance R to the earth’s axis of rotation decreases. Since the Earth’s rotation is constant, the relative velocity (u0 of the air parcel must increase to conserve absolute angular momentum, which we explained this zonal deflection as the Corioles Force.

10. True or false: Due to increased centrifugal forces acting on parcels moving East with respect to the surface (as compared to stationary parcels), the sum of centrifugal and gravitational forces aren’t perpendicular to the surface anymore, resulting in southward deflection.
True.
11. Can the pressure gradient force be explained in terms of the sum of forces acting on a parcel due to atmospheric pressure at the parcel's boundary?
Yes, In atmospheric science, balanced flow is an idealisation of atmospheric motion. The idealisation consists in considering the behaviour of one isolated parcel of air having constant density, its motion on a horizontal plane subject to selected forces acting on it and, finally, steady-state conditions.
Balanced flow is often an accurate approximation of the actual flow, and is useful in improving the qualitative understanding and interpretation of atmospheric motion. In particular, the balanced-flow speeds can be used as estimates of the wind speed for particular arrangements of the atmospheric pressure on Earth’s surface.

12. True or false: A surface of constant pressure that is sloped does not imply a pressure gradient in the horizontal.
True. In an idealized case with constant density with n as the free surface elevation above the geoid (typically. Bumps in the geoid, due to bottom topography, are 100s larger than the bumps in n,resulting from currents,which are 10s cm), therefore, constant density (pressure) gradient force does not change with z. 13. At locations where pressures at the same altitude decrease to the North and increase to the East, toward what direction would an initially stationary parcel accelerate (in the horizontal)?
In the case of our northward pressure, the degree of acceleration (rightward deflection) increases as the pressure moves northward. 14. True or false: Ocean gyres are driven by large surface low-pressure areas.
True. A gyre in oceanography is any large system of rotating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements. Gyres are caused by the Coriolis Effect; planetary vorticity along with horizontal and vertical friction, which determine the circulation patterns from the wind curl

15. True or false: Sea surface flow diverges away from the center of ocean gyres due to the high sea surface heights in the gyre centers.
True. Upwelling and downwelling also occur in the open ocean where winds cause surface waters to diverge (move away) from a region (causing upwelling) or to converge toward some region (causing downwelling). For example, upwelling takes place along much of the equator. Recall that the deflection due to the Coriolis effect reverses direction on either side of the equator. Hence, westward-flowing, wind-driven surface currents near the equator turn northward on the north side of the equator and southward on the south side. Surface waters are moved away from the equator and replaced by upwelling waters. 16. True or false: The exchange or warm and cool waters by ocean gyres accounts for a very small fraction of the energy that must be transported between the tropics and polar regions.
False
17. True or false: Flow direction in the Ekman Spiral turns clockwise with increasing depth in the Southern Hemisphere.
False
18. Does the thermocline depth decrease in the Eastern Tropical Pacific with the onset of El Nino?
Yes. The depth of the thermocline can strongly influences the temperatures at the surface. These sea surface temperature differences in turn influence the positions of the high and lower pressure systems. Air and moisture rise up over the warm western waters, creating massive convective storms. In the east, the chilly water prevents these storms from forming and high pressure predominates. 19. Does upwelling persist along the west coast of South America during El Nino?
Yes.

20. Does upwelling in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific persist during El Nino?
No.

21. Are sea level pressures in the Eastern Tropical Pacific below normal during La Nina?
Yes. Sea surface temperatures have been well below average in the Eastern tropical Pacific 22. Does the three cell model of atmospheric circulation include the effects of terrain and ocean/land boundaries?
No.
23. Is the South Asian monsoon circulation sustained during the peak of the wet season by surface heating of the Tibetan Plateau?
No. The impact of the Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian monsoon is examined using a hierarchy of atmospheric general circulation models. During the premonsoon season and monsoon onset (April–June), when westerly winds over the Southern Tibetan Plateau are still strong, the Tibetan Plateau triggers early monsoon rainfall downstream, particularly over the Bay of Bengal and South China. The downstream moist convection is accompanied by strong monsoonal low-level winds. In experiments where the Tibetan Plateau is removed, monsoon onset occurs about a month later, but the monsoon circulation becomes progressively stronger and reaches comparable strength during the mature phase. During the mature and decaying phase of monsoon (July–September), when westerly winds over the Southern Tibetan Plateau almost disappear, monsoon circulation strength is not much affected by the presence of the Tibetan Plateau.

24. Are the warmest temperatures likely to be found in the valley floor on a calm, sunny afternoon?
Yes.
25. Are the coolest temperatures likely to be found at relatively high elevations before dawn on a clear, calm morning?
Yes.
26. True or false: convergent winds are typically found in the transition zone between cyclonic and anticyclonically curved flow at 500mb.
True. This is the median level of transition.

27. True or false: All else being equal, sinking motion is associated with warm air advection.
False
28. True or false: All else being equal, cold air advection is associated with increasing surface pressures.
False
29. True or false: the left entrance region of a jet streak in the Northern Hemisphere typically divergent.
True
30. True or false: mid-latitude cyclones are about 1000-2000km in horizontal extent.
True.
32. True or false: mid-latitude cyclones intensify when there is more mass converging above the surface low than is diverging near the surface.
True
33. True or false: A low with decreasing surface pressures to the East and Increasing surface pressures to the west will propagate eastward? False
34. True or false: Jet stream winds tend to be directed roughly perpendicular to stationary fronts and toward the lower temperatures. True
35. Do clouds and precipitation associated with warm fronts tend to be stratiform in nature? Yes. The atmosphere is generally stable north of a warm front. Moreover, clouds and precipitation that form are mostly stratiform (layered clouds )
36. Do surface pressures tend to rise ahead of approaching cold fronts and fall after cold front passage? No. Cold fronts generally move from northwest to southeast. The air behind a cold front is noticeably colder and drier than the air ahead of it. When a cold front passes through, temperatures can drop more than 15 degrees within the first hour. Pressure before passing falls steadily, while passing it is in minimum, then sharp rise, and after passing it is rising steadily.

37. Is cold air advection typical of the Western Quadrant of a mid-latitude cyclone? Yes.
38. True or false: An intensifying mid-latitude cyclone tends to tilt toward the East with height. True.
39. True or false: The surface circulation of decaying mid-latidute cyclones tends to be away from the polar front and on the cold side of the front. False.
40. True or false: Wintertime mid-latitude cyclones tend to decay rapidly in the coastal region near Cape Hatteras, NC. False.
41. Would the trend method be a good tool to use during the early morning to forecast high temperatures under clear conditions with no fronts around? Yes. If a phenomenon is in steady state, or is moving at constant speed, the trend technique can be used.
42. Would the persistence method be a good tool to use for forecasting convective precipitation? No. Radar based precipitation forecast is still the most commonly used.

43. Would the persistence method probably be a good tool to use for estimating afternoon conditions three days ahead for Las Angeles during midsummer?
Yes
44. True or false: Due to the high accuracy of numerical weather models, modern forecasting requires very little in the way of interpretation or experience on the part of meteorologists. True.

45. True or false: Over the continental U.S., mid-latitude cyclones tend to be much stronger and more numerous during the winter than during the summer.
True: Mid-latitude cyclones are huge weather systems that occur most often during the winter season in the United States. These low-pressure areas pop up easily during winter because of the large temperature difference between the equator and the North Pole

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