Free Essay

Billy's Blues

In: Film and Music

Submitted By tj12brad
Words 1778
Pages 8
What I Hear When I Listen to Billie Holiday’s “Billie’s Blues”

Tyler Brady
Intro to Music: Term Paper
Dr. Burns

In the 19th century, a very prominent genre and musical form emerged from the Deep South of America; often defined as a repetitive and poetic music structure derived from jazz, blues music became an influential role in the astounding American identity. On the basis of originality and artistry, Billie Holiday is noted as one of the most influential jazz and blues singers. Throughout a dark life of poverty, drugs and adversity that arose from sexism and racism, Billie Holiday turned to her passion of music and singing. One of “Lady Day’s” most well-known pieces was recorded in 1936 and was titled “Billie’s Blues” This piece is structured as a 12-bar blues piece with a short introduction and six choruses. Throughout this blues song, there is a repetitive and invigorating harmonic pattern present. “Billie’s Blue’s” reflects a very laid back style through Holiday’s signature “lazy” style using many jazz embellishments such as blue notes; moreover, these melodies sung by Billie Holiday, as well as the two improvised solos performed by Bunny Berigan and Arty Shaw, are extremely artistic and original. In despite of a poverty stricken life filled with drug abuse and adversity, Billie Holiday was able to establish herself as a prominent blues and jazz singer; she was able to display this in “Billie’s Blues,” a 12-bar blues piece, with exceptional use of harmony and melody. Before Billie Holiday took on her stage name, the blues sensation was born as Eleanora Fagan in Baltimore, Maryland where she spent most of her young life. Holiday’s family was so poverty stricken, Billie cared for her great-grandmother being both her nurse and housekeeper. According to the book Giants of Jazz by Studs Terkel, “The family was too poor to afford doctors or hospitals… It was the child’s job to see that her great-grandmother, who was ill for years, was as comfortable as possible” (Terkel 124). Due to such extreme poverty, Holiday resorted to desperate measures in order to make money and help support her family. Her first attempt to make money consisted of going door to door looking for work. Often times, if a family in Baltimore couldn’t afford to pay a maid, they would hire young children, like Billie Holiday, to clean their steps (Terkel 125). As a young child, Holiday would be going around her neighborhood getting on both her hands and knees scrubbing porches clean for nickels. By the fifth grade, Holiday had already dropped out of school and even resorted to finding work running errands for brothels. Holiday and her family then moved to Harlem where she eventually was arrested for prostitution (PBS). In Harlem, Holiday’s mother searched for work as a housekeeper; however, by 1920, The Great Depression set in. The family would go days without a meal; in pure desperation, Holiday resorted back to knocking on doors looking for work. Out of desperation, Holiday decided to go to a night club called Log Cabin in search of work at only the age of 14. Upon entering, she asked owner, Jerry Preston, for a job as a dancer. After admitting she couldn’t dance, she admitted she loved to sing. According to Giants of Jazz, “Billie began to sing ‘Body and Soul.’ The customers at the bar put down their books. They slowly swung around in their stools and watched” (Terkel 130). After performing at Log Cabin and making more money than her family has ever seen off tips, it didn’t take long for word to get out about her. By 1933, Billie Holiday was discovered by producer Joe Hammond; it was through his assistance she was able to perform at prominent clubs in NYC and even collaborate with Benny Goodman, and eventually she became a huge jazz and blues vocalist sensation (Nicolson 30). Through her career, she faced the hardships of sexism and racism; she inspired many men and women by overcoming these hardships and revolutionizing the great American music style of jazz and blues. However, her ending years would be tainted by extreme alcohol and narcotic use. Her music throughout the 1950’s become proof of her deteriorating personal life through her voice (Pendle 292). Nevertheless, in 1959 Billie Holiday died with a legacy as one of the best vocalists in blues history. Blues music doesn’t just refer to a genre, but it also refers to a musical form. Form is the principle describing the songs organization. “Billie’s Blues” by Billie Holiday embodies not only the mood of a typical blues song, but it also follows a 12-bar blues musical form. 12-bar blues is arguable the most widespread and widely recognized musical form used in contemporary music. One of the three basic elements of form is repetition which is very common in blues music. Music that contains repeated music for each stanza of text is called strophic; therefore, 12 bar blues is often strophic. 12-bars refers to the amount of measures used to express the theme within the song. “Billie’s Blues” is divided into three segments of four bars in a 4/4 time signature which classifies it as a simple quadruple. The song starts out with a short six bar intro which features piano and bass; the song then makes its way to the 12 bar theme in the first chorus which is instrumental and includes the ensemble playing. This first chorus is typical of blues text and includes the typical three line strophe; however, the choruses there after are freer and unique (Norton 351). The second, third and sixth choruses are then all vocal and include lyrics from Holiday; aside from the first chorus there are two other instrumental choruses. The fourth chorus includes an improvised clarinet chorus played by Artie Shaw; the fifth chorus then includes a trumpet solo also using improvisation played by Bunny Berigan (Norton 351). Billie Holiday’s “Billie’s Blues” is unique song which follows the 12-bar blues form; moreover, through deeper analysis within this form you can recognize Holiday’s invigorating use of harmony. Harmony is a term used to describe the vertical events in music. The analysis of harmony includes the construction of chords through simultaneous pitches together as well as chord progressions. In Holiday’s piece “Billie’s Blues,” there are repeated harmonic progressions. The chord progression that occurs per 12 measures of this piece are as follows: I-V-IV-V-I (Norton 350). The first chord of the progression is the tonic chord. The tonic chord is the center, or the home base, of the progression. The tonic chord needs to be “resolved” by the active chords otherwise known as the subdominant and the dominant chords (Norton 20). Through modulation the composer of this piece develop the home key, then changes to a related key, which in this case is the dominant. In doing this, there becomes tension and in order to resolve it, the composer must return to the home key. In other words, the harmonic progression in Holiday’s piece goes from the tonic (I) to the dominant (V) to the subdominant (IV) back to the dominant (V) and finally back to home base, the tonic chord (I). The combination of the chords in Holidays piece create a very pleasing sound to the ears. The chords emit the sound of tones agreeing with each other; this creates a harmony that is very consonant throughout the entire piece. Due to this “Billie’s Blues” is a very relaxing piece much like most jazz and blues pieces tend to be. “Billie’s Blues” contains a very invigorating and refreshing harmony that creates a relaxing a consonant feel throughout the majority of the piece; over this repetitive harmonic patter, there a very intricate use of melody. Melody is often sound the pitches that interact directly with the listeners. “Billie’s Blues” contains an awfully catchy melody with certain pitch inflections. Billie Holiday shines on this piece showing her ability to dip and bend notes. In blues and jazz songs, it is common for singers to sing tones at a slightly lower pitch than that on the major scale; this embellishment of blues music is known as a blue note or sometimes the worried note. This is something Billie Holiday is especially known for. She wasn’t known for having a beautiful voice; she was known for how she used her voice. According to Women and Music by Karin Pendle, the author states “Holiday, a singer of uncommon expressive power, lacked a naturally beautiful voice. Yet she created a dynamic, individual world of expression… At the same time her singing was colored with tonal inflections” (Pendle 293). This use of tonal inflections creates more emotion and color to her singing and make the melodies even that much more intricate. In “Billie’s Blues,” the melodies she sings contain syncopated melodies which are accents placed on less important beats, in a measure, deliberately. This is vitally important to this piece because it also prevents the piece from becoming monotonous. On top of Holiday’s stimulating melodies, during the two improvised solos, there was a very free melody present. During these solos, there was a very wide range as well as wide intervals between notes at times. These solos can be described as disjunct. From the talented melodies sung by Billie Holiday to the exciting improvise trumpet and clarinet solos, the melodies in “Billie’s Blues” are extraordinarily breathtaking. Billie Holiday was able to proclaim herself as one of the most talented jazz and blues vocalists using intricate melodies and invigorating harmonies; this is proven evident through her 1936 classic “Billie’s Blues.” Growing up, she was poverty stricken living in a broken home; she turn adversity to ambition and turned to her passion of music and left her legacy even after succumbing to a life filled with drug abuse. The piece “Billie’s Blues” is a type of blues specifically known as 12-bar blues. Within this piece, the harmonic progression is repetitive, yet it is very refreshing and consonant. As well as harmony, the song displays unique melody; Holiday shines on this piece using syncopated melodies with pitch inflections to add not only emotion, but it keeps the listener excited. Although there is no true explanation of the blues, it is clear there is much more to it than musical structure, melody or harmony which in return gives us a style of music that adds to the great American culture.

Bibliography

Nicholson, Stuart. Billie Holiday. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1995.

Pendle, Karin. Women and Music. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Terkel, Studs. Giants of Jazz. New York: The New Press, 2002.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

And to Do

...And to do while listening to old REM Rain is falling on the fields.
We shield ourselves in acid metal pop.
But there’s green all around us,
and it never gives up. Harmony grows and ebbs,
like it was meant to,
all around us,
now it’s bent too. Ghosts in the meadows,
ephemeral in their gaze,
they hang around,
waiting for love to equate,
their state. There’s a drum beat,
slow, and dumb,
keeping the time,
almost silently. And the guitar strings,
they sing melodically,
in chords and tabs written,
in heaven and forgotten,
as some silly hooks. We burn books in our minds,
but keep them on our shelves,
so that we can revisit them,
when we need a piece of hell. We fight and laugh,
and fall in love blessed,
almost every time,
we meet again. while listening to old REM Rain is falling on the fields.
We shield ourselves in acid metal pop.
But there’s green all around us,
and it never gives up. Harmony grows and ebbs,
like it was meant to,
all around us,
now it’s bent too. Ghosts in the meadows,
ephemeral in their gaze,
they hang around,
waiting for love to equate,
their state. There’s a drum beat,
slow, and dumb,
keeping the time,
almost silently. And the guitar strings,
they sing melodically,
in chords and tabs written,
in heaven and forgotten,
as some silly hooks. We burn books in our minds,
but keep them on our shelves,
so that we can revisit them,
when we need a piece of hell. We fight and laugh,
and fall in love blessed,
almost every time,
we meet again. while......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Wheels on the Bus

...The Wheels On The Racecar By Alexander Zane Bibliographic Information: Zane, Alexander. The Wheels On The Racecar. New York: Orchard Books, 2005. Element of Music: Beat, Melody, and Timbre Materials: The Wheels On The Racecar Happy children ready to sing along Student Placement: Sitting in a circle in chairs Activity: The student will sing along with the teacher to The Wheels On The Racecar The student will repeat round and round three times The student will repeat vroom-vroom-vroom three times The student will repeat go-go-go three times The student will repeat zip-zip-zip three times The student will repeat steers and steers three times The student will repeat zizz-zizz-zizz three times The student will repeat glug-glug-glug three times The student will repeat speeds on back three times The student will repeat makes his move three times The student will repeat zooms to the lead three times The student will repeat swish-swish-swish three times The student will repeat round and round three times JUMP! By Scott M. Fischer Bibliographic Information: Fischer, Scott. JUMP!. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010. Element of Music: Beat, Rhythm, Form, Timbre Materials: JUMP! Active children ready to have fun and dance Student Placement: Standing up in a single line facing the front of the class Activity The student will hold hand on cheeks to indicate sleepy mode The student will hear frog and jump high The student will hold hand on...

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Humanities 370 Notes

...EVENT: Black Vace newspaper – in the library 2pm on Friday 4/27 Donations to PFAU library. HBCU – groups all over the world to come together. • Mixed races – either intentional or unintentional. o Mulatto – ½ black (this is an offensive term which the root word is mule) o Quadroon – ¼ black o Octoroon – 1/8 black Video – Fisk singers and early white gospel video • Literacy was a problem – acapella singing. • Gospel – “Good news” • Fisk = HBCU in 1866 Video: the history of gospel music 02 • In the African heritage it had to be the music, the preacher and the religious. o Had to be the preacher and the response • Music was to be free but then brought Christianity which was pulled out from that they say. • Involving percussion tones • Melees tone – not singing the tone right to but to shape it. We wear the mask poem: Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872 – 1906) • Mask – façade, disguises you, hides you, masquerade, protection, performers. Performance v. rituals • Ritual o Gospel • Performance o For others/benefits o Entertainment o Image Video: Education on Minstrel – goes into the Images topic • Developed in 1820. • T.D. Rice • Jim crow presents himself as an African (black face) by performing how the Africans perform. Performance within a performance. • Compromise of 4, etc. o Paid performances • Call and response Images: • Co-opted • Corruption of the history image • Massive available – were everywhere. • The images......

Words: 3558 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Warren

...African-American dance orchestra band, which performed for 2 decades in the southern states. That’s leaded by Osborne with a specialty in blues music. * Being established in 1953 but was disbanded in 1974 by the turnover of musicians and Osborne’s increasing age. * There’s also studies on leadership and how Walter Osborne’s mgmt provided a relevant case just for that. * With the usage of frameworks proposed by Morgeson, Lindoefer & Loring * Lastly, with an examination of team leadership through the socio-historical model, illustrating lessons for the leaders and portraying power through the analysis. About Walter Osborne * Was a successful leader possessing spontaneous skills and was drummer of the Red Tops band, * Osborne had strict rules just like how businesses would have- punctuality for performances and rehearsals, band uniforms were to be neat and tidy and there was a renounce from drinking and socializing whilst on job. * He had strict rules of conduct and regular inspections on the members of the band. * Thus was popular for his leadership strength and rules towards his members without any biasness. The success of the Red Tops band * Red Tops success is mainly because of their disciplined mgmt, fine performance and exclusive talent * Where they entertained teams of dancers with a mix of blues, jazz and pop * Creating a fan base across Mississippi and nearby states * Performances were mainly for white......

Words: 266 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Black Acnd Blue by Louis Armstrong

...“Black and Blue” by Louis Armstrong In the early twentieth century, a new style of music was being created in New Orleans. This style of music, known as Jazz, was performed with the audience in mind. It was heavily influenced by ragtime and washboard bands. Jazz is also highly competitive since the musicians wanted to stand out from the rest of the crowd. Their differences were accomplished through the use of timbres, improvisation, and many other characteristic of Jazz. Louis Armstrong’s version of “(What Did I Do to Be So) Black and Blue” illustrates the characteristics of Jazz, is completely unique to his style of preference, and advocates against racial discrimination. Improvisation was the most unique and challenging style utilized in the Jazz era. Musicians used this skill set to differentiate themselves from other artists within their original musical scores along with remakes of other artist’s songs, as no two performances of a song were the same. This is because the musicians literally made up or created the notes they played for their solos during the performance. The top skilled performers of Jazz were defined by their unique ability to create interesting solos with both their vocals and instruments. Louis Armstrong had the ability to use phrasing as a singer to capture syncopations that were prominent in early jazz. Jazz in the 1920’s was a combination of blues, ragtime, swing notes, and other European influences. Armstrong was able to capture......

Words: 1306 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Chemistry

...Cp8, Coordination Compound, Synthesis & Product Yield Observation, Description & Questions 1. Compound 1 was initially a light blue color. After adding the oxalic acid and heating it changed to a yellow color. Once the saturated potassium oxalate solution was added it changed to a red color. Once most of the hydrogen peroxide was added it changed colors again to murky brown. Finally it changed to a green color after the solution was brought to a boil and more oxalic acid was added. Compound 3 were crystals that of the same green color. 2. We started with: 10.000 g Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 • 6 H2O / 392.14 g/mol = .02550 mol. We ended with 6.557 g K3Fe(C2O4)3 • 3 H2O / 491.24 g/mol = .01335 mol. .01335 mol / .02550 mol * 100% = 52.35% yield. 3. If the yield had been greater than 100% percent the likely reason would be that some liquid from the washing process hadn’t been allowed enough time to dry and caused the final weight measurement to be off. 4. Since the yield of the final solid crystals was about half of the starting amount it is likely because the solution didn’t have enough time to completely form into the solid compound. Also, in there may have been a limiting reagent that wasn’t taken into consideration. 5. Charge on iron in reagent I (Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 • 6 H2O) = 2+ 6. Charge on iron in product III (K3Fe(C2O4)3 • 3 H2O) = 3+ 7. K3Fe(C2O4)3 • 3 H2O = potassium trioxalatoferrate(III)...

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Manual Critiques

...manual. Another important criterion is how accurate and detailed the information is to accomplish each step successfully. The manual must be able to be read and understood by different audiences. The graphics in the manual should stimulate the visual learner and provide clear guidance to the user. The ability to contact customer support is important so the user feels they have a place to go if they have any questions about the phone. Table of Contents The table of contents is organized and thorough using the different topics of the phones attributes. The table is structured in a numerical sequence that helps the user navigate to different parts of the manual. The table of contents is well organized and complete, but the light blue color font on white paper is a little hard to see. If the writer would have used better highlighting techniques, the font would not look washed out. The organization of the table of contents is important but accuracy is critical for user success. Accurate and Detailed This manual provides the accurate and detailed instructions required for any user to open the box, follow the step-by-step instructions, successfully set up and operate the phone. This manual states that the user can search the Internet using voice commands. The manual does not explain that the user will have to download an application called Google Voice Search to activate the voice command feature. The manual can be accurate and detailed, but it has to be......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Music

...Lecture 1 July 4, 2012 • Popular Music in the United States: o Lies in the African-American Population o West African music was brought into America and was thrown into a mixing pot that the slave population count themselves as Americans. o Blues is the beginning of Jazz, Rock and R&B • Congo Square –Passage from book: History of Jazz o An eligible black man sits with a large cylinder drum using his fingers and edge of his hand he jams repeatedly on the drum head which is around 14 diameters and probably made from animal skin. ____________________ with rapid sharp strokes. A second drummer holding his instrument between his knees joins in, playing with the same ______ attack. A third black man seated on the ground _________ instrument the body of which is rashly fashioned from the calabash. Another calabash which has been made into a drum and a woman beats at it with two short sticks. One voice then another voice, then other voices join in a dance of scene contradictions __________ give and take ___________ one handed performance spontaneous yet on closer inspection ritualize and precise is a dance of massive proportions, a dense crowded _________ performed in circular groups perhaps five or six hundred individuals moving in time to the pulsations of the music some swaying gently and others aggressively stumping their feet. A number of women in the group begin chanting. This scene could be Africa, in fact it is 19th century in New Orleans scattered first......

Words: 5816 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

History of Color

...Rogelyn Mckoy 4/24/13 The History of Color: How people in ancient times created color for their garments. Greek philosophers Democritus and Aristotle and Roman writers Plinythe Elder and Vitruvius described and recorded processes to create fabric dyes. Blues and purples were known as vat dyes. Indingo and woad (a European flowering herb of the mustard family) were used to make blue dyes. These plants required lengthy absorption in an alkaline solution of ash, lime, or urine, which turned them into a water-soluble salt. The fabric was left to air dry and the oxidation made the blue color fast. Tyrian, or royal, purple came from the mucous gland of the murex, a mollusk (invertebrate). A pound of dye required four million mollusks which was a time consuming process. Only the rich, such as the reigning emperor or monarch could afford this shade. Reds were mordant dyes (sarcastic/biting dyes). They required the use of a fixative to create an insoluble color that would remain true. Henna a shrub and madder, a root, were mixed with alum (a sulphate of aluminum and potassium) to render a color family way less intense than the red we know today. A species of female scale insect, kermes was used by the Egyptians and produced a more vivid/intense red. Colors in the yellow family were the least complicated. They were direct dyes, produced with little effort. Weld, the seeds, stems, and leaves of Dyer’s Rocket; and safflower, petals from Dyer’s Thistle, were used to create...

Words: 255 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Music in My Life

...784 Word Count April 1st, 2012 The artist that I chose to critique was Joe Bonamassa (vocals, acoustic guitar, electric guitar), and the album I chose to work with was his album “Had to cry today”. The genre of the album is Rock/Blues with a release date of August 24th, 2004. In this album were a few other artists that joined him such as Jon Paris (harmonica), Benny Harrison (hammond b-3 organ), Eric Czar (Bass guitar), and Kenny Kramme (drums, percussions). Joe was raised in New York where his parents owned a guitar shop. He comes from a family of music. Both his father and grandfather played the trumpet. He learned how to play the guitar at the very young age of 4. Some of the artists who inspired him were Jimi Hendrix and Stevie Ray. I am drawn to this artist for his style of blues and rock. His music makes me feel mellow and calm. Makes me want to be at a bar drinking a beer, smoking a cigarette and listen to him play live. The culture/environmental music that I can identify in this music are the Beatles, Jimi Hendrix and Eric Clapton. Joe’s music is mostly guitar and drums. My Overall impression of the album is excellent. I only disliked 2 songs from the entire album. My favorite song from the album was song title “Reconsider baby” and my second was “When she dances”. Both are slower and mellow. The songs are very calming and easy to listen too. My least favorite song was “Faux Martini”. This song was my least favorite because it sounds too much like country and......

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Rock Music Questions

...Rock Midterm Review 12 true or false 38 multiple choice 1. What is a rock style beat? 4 beat feel w/backbeat 2. What is the most commonly used rock song form? 3. ü What is syncopation? Accenting rhythms other than the regular rhythm 4. ü What is a riff and how are they used in rock music? Short, memorable and easily retained melody 5. ü What are the core vs. optional instruments in rock music? Vocals + guitar+bass+drums vs. piano+keyboards+synthesizers 6. ü What are the characteristics of folk music from the British Isles? A story told in plain everyday language Sung with an untrained voice Heterophony (i.e., multiple versions of the same melody, played simultaneously) Verse/Chorus & Strophic song forms Uptempo dance rhythms 7. ü African tribal music? Percussion instruments Syncopated percussive playing techniques Riff-like melodic ideas Layered textures made up of voices, percussion, and pitched instruments Melismatic vocal lines Improvisation Pentatonic scale vs. Major Scale 8. African American folk songs? Improvised bluesy melodies to speed the day along Rhythmic music to accompany rhythmic tasks Call & Response Group responds to leader, sometimes the foreman of the job 9. ü European classical music? Sentimental stories set to simple melodies Harmony support melody Clear song form Clear rhythmic order 10. ü What was the Minstrel Show? Why was it considered the first synthesis? Variety......

Words: 737 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Negotiation Example

...finally went to test drive a Celica and it was everything I wanted except it was bright red. (I read the statistics – I know better than to buy a red sports car). By this time it is getting late in the year and the 2003 models were coming out. We went in to a showroom to look at the new Celica colors and they had one in the show room in this light blue that looked almost purple on the edges in the lights. It was like one of those moments in the movies when a spotlight shines down on exactly what you have been looking for. My husband took one look at it and was like “Maybe you are right. Maybe we should get a Celica – in this color.” Now since that color was brand new that meant that a used Celica was out. I looked online to see what I could get the car for through my credit union’s car buying service (my parents got an incredible deal this way) but they didn’t have the new blue color so I had to use the 2002 version of blue for the pricing, but I felt like I at least had something. Part 2: The negotiation Now that we had decided on exactly what we wanted – 2003 Celica, leather interior (only one color was available), light blue exterior, and sports package (wing and ground effects) and had a basis...

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Preoperational Stage

...egocentric thinking. Another common attribute of the preoperational stage is that a child may show animistic thought and will give inanimate objects living attributes, for example if a teddy bear’s seam ripped the child might think it felt pain and cry or rush for you to make it better. Another important thought attribute children in this stage of development begin to display is the beginnings of logical thought and problem solving. Children can solve simple problems but not know how they did it and with some problems children may still intuitively answer. For example if you showed a child in this stage 2 yellow and 4 blue flowers, and asked if there were more blue or yellow flowers, they may respond by saying more blue. Yet if you asked them if there were more blue flowers than flowers they would respond by saying more blue again. The child would see the color blue but not count all of the flowers as a whole because they are different. If children in this age group played a board game like Candyland, they should be able to name the colors of their playing piece and recognize the shapes on the cards they draw. If they are in the early preoperational stage a child may not be able to count the numbers (1-2-3-) to move on the board, and may not be able to move their playing piece in the correct direction on the board. They will most likely show excitement every time they get a turn to play...

Words: 515 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The History of Rock and Roll: Copyright Not Included

...history of rock and roll is long and intricate drawing its roots from early American R&B, among other places. While most of the true innovators of rock music have been widely overlooked, white musicians have been profiting greatly off of the innovations made in music by black recording artists, specifically in the arena of rock and roll. It is widely accepted that rock music has its roots in the american blues. The history of the blues dates all the way back to slave plantations. This genre comes specifically from African-American folk music. Julio Finn the author of The Bluesman stated that: [White blues performers] can never be bluespeople...because the blues is not something they live but something they do- which makes all the difference in the world. What distinguishes the bluesperson from the bluesperformer is the cultural-racial make-up, which can only be inherited by a descendent of an ex-American slave. (qtd in Adelt 1) Whether this is true or not is a matter of opinion. What is intriguing about this statement though is the fact that virtually all blues music was originally composed...

Words: 2800 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Negotiation

...went to test drive a Celica and it was everything I wanted except it was bright red. (I read the statistics – I know better than to buy a red sports car). By this time it is getting late in the year and the 2003 models were coming out. We went in to a showroom to look at the new Celica colors and they had one in the show room in this light blue that looked almost purple on the edges in the lights. It was like one of those moments in the movies when a spotlight shines down on exactly what you have been looking for. My husband took one look at it and was like “Maybe you are right. Maybe we should get a Celica – in this color.” Now since that color was brand new that meant that a used Celica was out. I looked online to see what I could get the car for through my credit union’s car buying service (my parents got an incredible deal this way) but they didn’t have the new blue color so I had to use the 2002 version of blue for the pricing, but I felt like I at least had something. Part 2: The negotiation Now that we had decided on exactly what we wanted – 2003 Celica, leather interior (only one color was available), light blue exterior, and sports package (wing and ground effects) and had a basis...

Words: 384 - Pages: 2