Free Essay

Bio 101 Evolution Lab

In: Science

Submitted By aracely11
Words 892
Pages 4
Evolution Lab
BIO/101
Pooja Thakur
7-23-12

Evolution Resulting From Natural Selection

INTRODUCTION The Evolution Lab simulates environmental situations to determine effects on evolution over periods of time. This lab experiments with the evolution of finches on two different islands over 100, 200, and 300 years. By manipulating parameters that influence natural selection, the effects that natural selection have on the evolution process can be studied.

HYPOTHESES • The size of the island will influence the population. • The amount of precipitation will influence beak size. • Variances in beak size will influence beak size.

MATERIALS The materials needed for this experiment consist of a computer and access to the Evolution Lab on the University of Phoenix student website. In the Evolution Lab there are two islands, Darwin Island and Wallace Island. There are seven variables that can be changed to run many different experiments on both islands. The variables are beak size, variance of beak size, heritability, clutch size, island size, population, and precipitation.

METHODS In all of the experiments Darwin Island was used as the control group and Wallace Island was the experimental group. So, in each test, the variables for Wallace Island were altered and the variables for Darwin Island were left alone. The first experiment was to determine whether or not the size of the island affected the population. To do this, the only variable that needed to be changed was island size. Darwin Island was left at 0.5 km and Wallace Island was changed to 1.0 km. The experiment was run over 300 years then the data was collected. The second step was to test beak size in relation to the amount of precipitation each island received. The only variable that was changed was precipitation for Wallace Island. The amount of precipitation was changed from 20 cm to 40 cm, double that of Darwin Island. Then the data was collected after revisiting in 300 years. Then to test if variances in beak sizes from bird to bird influences the evolution of beak size, the variance on Wallace Island was changed from 1 mm to 2 mm. This test was also run for 300 years then the data was collected.

DATA Test 1
|Parameter |Darwin Island |Wallace Island |
|Initial Beak Size |12 mm |12 mm |
|Heritability |0.7 |0.7 |
|Variance |1 |1 |
|Clutch Size |10 eggs |10 eggs |
|Precipitation |20 cm |20 cm |
|Population |200 birds |200 birds |
|Island Size |0.5 km |1 km |
| |Results | |
|Year |Darwin Island |Wallace Island |
|2096 |578 |1107 |
|2196 |632 |1236 |
|2296 |689 |1458 |

[pic]

DATA Test 2
|Parameter |Darwin Island |Wallace Island |
|Initial Beak Size |12 mm |12 mm |
|Heritability |0.7 |0.7 |
|Variance |1 |1 |
|Clutch Size |10 eggs |10 eggs |
|Precipitation |20 cm |40 cm |
|Population |200 birds |200 birds |
|Island Size |0.5 km |0.5 km |
| |Results | |
|Year |Darwin Island |Wallace Island |
|2096 |18.79 mm |16.38 mm |
|2196 |22.38 mm |19.64 mm |
|2296 |25.27 mm |20.78 mm |

[pic]

DATA Test 3
|Parameter |Darwin Island |Wallace Island |
|Initial Beak Size |12 mm |12 mm |
|Heritability |0.7 |0.7 |
|Variance |1 |2 |
|Clutch Size |10 eggs |10 eggs |
|Precipitation |20 cm |20 cm |
|Population |200 birds |200 birds |
|Island Size |0.5 km |0.5 km |
| |Results | |
|Year |Darwin Island |Wallace Island |
|2096 |16.82 mm |21.39 mm |
|2196 |20.87 mm |28.4 mm |
|2296 |24.7 mm |29.69 mm |

[pic]

DISCUSSION In the first test, the size of the island was very influential on the population growth. As shown in the table above, Darwin Island capped out at 689 birds and Wallace Island ended up with 1458 birds. Wallace Island was twice as big as Darwin Island and was able to sustain twice the population. In the second test, Wallace Island had twice the precipitation as Darwin Island did, allowing a more diverse food source than Darwin Island. As a result, beak size on Darwin Island steadily increased over the years at a rate greater than that of Wallace Island. After 300 years, the beak size on Darwin Island was 25.27 mm compared to 20.78 mm on Wallace Island, thus confirming that precipitation has great influence on the evolution of beak size. Finally, in test three, the variance in beak size from bird to bird was increased on Wallace Island. This resulted in a dramatic increase in beak size for the first 200 years, but planed out after that. After 100 years the control group beak size increased to 16.82 mm, whereas Wallace Island beak size increased to 21.39 mm. At the end of the study, Darwin Island beak size was 24.7 mm and Wallace Island beak size was 29.69 mm, substantiating the theory that variance in beak size affects the evolution of beak size.

CONCLUSION This experiment proves that simple factors can cause big changes over long periods of time. A creature’s ability to adapt to its environment is detrimental to the survival of their species. Limited resources and crowded environments create competition for inhabitants and those who cannot adapt and overcome die out. The victors pass on their winning traits to their successors and, over time, natural selection turns into evolution.

References

1. Evolution Lab (2011) Evolution Lab. http://www.biologylabsonline.com/axia/EvolutionLab/evlab.php.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Evolution Lab

...Evolution Lab Sherrie Hamby BIO/101 January 18, 2012 James Marlowe Evolution Lab Evolution is a necessary stage and part of life. It’s what has shaped and define all living organisms on this planet. Evolution has helped all population and organisms respond to change in their habitat. The way they have survived is by passing on certain traits that have worked on keeping them alive it is known as adaptation. I wanted to see what would happen if you changed the eating habits of finches. What effect this will have on the evolution of life on this island? Materials All of the materials that you will need for this experiment are: a computer, pencil, paper for notes, and access to the Evolution Lab on the student website for the University of Phoenix. Introduction First, I went to the student web site and used the Evolution Lab website for the University of Phoenix. What I wanted to do is run two different scenarios to determine how much effect food sources have on finches. The test has seven different variables that you can change and those are beak size, variance, heritability, clutch size, island size, population, and precipitation. The test is simulated on two different islands one is named Darwin’s Island and the other is named Wallace’s Island. Experiments The first experiment that I ran I chose to set my parameters for Darwin’s and Wallace’s island the same. The parameters are: initial beak size 12.0 mm, heritability 0.7, variance 1.0, clutch size 10.0 eggs...

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Bio Syllabus

...|[pic] |Syllabus | | |College of Natural Sciences | | |BIO/101 Version 2 | | |Principles of Biology | Copyright © 2010, 2008 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Course Description This course is designed to introduce biology at an entry level by examining the hierarchy that ranges from the fundamentals of cell biology to the physiology of organisms, and the interactions among those organisms in their environment. The topics in this course include cell biology, genetics, molecular biology, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Policies Faculty and students/learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: • University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. • Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class.......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Syllubus

...Summer 2015 BIO 101-103 COURSE SYLLABUS BIOL. 101-103 (4 credits), meets MTWRF for lectures in Spencer Hall G7 from 10:00-11:30 am and Lab meets on TWR in Spencer Hall room G7 from 12:30-3:00 pm. Instructor: Dr. Simon Nyaga Office: Dixon 213 Phone: 443-885-3636 Email: Simon.Nyaga@morgan.edu Office Hours: MF 12:30-1:30 PM or by appointment Course Description: Introductory biology is a gateway course worth 4 credits specifically designed for non-biology majors. This is course covers major topics in biology shown below. The following general biology topics are thoroughly explored and discussed: the scientific method of solving problems, chemistry of cellular macromolecules, cellular structure and function, energy flow in cells with emphasis on respiration and photosynthesis, biotechnology and its application (emphasis on structure and function of nucleic acids), chromosomes and cell division and finally winds up a study of the basis of heredity (Genetics). In addition, evolution and its role in the creation of diversity are also thoroughly discussed. Textbook and Course Materials: What Is Life: A Guide to Biology, 2nd edition (with Prep U) by Jay Phelan published by; W. H. Freeman and Company, New York. Information on how to access Bioportal is to be found on the separate card which comes with the textbook. A used book will not enable you to access Bioportal and therefore no access to Prep-U and learning Curve quizzes. These quizzes have been shown to......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Antibotic Resistance

...Antibiotic Resistance Xzaviette Hill BIO/101 November 3, 2014 The first antibiotic was developed by Alexander Fleming in 1929. Since then, antibiotics have revolutionized the medical field. They were so revolutionary that many proclaimed them as a “wonder drug.” Many illnesses that were considered incurable became easily cured. So, what is an antibiotic? Well, an antibiotic is a medicine that can kill, or inhibit the growth or reproduction of, microorganisms. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections alone; they have no effect on viral or fungal infections. The 1930’s marked the beginning of the antibiotic revolution. Since then, antibiotics have been used to fight off various bacterial diseases including, pneumonia, tuberculosis, leprosy, and typhus. These diseases can be fatal. Typhus alone has a mortality rate of 70% when left untreated. Yes, antibiotics have saved many lives. Nonetheless, antibiotics are by no means infallible. In recent years, a new problem has manifested; some bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. Doctors have discovered that over-prescription contributes to the evolution of antibiotic- resistant bacteria. Over- prescription is the excessive prescription of a medication. Antibiotic over- prescription occurs when physicians prescribe antibiotics for small infections that the body could have otherwise fought off itself or for viral and fungal infections that, as I stated before, can’t be treated with antibiotics. The issue of......

Words: 525 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Biology 101 Review Essay

...Bio 101 Review Sheet Test #1 (Chapters 1-3) Chapter 1 1. Cell is basic unit of life 2. Hierarchy of life figure 3. 3 Energy categories and examples of each Producer-plants and some microbes Consumer-humans and other animals Decomposer-fungi and other animals 4. Energy transfers are not 100% efficient – why? Cant capture all of the energy supplied by one source a. Where does all energy for biology come from? sun 5. Homeostasis- state of internal consistency or equilibrium 6. 2 types of reproduction asexual and sexual b. Benefits to sexual reproduction benefit of tremendous variation 7. Adaptation inherited characteristics or behaviors that enables an organism to survive and reproduce successfully in a given environment c. How it contributes to natural selection and evolution individuals with the better combinations of genes survive and reproduce 8. Evolution change in genetic makeup of a population 9. Why it’s important to take all your antibiotics so all of the bacteria can be eliminated, some of the bacteria can become stronger. 10. Taxonomy classification of life’s diversity 11. What our species name is homo sapiens 12. Order of taxonomic categories – mnemonic device! Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species 13. 3 domains bacteria, archaea, eukaryote d. Basic differences e. What our domain is f. What domain universal ancestor likely is in archaea ...

Words: 1102 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Plato to Darwin to Dna

...Raj Maheshwari BIO 11 Lab Professor Lauren Larin Queens College Spring 2016 Plato to Darwin to DNA – A Brief History Dr. Esther I. Muehlbauer This book has been molded to be a breakdown of how various fields in science have progressed over centuries as mankind has advanced. The book starts off introducing the idea that the telling of natural history has changed numerous times as humans have evolved. We also learn to agree that our knowledge has been shaped by the tools available and the perceptions of its users. In the earliest stages of life, Muehlbauer states “…observers of the natural world had only their senses to work with, and were limited to visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory descriptions perceived by the unaided human body” (pg. 1, Muehlbauer). Something as simple as the “scientific process”, which is similar to the scientific method we learned in our first week of lecture, is proof of how we have outgrown earlier and more primitive attempts to differentiate between the true story. Humankind has progressed from an era in which religion used to be the ultimate answer to all of mankind’s questions. The skies would rumble when God was mad and crops would go bad due to curses by a higher power. The fight for knowledge through science has helped us as a species progress through this uphill battle to debunk the primitive explanations as to why the world exists in the way it does. From the invention of the wheel to the proof of evolution, we have come a......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Gen Eds

...Mission The General Education curriculum helps build the foundation for understanding historical traditions, contemporary issues, the interdependence of local, urban, national and global communities and the importance of psychological, artistic, religious and scientific inquiry. This program is designed to give the student the opportunity to interact with the multifaceted forces that are continually transforming and reshaping our world. The broad based, interdisciplinary scope of the area requirements is designed to help students acquire the knowledge, perspective, skill and professional acumen that is necessary to become thoughtful and responsible citizens and leaders in an increasingly complex world. The General Education curriculum is focused on fostering urban leadership by developing the cross-curricular emphases of writing effectively, thinking critically, managing information successfully, valuing diversity, practicing social justice, presenting orally and visually and learning to learn. Curricular Emphases: To accomplish these goals the general education curriculum, through its cross-disciplinary approach, provides exposure to a wide variety of disciplines while focusing on developing the essential, broad based, intellectual abilities of problem solving, decision making and leadership with a commitment to lifelong learning. The general education program emphasizes the development of oral and written communication skills; knowledge of the......

Words: 3737 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

The Kingdoms

...Cynthia Decker Bio-101 Andrew Walsh August 3, 2013 The Prokaryotic Kingdoms The first kingdom I would like to talk about in the Prokaryotic Evolution is the Bacteria Kingdom. There are many different bacteria in this world, some are bad which cause sickness and disease and some, surprisingly, can be beneficial in today’s world. First, let’s take a look at some bad bacteria, and what can happen when we come across it. There are bacteria and other organisms that cause disease, and they are called pathogens .Most of the time, our bodies can keep the pathogens that we are regularly exposed to in check. Our immune system is amazing at this. Once in a while our body’s defense system become compromised and will fail, maybe when we don’t get the vitamins and minerals that we need. Toxic overload (prescription medicines, cleaning fluids, insecticides, hairspray etc.),not enough sleep, too much stress, old age, too much exposure to the sun, too much physical exertion, or the wrong diet could all lower our immune system. ("A Weak, or Strong Immune System,” 2007) That is when bacteria could creep in and set up house in our bodies. Even some bacteria that we normally carry without causing us harm can gain strength and over run us if we are not careful. A bacterium makes us sick when they become too strong and secrete a poison called Exotoxins. An example of a Bacteria pathogen is too often see is Salmonella. A more common lay term for......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Bio101 - Organism Physiology: the Octopus

...Organism Physiology: The Octopus Bio/101 January 17, 2010 Enteroctopus Dofleini or giant octopus is a marine invertebrate organism that inhabits the oceans off the coast of the United States. Its food source consists of crabs, small fish, clams, mussels and other marine animals. The octopus is predatory by nature and has developed many adaptations in the form of advance specialized organs to aid in its survival. The octopus has developed several organs that are vital to its survival, the brain/nervous system, complex eyes and arms for capturing its prey. In this paper the topic to discuss is these different organs and how they have adapted physiologically to its environment. The Giant Octopus has a considerably larger brain in comparison to other Mollusca which wraps around the esophagus and just below the optic socket. The brain, sense organs, and central nervous system are the most highly developed of the invertebrates. During its life span the brain will continue to grow and will consist of 170 million nerve cells, of which 130 million will be optical. 350 million nerve cells will reside in the arms of the giant octopus and can distinguish objects with the same sensitivity as its sight. As the octopus moves along the ocean floor, these nerve cells allow the octopus to learn its surroundings. The animal can remember its past environments and keep a working memory of areas they......

Words: 1750 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Police

...BELHAVEN UNIVERSITY Jackson, Mississippi A CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES FOUNDED IN 1883 CATALOGUE 2014-2015 EFFECTIVE JUNE 1, 2014 Directory of Communication Mailing Address: Belhaven University 1500 Peachtree St. Jackson, MS 39202 Belhaven University 535 Chestnut St. Suite 100 Chattanooga, TN 37402 Belhaven University 7111 South Crest Parkway Southaven, MS 38671 Belhaven University – LeFleur 4780 I-55 North Suite 125 Jackson, MS 39211 Belhaven University 15115 Park Row Suite 175 Houston, TX 77084 Belhaven University Online 1500 Peachtree St. Box 279 Jackson, MS 39202 Belhaven University 1790 Kirby Parkway Suite 100 Memphis, TN 38138 Belhaven University 4151 Ashford Dunwoody Rd. Suite 130 Atlanta, GA 30319 Belhaven University 5200 Vineland Rd. Suite 100 Orlando, FL 32811 Traditional Admission Adult and Graduate Studies Admission – Jackson Atlanta Chattanooga Desoto Houston Memphis Orlando Alumni Relations/Development Belhaven Fax Business Office Campus Operations Integrated Marketing Registrar Student Life Security Student Financial Planning Student Development Online Admission Online Student Services (601) 968-5940 or (800) 960-5940 (601) 968-5988 or Fax (601) 352-7640 (404) 425-5590 or Fax (404) 425-5869 (423) 265-7784 or Fax (423) 265-2703 (622) 469-5387 (281) 579-9977 or Fax (281) 579-0275 (901) 896-0184 or Fax (901) 888-0771 (407) 804-1424 or Fax (407) 367-3333 (601) 968-5980 (601) 968-9998 (601) 968-5901 (601) 968-5904 (601) 968-5930 (601)......

Words: 151104 - Pages: 605

Premium Essay

Simply Wooo

...ENG 101 ENG 102 ENG 105* ENG 106 ENG 202 Listening and Speaking Skills English Reading Skills Business English Advanced English Skills Introduction to English Literature 40-41 Credits 9 3 3 3 3 3 * Prerequisite ENG 101 & 102 Note: students not exempted from ENG 101 and ENG 102 will have to take ENG 101, ENG 102 and ENG 105. Note: students exempted from ENG 101 and ENG 102 will have to take ENG 105, ENG 106, ENG 202 Computer Skills CIS 101* CSC 101** Fundamentals of Computer System Introduction to Computer Science 3 3 3 * For students without basic knowledge of computer **For students with basic knowledge of computer & mandatory for students with Major in subjects offered from the SECS Numeracy MAT 100* MAT 210* Basic University Mathematics 1 Basic University Mathematics 2 6 3 3 3 *MAT 100 and MAT 210 mandatory for SLAS majors(English, Media & Communication, Anthropology) other than Sociology MAT 101* MAT 211* MAT 102* MAT 212* Intermediate University Mathematics II Probability and Statistics Introduction to Linear Algebra & Calculus Probability & Statistics for Sc. & Engr. 3 3 3 3 **MAT 101and MAT 211 mandatory for Business/SESM/Sociology majors $MAT 102 and $MAT 212 is mandatory for students with major in Engineering and Computer Science Natural 7-8 Sciences CHE 101* Chemistry 3 CHE 101L* PHY 101** PHY 101L** PHY 102** PHY 102** BIO 102 BIO 102T CHE 102 CHE102T ENV 101 ENV 102 ENV 102T PSY 201 Chemistry Lab University Physics-I University Physics-I Lab......

Words: 16148 - Pages: 65

Premium Essay

Form

...OFFICIAL CATALOG This Catalog contains information, policies, procedures, regulations and requirements that were correct at the time of publication and are subject to the terms and conditions of the Enrollment Agreement entered into between the Student and ECPI University. In keeping with the educational mission of the University, the information, policies, procedures, regulations and requirements contained herein are continually being reviewed, changed and updated. Consequently, this document cannot be considered binding. Students are responsible for keeping informed of official policies and meeting all relevant requirements. When required changes to the Catalog occur, they will be communicated through catalog inserts and other means until a revised edition of the Catalog is published. The policies in this Catalog have been approved under the authority of the ECPI University Board of Trustees and, therefore, constitute official University policy. Students should become familiar with the policies in this Catalog. These policies outline both student rights and student responsibilities. The University reserves the right and authority at any time to alter any or all of the statements contained herein, to modify the requirements for admission and graduation, to change or discontinue programs of study, to amend any regulation or policy affecting the student body, to increase tuition and fees, to deny admission, to revoke an offer of admission and to dismiss from......

Words: 149595 - Pages: 599

Premium Essay

Cataolog

...ork2012 - 2013 Catalog A Message from the President “Sullivan University is truly a unique and student success focused institution.” I have shared that statement with numerous groups and it simply summarizes my basic philosophy of what Sullivan is all about. When I say that Sullivan is “student success focused,” I feel as President that I owe a definition of this statement to all who are considering Sullivan University. First, Sullivan is unique among institutions of higher education with its innovative, career-first curriculum. You can earn a career diploma or certificate in a year or less and then accept employment while still being able to complete your associate, bachelor’s, master’s or doctoral degree by attending during the day, evenings, weekends, or online. Business and industry do not expand or hire new employees only in May or June each year. Yet most institutions of higher education operate on a nine-month school year with almost everyone graduating in May. We remained focused on your success and education, and continue to offer our students the opportunity to begin classes or to graduate four times a year with our flexible, year-round full-time schedule of classes. If you really want to attend a school where your needs (your real needs) come first, consider Sullivan University. I believe we can help you exceed your expectations. Since words cannot fully describe the atmosphere at Sullivan University, please accept my personal invitation to visit and......

Words: 103133 - Pages: 413

Free Essay

Life History

...browser's print function to print a copy . Life History This chapter explores life cycles, life histories and life tables, and explores the trade-offs that different species make in their reproductive strategy. file:///C:/Users/Hossein/SimUText/labs/LifeHistory_20700/instructions/print_chapter.html 1/156 1/18/2014 SimUText :: Printable Chapter :: Life History Contents Se ction 1 : Life Cycle s a nd Life Historie s Chapter Credits This Sim UText chapter was dev eloped by a team including: Lead Author: Simon Bird Authors: W. John Roach, Ellie Steinberg, Eli Meir Reviewer: Susan Maruca Graphics: Brad Beesley, Jennifer Wallner Simulations: Susan Maruca Programming: Derek Stal, Steve Allison-Bunnell, Jen Jacaruso Outside Reviewer: James Danoff-Burg (Columbia University) Thanks to all the students and instructors who helped test prototy pes of this chapter. For m ore inform ation, please v isit www.sim bio.com . Suggested citation: Sim on Bird, Susan Maruca, W. John Roach, Ellie Steinberg, Eli Meir. 2 009 . Life History . In Sim UText Ecology . Sim bio.com . Sim UText is a registered tradem ark of Sim Biotic Software for Teaching and Research, Inc. © 2 009 -2 01 2 Sim Bio. All Rights Reserv ed. This and other Sim bio Interactiv e Chapters® are accessible through the Sim UText Sy stem ®. Introduction to reproductiv e strategies, life cy cles, and the foundations of life history . Ex ploration of a div ersity of life cy cles and life histories found in......

Words: 16377 - Pages: 66

Free Essay

Vnu Catalog

...VINCENNES UNIVERSITY CATALOG Vol. LXIX August, 2010 No. 61 A COMPREHENSIVE TWO-YEAR COLLEGE OFFERING ASSOCIATE DEGREES IN THE LIBERAL ARTS, SCIENCES, EDUCATION, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY AND OFFERING BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN SPECIALIZED AREAS Accreditation The North Central Association of Colleges and Schools 30 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2400, Chicago, IL 60602 (312) 263-0456 www.ncacihe.org FAX 312-263-7462 Accreditation Review Council on Education in Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting American Bar Association American Board of Funeral Service Education American Health Information Management Association Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Educational Programs Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education Federal Aviation Administration Higher Education Coordinating Board of the State of Washington Indiana State Board of Nursing Joint Review Committee on Education In Radiologic Technology National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships National Association of Schools of Art and Design National Association of Schools of Theatre National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission Printing Industries of America, Inc. Approved for Veterans Membership The American Association of Community Colleges Aviation Technician Education Council The Council of North Central Two Year Colleges The Higher Education Transfer Alliance The National Academic Advising Association The North Central......

Words: 107322 - Pages: 430