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Bio 108

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| Protists and Fungi | BIO 108-02 | | Zahraa Alaloosi | 3/21/2016 |

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3. The form of diatoms are most likely pennate. Around 90 % of the slide is pennate and a few only are centric.
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Brown Algae: NAME | BODY FORM | CHARACTERISTICS | PADINA GYMNOSPORA | Fan shaped plant body, | Light brown, Reproductive bodies forming wider and somewhat narrower alternating rows | DICTYOTA DICHOTOMA | Plant ribbon like, bushy, | Yellowish brown, the reproductive structures scattered. | ROSENVINGEA | Multicellular, Branched and tubular tufts, | Light brown, free floating, reproductive structures scattered, | SARGASSUM | Multicellular, It consists of a holdfast, a stipe, and a frond | Brown, free-floating, asexual, reproductive structures look like tiny fingers. |

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2. The color of the plasmodium is yellowish. It has branches that look like the veins. The source of the movement is unidirectional. It moves only forward in the direction of the food. When the conditions are bad the slim mod stop spreading, when the food is available and conditions are good it change to its yellowish branched shape again.
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Red Algae NAME | BODY FORM | CHARACTERISTICS | RHODYMENIA | flat-shaped blade, | Purple to pink, | AGARDHIELLA | Branched, tubular shape | Light pink | PORPHYRA | Flat, big leaflike, | purple, Produce sexually and asexually, | GRACILARIA | Plants sparingly bushy, | Purple, It is used as an additional source for agar production. |

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Green Algae: NAME | BODY FORM | CHARACTERISTICS | SPIROGYRA | Multicellular, Filamentous, spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts, | Green, floating as scum on the surface, reproduces sexually | ULVA | Multicellular, thin flat green algae, | Green, Sea lettuce, edible green alga | CHARA | Multicellular, has a stem-like and leaf-like structures, | Green, Chara reproduces vegetatively and sexually |

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Discussion:
1. The mechanism of feeding used by these organisms is phagocytosis. The outer membrane of the cell surround food particles and pinch it inside the cell where it gets digested. 2. They use pseudopodia to capture and ingest food. The pseudopodia will surround the food and ingest it into the cell using the phagocytosis mechanism. 3. Amoeboid use the pseudopodia, flagellated use flagella which is supported by microtubules, ciliated use the cilia which is short projections from the cell surface. 4. Dinoflagellates produce deadly toxic substances. Radiolarians have a skeleton of silicon dioxide. 5. Both are autotroph and both are primary producers. Dinoflagellates play an important role in the ocean- photosynthesis that provide food for all marine organisms. Diatoms produce carbohydrate and hydrogen. 6. Diatoms, cell wall made of silica. Dinoflagellates, cell wall made of cellulose plates with two perpendicular grooves, each containing flagellum. 7. Slime molds are phagocytic while fungi obtain food through observation. Other characteristics such as cellular ultra-structure, cell wall chemistry, and other molecular studies made scientists to consider these organisms as Protistan. 8. They all used commercially and as a food for humans. Ulva, sealettuce eaten by human. Red algae, Porphyra used as a seaweed wrappers for sushi. Brown algae, extracts of algin from the cell wall of the brown algae used economically as a thickening in paint, toothpaste, ice-cream, pudding and many other foods. 9. Red algae are the only algae don’t have flagella any stage in their life cycle. Brown algae can be distinguished by their brown appearance because of the pigment fucoxanthin. 10. Green algae share similarities with land plants, such as storage of the starch amylase and the presence of chlorophyll a & b. the Charophyte considered most closely to land plants. They have many similarities such as the method of cell wall fermentation during cell division, organization of protein that synthesis cellulose, and structure of sperm.
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6. Hyphae don’t have visible spores while sporangia do have spores. These spores can be produced sexually or asexually. The spores compare with the hyphal cells genetically, the spores’ nuclei are diploid after sexual reproduction. The hyphae nuclei are haploid.

GROUP | EXAMPLES | CHARACTERISTICS | ECOLOGICAL LIFE | ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE | EUGLENOZOANS | Trypanosoma levisi | -genus of Kinetoplastids- Most of them require more than one host to complete life cycle.-unicellular | -infection carried by insects to humans and animals | -Cause different types of diseases that infect humans and animals | ALVEOLATES | Paramecia | -The surface covered with thousands of cilia-unicellular- autotroph and heterotroph- not pathogen and doesn’t cause a diseases | - spread wide in freshwater, marine and ponds- feeds on bacteria | - clean tiny particles from pond’s water. | | Dinoflagellates | -autotroph- convert the energy stored in organic molecules to light-unicellular | -causes red tides(toxic for humans),-primary production | -Provide food for all marine organisms. | STRAMENOPILES | Diatoms | -autotroph- unicellular- strong cell wall | - diatoms found in the world's oceans contribute 45 percent of all primary production in the bottom of the food chain | - dead individuals fall to the ocean floor undecomposed, this remove the co2 from the air and pump it into the ocean’s floor | | Brown algae | -largest and most complex algae-multicellular- it includes seaweeds | -They play an important role in marine environments, both as food and for the habitats they form | - Important to the aquatic ecosystem.- Food source for aquatic life. | RHIZARIANS | foraminiferans | - unicellular- They are abundant as fossils for the last 540 million years. | - Some are abundant only in the deep ocean, others are found only on coral reefs, and still other species live only in brackish estuaries or intertidal salt marshes. | - researchers use their fossils to estimate changes in ocean temperature over time | | radiolarians | -Have delicate, symmetrical internal skeletons that are usually made of silica- unicellular | - live in marine environments. They can exist either as individuals or in colonies.- Radiolarians often form symbiotic relationships with algae and dinoflagellates. | -important sources of information on the geologic age and structure of many deposits. | AMOEBOZOANS | amoeba | -has the ability to alter its shape- unicellular with no cell wall- unicellular | - live in water also can be found in wet soil | -recycle nutrients-it feeds on bacteria, plant cells, and algae | | physarum | -unicellular-contains millions of nuclei-have cell wall that contains chitin | -found under cool, humid, and dark conditions on forest floors | - decompose dead bodies. | RHODOPHYTA | Red algae | -Have reddish color- multicellular; the largest are seaweeds- autotrophs | - help build coral reefs. | -some used as use as human food. | CHLOROPHYTA AND CHAROPHYTA | Green algae: spirogyra, ulva, chara | - named for their grass-green chloroplasts-consist of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte algae,- unicellular or multicellular | - Green algae are important symbionts with fungi, bacteria, animals and plants. | - Source of industrial products, biofuels and food. |

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