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Biological Classification

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Biological classification
Biological classification is the arrangement of organisms into categories that express their PHYLOGENY, or line of descent, based on information such as structure, development, biochemical or physiological functions, and evolutionary history of organisms. The purpose of such a classification is to provide a clear and practical way to organize and communicate information about organisms. Classification can show relationships between different ancient and modern groups, indicate the evolutionary pathways along which present-day organisms may have developed, and provide a basis for comparing experimental data about different plant and animal groups. Organisms included in a group share a common genetic heritage in their DNA, and they must be more closely related to each other than they are to the members of other groups of the same rank. However, classifications of organisms are modified as ideas of their phylogeny change.
Taxonomy is the theory and practice of classifying organisms. It is a branch of systematics, the study of the diversity of organisms. The first scheme for classifying animals into logical groupings may have been proposed by Aristotle more than 2,000 years ago. Since that time, many new classification systems have been proposed; none, however, has succeeded in fitting all plants, animals, and microorganisms into a single, completely satisfactory scheme. For example, some taxonomists classify algae with the protista or consider them plants. Recently, biotechnological techniques have enabled researchers to compare the DNA of various organisms to decipher the phylogeny of some organisms and helped to distinguish some closely related species with similar appearance.
ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC) is often called the father of biological classification. His classification scheme referred to readily apparent groups, such as...

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