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Biology 266 Courses Lecture 1

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Contact Information
Dr. Sonish Azam Office: SP 375.23 Tel: 514-848-2424 ex 3488 Email: sonish.azam@concordia.ca
(Please mention BIOL 266 in subject)

Office hours: after the class or by appointment

Topics
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! ! ! ! ! !

Topics
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3. Objectives 1. Learn about structural features and functions of the components in an

Textbooks
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(1)

Essential Cell Biology by Alberts et al. (4th Edition) published by Garland Publishing, Inc. in 2014. (2) Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments by Gerald Karp (7th Edition) published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. in 2013. • The textbooks are recommended, neither of them is required. • Additional reading will be posted on moodle website and announced in class Internet address: http://moodle.concordia.ca

Grading Scheme
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• Midterm • In-class Activity/Assignment • i>clicker • Final exam

30% 12% 3% (starts Jan 20th) 55%

Final exam will cover the entire course (cumulative)

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CELLS AND ORGANELLES
Lecture 1
BIOL 266/4 2014-15

Dr. S. Azam

Biology Department Concordia University

What does it mean to be living?
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• Cells distinguish living organisms from non living things • All living organisms are made up of cells • Cells are the fundamental and structural unit of life

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BASIC PROPERTIES OF A CELL

!Basic!Proper,es!of!Cells
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1. Life!is!the!most!basic!property!of!cells.! 2. Cells!can!grow!and!reproduce!in!culture!for! extended!periods.!  HeLa%cells%are!cultured!tumor!cells!isolated!from!a!

cancer!pa,ent!(HenrieAa!Lacks)!in!1951.!  Cultured!cells!are!an!essen,al!tool!for!cell! biologists.!

!Basic!Proper,es!of!Cells
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3. Cells!are!highly!complex!and!organized!
 Cellular!processes!are!highly!regulated.!  Cells!from!different!species!share!similar!structure,!

composi,on!and!metabolic!features!that!have!been! conserved!throughout!evolu,on.!

!Basic!Proper,es!of!Cells
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4. Cells!possess!a!Gene,c!Program!and!the!means!to! use!it!  Genes!encode!informa,on!to!build!each!cell,!and!the!

organism.!  Genes!encode!informa,on!for!cellular!reproduc,on,! ac,vity!and!structure.!

!Basic!Proper,es!of!Cells
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5. Cells!are!capable!of!producing!more!of!themselves!
 Cells!reproduce,!and!each!daughter!cells!receives!a!

complete!set!of!gene,c!instruc,ons.!

!Basic!Proper,es!of!Cells
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6. Cells!acquire!and!u,lize!energy!
 Photosynthesis!provides!fuel!for!all!living!organisms.!  Animal!cells!derive!energy!from!the!products!of!photosynthesis,!

mainly!in!the!form!of!glucose.!  Cell!can!convert!glucose!into!ATP!(Respira,on)—the!energy! currency!of!a!living!body

!Basic!Proper,es!of!Cells
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8. Cells!engage!in!mechanical!ac,vi,es! 9. Cells!are!able!to!respond!to!a!S,muli! 10. Cells!are!capable!of!SelfVRegula,on! 11. Cells!evolve!

The!Sizes!of!Cells!and! Their!Components!
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Cells!are!commonly! measured!in!units!of!!
 

micrometers!!


(1!μm!=!10–6!meter)!! (1!nm!=!10–9!meter).!

nanometers!!


!

Rela,ve!sizes!of!cells!and!cell!components!

Cells Vary in Appearance and Function
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PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES

Two!Different!Classes!of!Cells
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Prokaryo,c!and!eukaryo,c!are!dis,nguished! mainly!by!their!size!and!types!of!organelles.!
!

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Structure!of!a!Prokaryo,c!Cell!
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Bacterium!

Structure!of!a!Eukaryo,c!Cell:!Plant!Cell!
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Structure of a Eukaryotic Cell: Animal Cell
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Types of Prokaryotes
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!1.!Domain!Archaea!
Thermophiles!

• ! Methanogens,!Halophiles,!Acidophiles!and!

!2.!Domain!Bacteria!

• Includes!the!smallest!known!cells!–!mycoplasma% • Includes!cyanobacteria!–!photosynthe,c!bacteria!
• •

Cyanobacteria!gave!rise!to!green!plants!and!an!oxygenVrich! atmosphere.! Some!bacteria!are!capable!of!!nitrogen-fixa0on.!

Types of Prokaryotes
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Cyanobacteria:!electron!micrograph!

Cyanobacteria!in!polar!bear!coats!

Types of Eukaryotes
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Unicellular!eukaryotes!are! complex!singleVcelled! organisms.!!


Vor,cella!have!a!contrac,le! ribbon!in!the!stalk!and!a!large! macronucleus!that!contains! mul,ple!copies!of!its!genes.!

Types of Eukaryotes
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Mul,cellular!eukaryotes!have!different!cell! types!for!different!func,ons.!
  

Differen,a,on!occurs!during!embryonic! development!in!other!mul,cellular!organisms.! Numbers!and!arrangements!!of!organelles!relate!to! the!func,on!of!the!cell.! Despite!differen,a,on,!cells!have!many!features!in! common.!

Cell!Differen,a,on!in!Mul,cellular!Eukaryotes!
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ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY

Mitochondria
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• Present in essentially all eukaryotes • Generate usable energy

from food to power the cell • Enclosed in two membranes: outer and inner that forms cristae • Involved in cellular respiration and production of ATP (the energy currency) • Contain its own DNA

Chloroplasts
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• Found in plants and algae • Possess two membranes + thylakoid membrane (which contains green pigment-chlorophyll)

• Carry out photosynthesis: trap solar energy and convert into chemical energy • Contain its own DNA

Endosymbiotic Theory: Mitochondrion
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• Mitochondria originate from aerobic bacteria
 engulfed

by ancestral eukaryotic cells  lived in symbiosis with the host

Endosymbiotic Theory: Chloroplast
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• Chloroplast originate from photosynthetic bacteria
 engulfed

by ancestral eukaryotic cells that already contained mitochondria

Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
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MODEL ORGANISMS

Model Organisms
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• All cells have descended from a common ancestor • Fundamental properties of the ancestor is conserved through evolution • Study of one organism contributes to understanding the others • Model Organisms
 Certain

organisms are easier to study than others.  Some reproduce rapidly and others are transparent

What properties of the following creatures turn them into model organisms?
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Escherichia%coli!!(bacterium)!

Saccharomyces%(yeast)!

Arabidopsis!!(mustard!plant)!

Caenorhabdi8s%elegans!! (nematode)!

Drosophila%(fruit!fly)!

Mus%musculus%(mouse)!

Some interesting links
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• • •

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gFuEo2ccTPA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umKAkEr_HLI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbLkc8xSFnU

Put your thinking cap on….
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1.

The first human cells to be successfully cultured were derived from a malignant tumor. Do you think such cells be better subjects for cell culture? Why? 2. The antibiotic streptomycin inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria. If this antibiotic is added to a culture of animal cells, protein synthesis in the cytosol continues normally. However, over time, the population of mitochondria in the cell becomes depleted. Specifically, it is observed that the protein-synthesis machinery inside the mitochondria is inhibited. • Explain this observation based on what you know about the origins of the modern eukaryote. • What do you expect to observe if, in a new experiment, animal cells are treated with diphtheria toxin, a compound that is known to block cytosolic protein synthesis but does not have any impact on bacterial growth?

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