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Biology Lecture Outcome Notes

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Biology: Midterm 1 (Friday, October 2, 2015)
Outcomes for Exam

In multiple choice format questions, identify the following:

1. Characteristics of viruses and why they are not generally considered to be “alive”. * virus= infectious biological particles; 1+ nucleic acid molecules surrounded by protein capsid or envelope * nucleic acid: DNA or RNA, composed of single/double strand (genes encode coat proteins, proteins of regulation of transcription) * capsid: protein coat of virus, viral genome packaging * envelope: lipid bilayer that contains proteins * enveloped viruses: genomes contain genes for synthesis of envelope proteins * viral genomes= virus-specific enzymes (nucleic acid replication) * non-living organism/not “alive” - lack that properties of life (no independent reproduction, no metabolic system= no energy, dependent on host cells

2. Why viral infections are usually difficult to treat with drugs, and exceptions to this general principle. * viruses= hidden in host cells, use host cell machinery to replicate (no obvious viral product to be targeted by drugs/antibiotics - not like bacteria) * symptoms can only be relieved not treated - natural immune function treats — some viruses deadly symptoms= prevention w/ vaccinations (e.g. measles, polio) * Viruses using own polymerases (e.g. RNA viruses - influenza)= more obvious targets - antiviral drugs to treat

3. Whether viruses are always pathogenic. * not all viruses= pathogenic - some benefit hosts e.g. some non-pathogenic viruses protect humans from pathogenic viruses * “protective” viruses - interfere with replication/functions of pathogenic viruses * some viruses defend host cells (e.g. bacteriophages/phages control bacteria growth) * viruses= vital to ecosystems (may be dominant...

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