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Instructor’s Manual

for the

Laboratory Manual

to Accompany

Hole’s Essentials of
Human Anatomy and
Physiology

Eighth Edition

Terry R. Martin

Kishwaukee College

[pic]

[pic]

Instructor’s Manual for the Laboratory Manual to Accompany
Hole’s essentials of human anatomy and physiology, eighth edition
David shier, jackie butler, and ricki lewis

Published by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY 10020. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2003, 2000, 1998. All rights reserved.

The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form solely for classroom use with Hole’s essentials of human anatomy and physiology, eighth edition, provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

www.mhhe.com
Contents

PREFACE V
An Overview vi
Instructional Approaches viii
Correlation of Textbook Chapters and Laboratory Exercises ix
Suggested Time Schedule xi Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology Exercise 1 Scientific Method and Measurements 1 Exercise 2 Body Organization and Terminology 2 Exercise 3 Care and Use of the Compound Microscope 5
Cells
Exercise 4 Cell Structure and Function 6 Exercise 5 Movements Through Cell Membranes 8 Exercise 6 The Cell Cycle 10
Tissues
Exercise 7 Epithelial Tissues 11 Exercise 8 Connective Tissues 12 Exercise 9 Muscle and Nervous Tissues 13
Integumentary System Exercise 10 Integumentary System 14
Skeletal System Exercise 11 Structure of Bone 16 Exercise 12 Organization of the Skeleton 17 Exercise 13 The Skull 18 Exercise 14 Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage 20 Exercise 15 Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb 22 Exercise 16 Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb 24 Exercise 17 The Joints 26
Muscular System Exercise 18 Skeletal Muscle Structure 27 Exercise 19 Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck 28 Exercise 20 Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb 29 Exercise 21 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet 31 Exercise 22 Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb 32
Nervous System Exercise 23 Nervous Tissue and Nerves 34 Exercise 24 The Reflex Arc and Reflexes 35 Exercise 25 The Meninges and Spinal Cord 36 Exercise 26 The Brain and Cranial Nerves 37 Exercise 27 Dissection of the Sheep Brain 38
Special Senses Exercise 28 The Ear and Hearing 39 Exercise 29 The Eye 40 Exercise 30 Visual Tests and Demonstrations 41
Endocrine System Exercise 31 Endocrine System 42
Cardiovascular System Exercise 32 Blood Cells 44 Exercise 33 Blood Testing−A Demonstration 45 Exercise 34 Blood Typing 46 Exercise 35 Structure of the Heart 47 Exercise 36 The Cardiac Cycle 49 Exercise 37 Blood Vessels 50 Exercise 38 Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure 51 Exercise 39 Major Arteries and Veins 52
Lymphatic System Exercise 40 Lymphatic System 54
Digestive System Exercise 41 Organs of the Digestive System 55 Exercise 42 Action of a Digestive Enzyme 58
Respiratory System Exercise 43 Organs of the Respiratory System 59 Exercise 44 Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities 60
Urinary System Exercise 45 Structure of the Kidney 61 Exercise 46 Urinalysis 62
Reproductive Systems Exercise 47 Male Reproductive System 63 Exercise 48 Female Reproductive System 64
Appendix 1 Materials Needed 65
Appendix 2 Laboratory Suppliers 68

Preface

THIS INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL IS DESIGNED TO ASSIST THOSE WHO ARE USING THE LABORATORY MANUAL TO ACCOMPANY HOLE'S ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION BY TERRY R. MARTIN. IT DESCRIBES THE PURPOSE OF THE LABORATORY MANUAL AND ITS SPECIAL FEATURES, AND PROVIDES SUGGESTIONS FOR PRESENTING THE LABORATORY EXERCISES TO STUDENTS. THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL ALSO PARALLELS THE LABORATORY MANUAL, EXERCISE BY EXERCISE, PROVIDING LABELS FOR UNLABELED DIAGRAMS AND ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS THAT APPEAR IN THE LABORATORY REPORTS. FOR SOME EXERCISES, SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS THAT PROPOSE ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, OR LABORATORY TECHNIQUES ARE PROVIDED. Most of the illustrations and labels parallel the textbook very closely, as requested by many of the users of the laboratory manual. Many of the leader lines are arranged differently than the textbook, and several illustrations are different than the textbook. This has been requested also by many of the users of the laboratory manual. I have attempted to reach a balance that will be beneficial for all students and instructors.
An Overview

THE LABORATORY MANUAL TO ACCOMPANY HOLE'S HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION, WAS WRITTEN TO ACCOMPANY THE TEXTBOOK HOLE'S ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION, BY SHIER, BUTLER, AND LEWIS. AS IN THE CASE OF THE TEXTBOOK, THE LABORATORY MANUAL IS PLANNED FOR STUDENTS PURSUING CAREERS IN ALLIED HEALTH FIELDS WHO HAVE MINIMAL BACKGROUNDS IN THE PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. The manual contains forty-eight laboratory exercises that are integrated closely with the content of the textbook. The exercises are designed to review and illustrate various anatomical and physiological facts and principles presented in the textbook and to help students investigate some of these ideas in more detail. Four computerized supplemental labs are available, which are physiological labs on humans. The laboratory exercises include a variety of special features that are designed to stimulate student interest in the subject matter, to involve students in the learning process, and to guide them through the planned experiences. These features include the following:
Materials needed. The laboratory materials listed are those that students require to complete the exercise and to perform the demonstrations and optional activities.
Safety. If the laboratory exercise requires special safety guidelines, this section is included. General safety guidelines also appear inside the front cover.
Introduction. The introduction briefly describes the subject of the exercise or the ideas that will be investigated.
Purpose of the exercise. The purpose provides a statement concerning the intent of the exercise–that is, what will be accomplished.
Learning objectives. The learning objectives list in general terms what a student should be able to do after completing the exercise.
Procedure. The procedure provides a set of detailed instructions for accomplishing the planned laboratory activities. Usually these instructions are presented in outline form so that a student can proceed through the exercise in stepwise fashion. Frequently, the student is referred to particular sections of the textbook for necessary background information or for review of subject matter presented in some previous part of the course. The procedures include a wide variety of laboratory activities and, from time to time, direct the student to complete various tasks in the laboratory reports.
Demonstrations. Demonstrations appear in separate boxes. They describe specimens, specialized laboratory equipment, or other materials of interest that the instructor may want to display to enrich the student's laboratory experience.
Optional activities. Optional activities also appear in separate boxes. They are planned to encourage students to extend their laboratory experiences. Some of these activities are open-ended in that they suggest how a student can plan an investigation or experiment and carry it out after receiving approval from the laboratory instructor.
Illustrations. Diagrams from the textbook are often used as aids for reviewing subject matter. Other illustrations provide visual instructions for performing steps in procedures or are used to identify parts of instruments or specimens. Micrographs are often included to help students identify microscopic structures or to evaluate student understanding of tissues Some figures, such those involving the skull, are presented so that they are suitable for coloring. You may want to have your students use colored pencils to highlight various parts of these illustrations. This activity should enhance their ability to observe the figures more carefully and help them locate and identify important anatomical features.
Laboratory reports. Immediately following each exercise, there is a laboratory report to be completed by the student. These reports include various types of review activities, spaces for sketches of microscopic objects, tables for recording observations and experimental results, and questions dealing with the analysis of such data. As a result of these laboratory exercises, students should develop a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of their bodies. In addition, their skills in gathering information by observation and experimentation should increase.

Instructional Approaches

EXERCISE SELECTION

Although the laboratory manual contains forty-eight separate exercises, it may not be possible to include all of them in any one program. However, since many of the exercises are relatively short and because the procedures of others are divided into sections, an instructor can easily select those exercises or parts of exercises that best meet the needs of a particular class. These exercises also vary in the quantities of equipment needed to complete them; if necessary, an instructor can make some selection based upon the amount of laboratory equipment available for use by a class.

Animal Dissection

In the laboratory manual, detailed instructions for dissecting certain organs, such as the sheep brain, sheep heart, mammalian eye, and pig kidney are included. If an instructor prefers to have students dissect some animal, appropriate sections of a specialized dissection manual may be added. A laboratory option is to obtain a cadaver as a demonstration specimen. If this is not possible, consider a field trip to a location that has a prosected cadaver. A minimum of two viewings is recommended−one during muscle study and the other near the end of the course.

The Use of Animals in Biology Education*

The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) believes that the study of organisms, including nonhuman animals, is essential to the understanding of life on Earth. NABT recommends the prudent and responsible use of animals in the life science classroom. NABT believes that biology teachers should foster a respect for life. Biology teachers also should teach about the interrelationship and interdependency of all things. Classroom experiences that involve nonhuman animals range from observation to dissection. NABT supports these experiences so long as they are conducted within the long-established guidelines of proper care and use of animals, as developed by the scientific and educational community. As with any instructional activity, the use of nonhuman animals in the biology classroom must have sound educational objectives. Any use of animals, whether for observation or dissection, must convey substantive knowledge of biology. NABT believes that biology teachers are in the best position to make this determination for their students. NABT acknowledges that no alternative can substitute for the actual experience of dissection or other use of animals and urges teachers to be aware of the limitations of alternatives. When the teacher determines that the most effective means to meet the objectives of the class do not require dissection, NABT accepts the use of alternatives to dissection including models and the various forms of multimedia. The Association encourages teachers to be sensitive to substantive student objections to dissection and to consider providing appropriate lessons for those students when necessary. To implement this policy, NABT endorses and adopts the “Principle and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education” of the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources (National Research Council). Copies of the “Principle and Guidelines” may be obtained from the ILAR (2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418; 202-334-2590).
*Adopted by the Board of Directors in October 1995. This policy supersedes and replaces all previous NABT statements regarding animals in biology education.

Background Information

The procedures of many exercises begin by suggesting that students review specific sections of the textbook. If the subject matter involved in a particular exercise has been covered recently in lecture, the students may be able to accomplish such a review rather quickly. On the other hand, if the material has not been presented previously, this part of a procedure may be used as a means of introducing information needed to understand the ideas presented in the exercise. When the procedure is used to introduce new material, an instructor may ask students to complete the first section before coming to the laboratory. Following this, some portion of the laboratory time may be needed for class discussion of the new material.

Correlation of Textbook Chapters and Laboratory Exercises

TEXTBOOK CHAPTERS RELATED LABORATORY EXERCISES
Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy Exercise 1 Scientific Method and and Physiology Measurements Exercise 2 Body Organization and Terminology
Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life
Chapter 3 Cells Exercise 3 Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Exercise 4 Cell Structure and Function Exercise 5 Movements Through Cell Membranes Exercise 6 The Cell Cycle
Chapter 4 Cellular Metabolism
Chapter 5 Tissues Exercise 7 Epithelial Tissues Exercise 8 Connective Tissues Exercise 9 Muscle and Nervous Tissues
Chapter 6 Skin and the Integumentary System Exercise 10 Integumentary System
Chapter 7 Skeletal System Exercise 11 Structure of Bone Exercise 12 Organization of the Skeleton Exercise 13 The Skull Exercise 14 Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage Exercise 15 Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb Exercise 16 Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Exercise 17 The Joints
Chapter 8 Muscular System Exercise 18 Skeletal Muscle Structure Exercise 19 Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck Exercise 20 Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb Exercise 21 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet Exercise 22 Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb
Chapter 9 Nervous System Exercise 23 Nervous Tissue and Nerves Exercise 24 The Reflex Arc and Reflexes Exercise 25 The Meninges and Spinal Cord Exercise 26 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Exercise 27 Dissection of the Sheep Brain
Chapter 10 Somatic and Special Senses Exercise 28 The Ear and Hearing Exercise 29 The Eye Exercise 30 Visual Tests and Demonstrations
Chapter 11 Endocrine System Exercise 31 Endocrine System
Chapter 12 Blood Exercise 32 Blood Cells Exercise 33 Blood Testing−A Demonstration Exercise 34 Blood Typing Chapter 13 Cardiovascular System Exercise 35 Structure of the Heart Exercise 36 The Cardiac Cycle Exercise 37 Blood Vessels Exercise 38 Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure Exercise 39 Major Arteries and Veins
Chapter 14 Lymphatic System and Immunity Exercise 40 Lymphatic System
Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition Exercise 41 Organs of the Digestive System Exercise 42 Action of a Digestive Enzyme
Chapter 16 Respiratory System Exercise 43 Organs of the Respiratory System Exercise 44 Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
Chapter 17 Urinary System Exercise 45 Structure of the Kidney Exercise 46 Urinalysis
Chapter 18 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Chapter 19 Reproductive Systems Exercise 47 Male Reproductive System Exercise 48 Female Reproductive System
Chapter 20 Pregnancy, Growth, and Development
Suggested Time Schedule

DIFFERENT INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS PROVIDE DIFFERENT LENGTHS OF TIME FOR LABORATORY PREPARATIONS, WORK ACTIVITIES, AND FOLLOW-UP DISCUSSIONS. OTHER FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE TIME REQUIRED FOR EACH EXERCISE ARE THE AVAILABILITY AND VARIETY OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS. CONSEQUENTLY, IT IS DIFFICULT TO MAKE PRECISE SUGGESTIONS FOR THE AMOUNTS OF TIME THAT SHOULD BE SET ASIDE FOR PARTICULAR LABORATORY EXERCISES. The suggested time schedule was prepared with these limitations in mind. The hours listed for each exercise indicate the minimal time that probably will be needed for students who are acquainted with the subject matter of the exercise to complete the laboratory work. Students who lack background information and who have to read various sections of the textbook before beginning an exercise probably will require additional time. Similarly, students who are expected to complete the laboratory reports in class may need more time.
Laboratory Exercise Minimal Time
Exercise 1 Scientific Method and Measurements 2 hours
Exercise 2 Body Organization and Terminology 3 hours
Exercise 3 Care and Use of the Compound Microscope 2 hours
Exercise 4 Cell Structure and Function 2 hours
Exercise 5 Movements Through Cell Membranes 3 hours
Exercise 6 The Cell Cycle 1 hour
Exercise 7 Epithelial Tissues 2 hours
Exercise 8 Connective Tissues 2 hours
Exercise 9 Muscle and Nervous Tissues 1 hour
Exercise 10 Integumentary System 1 hour
Exercise 11 Structure of Bone 1 hour
Exercise 12 Organization of the Skeleton 1 hour
Exercise 13 The Skull 3 hours
Exercise 14 Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage 2 hours
Exercise 15 Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb 2 hours
Exercise 16 Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb 2 hours
Exercise 17 The Joints 2 hours
Exercise 18 Skeletal Muscle Structure 1 hour
Exercise 19 Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck 1 hour
Exercise 20 Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb 2 hours
Exercise 21 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet 1 hour
Exercise 22 Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb 2 hours
Exercise 23 Nervous Tissue and Nerves 2 hours
Exercise 24 The Reflex Arc and Reflexes 1 hour
Exercise 25 The Meninges and Spinal Cord 1 hour
Exercise 26 The Brain and Cranial Nerves 2 hours
Exercise 27 Dissection of the Sheep Brain 2 hours
Exercise 28 The Ear and Hearing 2 hours
Exercise 29 The Eye 3 hours
Exercise 30 Visual Tests and Demonstrations 2 hours
Exercise 31 Endocrine System 2 hours
Exercise 32 Blood Cells 2 hours
Exercise 33 Blood Testing−A Demonstration 2 hours
Exercise 34 Blood Typing 1 hour
Exercise 35 Structure of the Heart 2 hours
Exercise 36 The Cardiac Cycle 3 hours
Exercise 37 Blood Vessels 1 hour
Exercise 38 Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure 2 hours
Exercise 39 Major Arteries and Veins 2 hours
Exercise 40 Lymphatic System 1 hour
Exercise 41 Organs of the Digestive System 3 hours
Exercise 42 Action of a Digestive Enzyme 2 hours
Exercise 43 Organs of the Respiratory System 2 hours
Exercise 44 Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities 1 hour
Exercise 45 Structure of the Kidney 2 hours
Exercise 46 Urinalysis 3 hours
Exercise 47 Male Reproductive System 2 hours
Exercise 48 Female Reproductive System 2 hours
Laboratory Exercise 1
SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND MEASUREMENTS

[pic]CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION ANSWER

Answers and data will vary

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
1. (experimental results)
2. (experimental results)
3. Answers will vary, however many students will conclude that the data will support the original hypothesis
Part B
1—6. Answers will vary.

Laboratory Exercise 2
Body Organization and Terminology

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION

If a dissectible torso is not available, you might want to have the students consult the figures in various sections of the textbook, particularly the reference plates following chapter 1, to gain some understanding of the organizational pattern of the human body.

Figure Labels

Figure 2.1 1. Thoracic 4. Pelvic 2. Abdominal 5. Cranial 3. Abdominopelvic 6. Vertebral
Figure 2.2 1. Frontal sinuses 4. Oral cavity 2. Orbital cavities 5. Sphenoidal sinus 3. Nasal cavity 6. Middle ear cavity
Figure 2.3a Figure 2.3b 1. Visceral pleura 7. Visceral peritoneum 2. Pleural cavity 8. Peritoneal cavity 3. Parietal pleura 9. Parietal peritoneum 4. Visceral pericardium (epicardium) 5. Pericardial cavity 6. Parietal pericardium
Figure 2.4 1. Coronal plane 2. Sagittal plane 3. Transverse plane
Figure 2.5a 1. Epigastric region 6. Left hypochondriac 2. Right hypochondriac region 7. Left lumbar region 3. Right lumbar region 8. Left iliac region 4. Umbilical region 9. Hypogastric region 5. Right iliac region
Figure 2.6a
1. Nasal
2. Oral
3. Cervical
4. Acromial
5. Axillary
6. Mammary
7. Brachial
8. Antecubital
9. Abdominal
10. Antebrachial 11. Carpal
12. Palmar
13. Digital
14. Genital 15. Crural
16. Tarsal
17. Cephalic
18. Frontal
19. Orbital
20. Buccal
21. Mental
22. Sternal
23. Pectoral
24. Umbilical
25. Inguinal
26. Coxal
27. Patellar
28. Pedal
Figure 2.6b
29. Otic
30. Occipital
31. Acromial
32. Vertebral
33. Brachial 34. Dorsal
35. Cubital 36. Lumbar
37. Sacral
38. Gluteal 39. Perineal
40. Femoral
41. Popliteal
42. Crural
43. Plantar

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
1. a
2. d
3. a
4. a
5. b 6. d
7. a
8. c
9. a
10. e 11. d
12. c
13. d
14. d
Part B
1. visceral pleura 4. visceral peritoneum
2. visceral pericardium 5. mediastinum
3. parietal peritoneum 6. diaphragm
Part C
1. c 7. e
2. d 8. f
3. h 9. k
4. g 10. b
5. j 11. a
6. i
Part D 1. inferior 7. distal 2. (correct) 8. (correct) 3. (correct) 9. superficial 4. anterior 10. (correct) 5. (correct) 11. deep 6. (correct)
Part E (figure 2.7) 1. Cross section 2. Oblique section 3. Longitudinal section
Part F
1. f
2. i
3. n
4. c
5. k 6. m
7. o
8. a
9. l
10. h 11. d
12. e
13. j
14. g
15. b
Part G 1. j 9. d 2. c 10. m 3. f 11. i 4. k 12. e 5. l 13. a 6. n 14. b 7. h 15. g 8. o

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answers

Part H

1. LUQ 4. RUQ

2. RLQ 5. LUQ or LLQ

3. any or all quadrants 6. LUQ
Laboratory Exercise 3
Care and Use of the Compound Microscope

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS

1. To stimulate student interest in the use of the microscope, you may want to have the students prepare wet mounts of pond water and observe the various forms of life present. A plankton net is a helpful device to concentrate pond organisms. Students can be encouraged to bring samples of pond water to class in preparation for this experiment. 2. You may want to provide students with prepared slides of the major human organs to examine as a way of increasing their experience with using the microscope. 3. If oil-immersion objectives are available, you may want to provide students with prepared slides of various forms of bacteria to observe using these objectives.
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
Answers will vary depending upon the order of the three colored threads. However, the colored thread on the top will be in focus first, the middle one second, and the bottom one last as the student continues to turn the fine adjustment the same direction.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. 100( 2. 1,000(
Part B 1. (sketch) 2. About 4.5 mm for scanning power (using 4( objective) 3. About 4,500 micrometers 4. About 2.2 mm 5. About 2,200 micrometers
Part C 1. (sketch) 2. About 1.7 mm (using a 10( objective) 3. The diameter of the scanning-power field of view is about 2.6 times greater than that of the low-power field of view. 4. Student is unable to see two adjacent mm lines on the scale in the high-power field of view. 5. Light intensity is decreased when high-power objective is used. 6. (sketch) 7. Upside down and reversed from right to left 8. Left 9. Toward the observer
Part D 1. f 6. j 2. i 7. d 3. c 8. b 4. a 9. g 5. h 10. e
Part E
(sketches)
Laboratory Exercise 4 Cell Structure AND FUNCTION

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS

1. Instead of preparing cheek cell slides, you may want to have students prepare slides of plant cells using Elodea leaves or onion skin. 2. If live frogs are available, you may want to pith the frogs and have students prepare wet mounts using small samples of the ciliated epithelium that lines the oral cavity. They also can prepare smears of frog blood and stain the cells with methylene blue, and prepare wet mounts of sperm cells from the testes of the male frogs. You then might provide students with prepared slides of human ciliated epithelium, blood, and sperm cells and have the students compare the frog cells with the human cells.

Figure Labels

Figure 4.1 1. Flagellum 2. Centrioles 3. Golgi apparatus 4. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
5. Nucleus
6. Nuclear envelope
7. Mitochondrion
8. Ribosomes

9. Cell membrane
10. Cilia

Figure 4.2 1. Globular protein 2. Carbohydrate 3. Fibrous protein 4. Cholesterol molecules
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The outer body surface is the same tissue as inside the cheek, however, outer surface cells are dead from dryng out. Light scraping of the inside of the cheek does not hurt or bleed as stratified squamous epithelial tissue is many cells thick. Epithelial cells lack nerve endings and blood vessels between the cells that make the tissue ideal for coverings and protection.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
1. b
2. k
3. a
4. o
5. p
6. m 7. j
8. e
9. d
10. g
11. c 12. i
13. h
14. l
15. n
16. f
Part B 1. lipids, proteins, and some carbohydrates 2. a double layer of phospholipids 3. water soluble 4. protein 5. protein
Part C 1. (sketch) 2. The stained cells made the nucleus more clearly visible. 3. Yes. Cells with similar structure would have a similar function.
Part D 1. (sketches) 2. They should always notice cytoplasm, nucleus, nuclear envelope, and cell membrane 3. Answers will vary.
Laboratory Exercise 5
Movements Through Cell Membranes

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION

Instead of using human blood for Procedure C, you may want to substitute some other type of animal blood obtained from a meatpacking house, a veterinarian, or a biological supply house.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. (experimental results) 2. (experimental results) 3. Answers will vary. 4. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration as a result of molecular motion.
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answers 1. yes 2. yes 3. no 4. no 5. yes

Part B 1. Answers will vary. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Water entered the thistle tube through the membrane, thus increasing the volume of liquid in the tube. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration through a selectively permeable membrane
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answers 1. yes 2. yes 3. no 4. yes 5. yes

Part C 1. (sketches) 2. Tube 3. There was a net movement of water out of the cells. 3. Tube 1. There was a net movement of water into the cells. 4. Tube 2. There was no net movement of water into or out of the cells.
Part D 1. Water, glucose, and starch 2. The tests for glucose and starch were positive. 3. Gravity 4. Charcoal 5. Pores in the filter paper were too small. 6. Filtration is the movement of substances through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure that is greater on one side of the membrane than on the other side. [pic] Critical Thinking Application Answers

1. no 2. yes 3. no 4. no 5. yes

Laboratory Exercise 6
The Cell Cycle

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 6.2 1. Chromosome (chromatid) 2. Centromere 3. Centriole 4. Spindle fiber (microtubules)
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
Interphase. Even in rapidly dividing cells interphase is the most prevalent because it requires the longest period of time for growth and duplication of cell structures.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
Table:
|Stage Major Events Occurring |
|Interphase Growth, duplication of cell structures, and normal metabolism take place. |
|Prophase Nuclear envelope disappears; chromatin fibers condense forming chromosomes (paired |
|chromatids); centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell. |
|Metaphase Chromosomes align midway between centrioles. |
|Anaphase Microtubules pull chromosomes toward centrioles. |
|Telophase Chromosomes elongate and become chromatin fibers; nuclear envelopes reappear. |
|Cytoplasmic Cell membrane constricts, dividing cell into new cells (daughter cells). |
|division |

Part B
(sketches)
Part C
1. Each new cell (daughter cell) contains identical chromosomes.
2. They may be slightly different in size and number of organelles.
3. Mitosis involves the division of the nuclear contents and the distribution of identical sets of chromosomes to the new cells; cytokinesis involves the division of the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles.
Part D (figure 6.5a-d)
a. Metaphase
b. Telophase
c. Prophase
d. Anaphase
Part E (figure 6.5a-d) 1. Chromosome (chromatid) 2. Cytokinesis (cleavage furrow) 3. Cell membrane
4. Nuclear envelope 5. Centrioles/centrosome
6. Spindle fibers/microtubules
Laboratory Exercise 7
Epithelial Tissues

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS

Part A 1. f 7. e 2. d 8. f 3. c 9. b 4. d 10. a 5. c 11. a 6. d 12. e
Part B
(sketches)

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer

Stratified squamous epithelium would have excellent protection as it is several cells thick. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia would provide good movement of mucus and trapped particles away from the lungs. Laboratory Exercise 8
Connective Tissues

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS

Part A 1. e 8. g 2. a 9. f 3. b 10. g 4. c 11. a 5. h 12. h 6. d 13. c 7. a
Part B
(sketches)

Laboratory Exercise 9
Muscle and Nervous Tissues

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS

Part A
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. a
5. c
6. b
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. b
Part B
(sketches)

Laboratory Exercise 10
Integumentary System

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 10.1
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
3. Subcutaneous layer
4. Hair shaft
5. Stratum corneum
6. Stratum basale 7. Sebaceous gland
8. Arrector pili muscle
9. Hair follicle
10. Sweat gland (eccrine gland)
11. Blood vessels

Figure 10.2 1. Arrector pili muscle 2. Region of cell division 3. Hair shaft 4. Sebaceous glands 5. Hair follicle 6. Sweat gland (eccrine gland)
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
Melanin granules are concentrated within some of the most superficial living cells of the body. Because melanin absorbs the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight, minimal damaging wavelengths reach the living cells of the dermis. (Most of the melanin granules are oriented on the superficial side of the nucleus that serve as a protective shield of the nucleus of the epidermal cells.)

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
1. k
2. m
3. a
4. h
5. c 6. d
7. i
8. e
9. j
10. g 11. n
12. l
13. f
14. b
Part B 1. Answers will vary. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Epidermal cells at the base of the hair follicle divide and grow, pushing older cells outward; as these cells die they become the keratinized parts of the hair. 4. Pigment is produced by melanocytes.
Part C 1. Epidermis is the outer layer of the skin while the dermis is the inner layer; the subcutaneous layer binds the dermis to the underlying organs. 2. Cells of the stratum basale are living and reproduce actively; cells of the stratum corneum are dead and keratinized and form the surface layer of the skin. 3. It contains both elastic and collagenous fibers that give the dermis the qualities of elasticity and strength.
Part D 1. Dermis 2. Sebaceous glands are usually connected to hair follicles and secrete sebum into the follicles. 3. Dermis

Part E (sketch)

Laboratory Exercise 11
Structure of Bone

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 11.1 1. Articular cartilage 6. Periosteum 2. Spongy bone (red marrow) 7. Proximal epiphysis 3. Compact bone 8. Diaphysis 4. Medullary cavity 9. Distal epiphysis 5. Yellow marrow
Figure 11.2 1. Spongy bone 6. Perforating canal 2. Compact bone 7. Blood vessel 3. Osteon 8. Nerve 4. Periosteum 9. Canaliculus 5. Central canal 10. Osteocyte
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The closest blood supply to an osteocyte is located in the central canal of an osteon unit. Nutrients and wastes can move from one cell to another via small cellular processes located in minute tubes in the matrix called canaliculi. In this way, all of the osteocytes of one osteon are tied to a blood source.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. Long bones occur in the upper and lower limbs. 2. An epiphysis is the expanded end of a long bone, and a diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone. 3. Cartilage forms a coating on the outer face of an epiphysis of a long bone. 4. Except for its articular portions, a bone is enclosed by a covering of fibrous connective tissue called the periosteum. 5. Bony processes provide attachments for ligaments and tendons. 6. The periosteum forms an outer covering, and the endosteum lines the spaces and cavities within a bone. 7. Compact bone has osteons closely packed together, but spongy bone has large spaces between thin bony plates. 8. Compact bone provides strength in the shaft and along the borders of the bone. Spongy bone reduces the weight of the bone and provides spaces occupied by marrow. 9. The marrow in the medullary cavity of an adult is yellow, but marrow in the spaces of spongy bone is red.
Part B (figure 11.3 a and b) 1. Epiphysis (distal) 2. Diaphysis 3. Epiphysis (proximal) 4. Medullary cavity
5. Compact bone
6. Spongy bone

Laboratory Exercise 12
Organization of the Skeleton

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 12.1a Figure 12.1b
1. Cranial bones (cranium) 16. Scapula
2. Facial bones (face) 17. Humerus
3. Skull 18. Ulna
4. Clavicle 19. Radius
5. Sternum 20. Femur
6. Ribs 21. Tibia
7. Vertebral column (vertebra) 22. Fibula
8. Coxa (hipbone; innominate) 23. Vertebral column (vertebra)
9. Carpals 24. Sacrum
10. Metacarpals 25. Coccyx
11. Phalanx (distal)
12. Patella
13. Tarsal
14. Metatarsal
15. Phalanx
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The largest foramen in the skull is the foramen magnum in the occipital bone. The largest foramen in the human body is the obturator foramen in the coxa.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
1. axial 8. carpals
2. hyoid 9. sacrum
3. coccyx 10. pelvis
4. thoracic vertebrae 11. patella
5. twelve 12. tarsals
6. pectoral girdle 13. phalanges
7. ulna
Part B
1. c 5. g
2. f 6. b
3. a 7. d
4. e
Part C
1. c 5. d
2. a 6. f
3. g 7. e
4. b

Laboratory Exercise 13
The Skull

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION

You might want to have the students use colored pencils to color the bones in figures 13.1 through 13.5. They should use a different color for each of the individual bones in the series. This activity should cause the students to observe the figures more carefully and help them to locate the various bones that are shown from different views in the figures. The students can check their work by referring to the corresponding full-color figures in the textbook.

Figure Labels

Figure 13.1
1. Parietal bone
2. Frontal bone
3. Coronal suture
4. Temporal bone
5. Perpendicular plate (of ethmoid bone)
6. Infraorbital foramen

7. Vomer bone 8. Mandible
9. Supraorbital foramen
10. Nasal bone
11. Sphenoid bone
12. Zygomatic bone

13. Middle nasal concha (of ethmoid bone)
14. Inferior nasal concha
15. Maxilla
16. Mental foramen

Figure 13.2
1. Parietal bone
2. Squamosal suture
3. Lambdoidal suture
4. Temporal bone
5. Occipital bone
6. Temporal process (of zygomatic bone)
7. External auditory meatus 8. Mastoid process
9. Styloid process
10. Mandibular condyle
11. Zygomatic process (of temporal bone)
12. Coronal suture
13. Frontal bone
14. Sphenoid bone 15. Lacrimal bone
16. Nasal bone
17. Zygomatic bone
18. Maxilla
19. Mandible
20. Coronoid process

Figure 13.3
1. Zygomatic bone
2. Sphenoid bone
3. Vomer
4. Zygomatic arch
5. Temporal bone
6. Styloid process 7. External auditory meatus
8. Mastoid process
9. Occipital condyle
10. Maxilla
11. Palatine process of maxilla 12. Palatine bone
13. Foramen magnum
14. Lambdoidal suture
15. Occipital bone
Figure 13.4
1. Ethmoid bone
2. Foramen magnum
3. Crista galli
4. Cribriform plate 5. Frontal bone
6. Sphenoid bone
7. Temporal bone 8. Sella turcica
9. Parietal bone
10. Occipital bone Figure 13.5
1. Coronal suture
2. Frontal bone
3. Frontal sinus
4. Ethmoid bone
5. Nasal bone
6. Perpendicular plate 7. Maxilla
8. Mandible
9. Temporal bone
10. Parietal bone
11. Squamosal suture
12. Lambdoidal suture 13. Occipital bone
14. Sella turcica
15. Styloid process
16. Sphenoidal sinus
17. Vomer bone

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
1. d
2. a
3. a
4. f 5. c
6. f
7. f
8. a 9. c
10. e
11. f
12. b
Part B
1. coronal
2. sagittal
3. lambdoidal
4. squamosal
5. The three cranial bones containing sinuses are the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.
6. the maxilla
Part C
1. e 7. h
2. c 8. a
3. c 9. d
4. h 10. f
5. d 11. b
6. g
Part D
Figure 13.7 Figure 13.8
1. Frontal bone 1. Frontal bone
2. Nasal 2. Temporal bone
3. Zygomatic 3. Parietal bone
4. Infraorbital foramen 4. Occipital bone
5. Maxilla 5. Ethmoid bone
6. Mandible 6. Sphenoid bone
7. Middle nasal concha 7. Sella turcica
8. Inferior nasal concha 8. Foramen magnum 9. Mental foramen
Figure 13.9
1. Maxilla 6. Palatine process of maxilla
2. Zygomatic bone 7. Palatine bone
3. Sphenoid bone 8. Vomer bone
4. Temporal bone 9. Occipital condyle
5. Occipital bone 10. Foramen magnum
Figure 13.10
1. Parietal bone
2. Sphenoid bone
3. Temporal bone 4. Zygomatic bone
5. Maxilla 6. Frontal bone 7. Mandible
Laboratory Exercise 14
Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 14.1 1. Cervical 5. Intervertebral foramina 2. Thoracic 6. Sacrum 3. Lumbar 7. Coccyx 4. Intervertebral discs
Figure 14.2a Figure 14.2b 1. Facet for dens (odontoid process) 5. Dens (odontoid process) 2. Facet for occipital condyle 6. Superior articular facet 3. Transverse foramen 7. Transverse foramen 4. Transverse process 8. Body 9. Vertebral foramen 10. Spinous process
Figure 14.3 1. Lamina 10. Superior articular facet 2. Body 11. Transverse foramen 3. Lamina 12. Spinous process 4. Pedicle 13. Transverse process 5. Body 14. Facet for rib articulation 6. Lamina 15. Transverse process 7. Superior articular process 16. Pedicle 8. Vertebral foramen 17. Body 9. Spinous process (bifid)
Figure 14.4 1. Superior articular process 5. Superior articular process 2. Pelvic sacral foramen 6. Tubercle 3. Coccyx 7. Dorsal sacral foramen 4. Sacral canal 8. Sacral hiatus

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The four curvatures allow more resiliency and flexibility, which will enable the vertebral column to function more like a spring instead of a rigid rod.
Figure 14.5 1. True ribs 5. Body 2. False ribs 6. Xiphoid process 3. Thoracic vertebra 7. Sternum 4. Manubrium 8. Costal cartilage 9. Floating ribs

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. spinal cord 7. atlas 2. bodies 8. dens (odontoid process) 3. intervertebral discs 9. lumbar 4. vertebral arch 10. five 5. spinal nerves 11. sacral hiatus 6. arteries

Part B
|Vertebra |Number |Size |Body |Spinous |Transverse |
| | | | |Process |Foramina |
| | | | | | |
|Cervical |7 |smallest |smallest |C2 through C5 |present |
| | | | |are forked | |
| | | | | | |
|Thoracic |12 |intermediate |intermediate |pointed and |absent |
| | | | |angled downward | |
| | | | | | |
|Lumbar |5 |largest |largest |short, blunt, and |absent |
| | | | |nearly horizontal | |

Part C 1. 206 2. floating 3. transverse 4. clavicles 5. a. It supports the shoulder girdle and arms. b. It protects the visceral organs in the thoracic and upper abdominal cavities. c. It aids breathing.
Part D (figure 14.6) 1. Spinous process 2. Atlas 3. Axis 4. Transverse process 5. Intervertebral disc 6. Body (of sixth cervical vertebra)

Laboratory Exercise 15
Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 15.1 1. Clavicle 2. Rib 3. Sternum 4. Costal cartilage 5. Scapula 6. Humerus 7. Ulna 8. Radius 9. Acromion process
10. Head of humerus
11. Coracoid process
Figure 15.2a Figure 15.2b 1. Acromion process 5. Acromion process 2. Coracoid process 6. Coracoid process 3. Spine 7. Glenoid cavity 4. Glenoid cavity (fossa)

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The clavicles brace the freely movable scapulae, helping to hold the shoulders in place. If an excessive lengthwise force occurs on this structurally weak bone, as when a person breaks a fall with an outstretched rigid upper limb, it is likely to fracture.

Figure 15.3 1. Head 2. Greater tubercle 3. Anatomical neck 4. Surgical neck 5. Olecranon fossa 6. Lateral epicondyle 7. Capitulum 8. Greater tubercle 9. Lesser tubercle
10. Intertubercular groove
11. Deltoid tuberosity 12. Coronoid fossa
13. Capitulum
14. Trochlea
15. Medial epicondyle
16. Trochlea
Figure 15.4 1. Trochlear notch 2. Coronoid process 3. Head radius 4. Radial tuberosity 5. Styloid process 6. Olecranon process 7. Head of ulna 8. Styloid process
Figure 15.5 1. Distal phalanx 2. Middle phalanx 3. Proximal phalanx 4. Metacarpals 5. Carpals 6. Pisiform 7. Triquetrum 8. Hamate 9. Phalanges
10. Trapezium 11. Trapezoid
12. Scaphoid
13. Capitate
14. Lunate

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. scapulae 2. manubrium 3. acromion process 4. spine 5. acromion process 6. coracoid process 7. head

Part B 1. a 2. b 3. b 4. b 5. b 6. a 7. b 8. c 9. e 10. a
11. a
12. f
13. d

Part C (figures 15.6, 15.7, and 15.8) 1. Ulna 2. Humerus 3. Olecranon process 4. Head of radius 5. Radius 6. Acromion process 7. Head of humerus 8. Humerus 9. Clavicle
10. Scapula
11. Rib
12. Phalanges
13. Metacarpals
14. Carpals
15. Distal phalanx
16. Proximal phalanx

Laboratory Exercise 16
Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 16.1 1. Coxa (hipbone; innominate) 2. Sacrum 3. Coccyx
Figure 16.2 1. Iliac crest 2. Anterior superior iliac spine 3. Acetabulum

4. Obturator foramen
5. Pubis 6. Ilium 7. Ischial spine 8. Ischium 9. Ischial tuberosity

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
All of the features examined are wider in the female pelvis which will result in a larger pelvic cavity and must also serve as a birth canal for a vaginal delivery.

Figure 16.3 1. Head 2. Fovea capitis 3. Greater trochanter 4. Neck 5. Lateral epicondyle 6. Lesser trochanter 7. Lateral condyle 8. Medial condyle 9. Medial epicondyle

Figure 16.4
1. Lateral condyle
2. Head of fibula
3. Fibula 4. Lateral malleolus 5. Medial condyle 6. Tibial tuberosity

7. Tibia 8. Medial malleolus
Figure 16.5 1. Tarsals 2. Metatarsals 3. Phalanges 4. Calcaneus 5. Talus 6. Navicular 7. Cuboid 8. Lateral cuneiform 9. Intermediate cuneiform 10. Medial cuneiform
11. Proximal phalanx
12. Middle phalanx
13. Distal phalanx

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. coxae (hipbones) 2. acetabulum 3. ilium 4. symphysis pubis 5. iliac crest 6. tuberosity 7. pubic arch 8. Obturator foramen 9. sacroiliac
Part B 1. e 2. a 3. g 4. a 5. f 6. f 7. g 8. f 9. f
10. b
11. d
12. c

Part C (figures 16.6, 16.7, and 16.8) 1. Obturator foramen 2. Symphysis pubis 3. Ilium 4. Sacrum 5. Head of femur 6. Pubis 7. Femur 8. Tibia 9. Lateral epicondyle
10. Lateral condyle
11. Head of fibula
12. Fibula 13. Tibia
14. Talus
15. Calcaneus
16. Metatarsal
17. Proximal phalanx
18. Distal phalanx

Laboratory Exercise 17
The Joints

[pic]CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION ANSWER
Maximum flexion of body parts can occur when in fetal position or performing a cannon ball into a swimming pool.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. suture 6. Synovial fluid 2. cartilaginous 7. menisci 3. fibrous 8. bursae 4. fibrocartilage 9. cartilaginous 5. Synovial joints 10. hyaline cartilage
Part B 1. a 6. a 2. b 7. c 3. e 8. f 4. d 9. c 5. d
Part C (figure 17.2) 1. Rotation 2. Elevation 3. Depression 4. Supination 5. Pronation 6. Abduction 7. Adduction 8. Flexion 9. Extension
10. Abduction 11. Adduction
12. Circumduction 13. Protraction 14. Retraction 15. Extension 16. Flexion 17. Extension 18. Flexion 19. Flexion 20. Extension 21. Flexion 22. Extension 23. Flexion 24. Extension 25. Flexion 26. Extension 27. Dorsiflexion 28. Plantar flexion

Laboratory Exercise 18
Skeletal Muscle Structure

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 18.2 1. Fascicle 7. Perimysium 2. Muscle fibers (cells) 8. Endomysium 3. Sarcolemma (cell membrane) 9. Nucleus 4. Tendon 10. Sarcoplasmic reticulum 5. Fascia 11. Myofibrils 6. Epimysium 12. Filaments
Figure 18.3 1. Myofibrils 6. Mitochondria 2. Cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum7. Myofilaments (filaments) 3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum 8. Sarcoplasm 4. Transverse tubules 9. Sarcolemma 5. Openings into transverse tubules 10. Nucleus

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. n 8. d 2. k 9. j 3. e 10. c 4. h 11. l 5. b 12. m 6. a 13. g 7. i 14. f
Part B (figure 18.4) 1. Z line 2. I band 3. A band 4. Sarcomere
Part C 1. origin 5. prime mover 2. insertion 6. synergists 3. two heads 7. prime movers 4. biceps brachii
Laboratory Exercise 19
Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 19.1 1. Frontalis 6. Orbicularis oculi 2. Occipitalis 7. Zygomaticus 3. Masseter 8. Buccinator 4. Sternocleidomastoid 9. Orbicularis oris 5. Temporalis 10. Platysma
Figure 19.2 1. Semispinalis capitis 2. Splenius capitis

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. zygomaticus 5. orbicularis oculi 2. buccinator 6. sternocleidomastoid 3. orbicularis oris 7. platysma 4. close the lower jaw (as in biting)
Part B 1. epicranius 6. platysma 2. zygomaticus 7. temporalis 3. masseter 8. splenius capitis 4. sternocleidomastoid 9. semispinalis capitis 5. buccinator

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answers

Part C (figure 19.3) 1. Epicranius (frontalis) 4. Orbicularis oris 2. Zygomaticus 5. Platysma 3. Orbicularis oculi
Laboratory Exercise 20
Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 20.1 1. Trapezius 2. Deltoid 3. Latissimus dorsi 4. Levator scapulae 5. Supraspinatus 6. Infraspinatus 7. Teres minor 8. Teres major 9. Rhomboideus major
Figure 20.2 1. Pectoralis minor 2. Internal intercostal 3. Serratus anterior 4. Trapezius 5. Deltoid 6. Pectoralis major
Figure 20.3a 1. Levator scapulae 2. Supraspinatus 3. Deltoid 4. Infraspinatus 5. Teres minor 6. Teres major 7. Triceps brachii
Figure 20.3b 1. Deltoid 2. Biceps brachii 3. Subscapularis 4. Coracobrachialis 5. Brachialis
Figure 20.4a 1. Biceps brachii 2. Brachialis 3. Supinator 4. Pronator teres 5. Brachioradialis 6. Extensor carpi radialis longus 7. Flexor carpi radialis 8. Palmaris longus 9. Flexor carpi ulnaris
10. Pronator quadratus
Figure 20.4b 1. Triceps brachii 2. Flexor carpi ulnaris 3. Extensor carpi ulnaris 4. Brachioradialis 5. Extensor carpi radialis longus 6. Extensor carpi radialis brevis 7. Extensor digitorum

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. c 2. h 3. e 4. k 5. j 6. i 7. m 8. l 9. a
10. b 11. o
12. n
13. d
14. g
15. f
Part B 1. rhomboideus major 2. serratus anterior 3. pectoralis minor 4. coracobrachialis 5. teres major 6. subscapularis 7. teres minor 8. brachialis 9. pronator teres
10. pronator quadratus
11. brachioradialis 12. flexor carpi radialis
13. palmaris longus
14. extensor carpi radialis longus
15. extensor carpi ulnaris

[pic] Critical Thinking Application Answers

Part C (figure 20.5) 1. Trapezius 2. Deltoid 3. Pectoralis major 4. Rectus abdominis 5. Sternocleidomastoid 6. Biceps brachii 7. Serratus anterior 8. External oblique 9. Deltoid 10. Trapezius 11. Infraspinatus 12. Biceps brachii 13. Triceps brachii 14. Latissimus dorsi 15. Pectoralis major 16. Serratus anterior 17. Biceps brachii 18. Trapezius 19. Deltoid 20. Triceps brachii 21. Brachioradialis

Laboratory Exercise 21
Muscles of the Abdominal wall and pelvic outlet

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 21.1 1. Rectus abdominis 2. Internal oblique 3. Transversus abdominis 4. External oblique
Figure 21.2 1. Ischiocavernosus 4. Levator ani 2. Bulbospongiosus 5. Gluteus maximus 3. Superficial transversus perinei 6. External anal sphincter
Figure 21.3 1. Ischiocavernosus 4. Levator ani 2. Bulbospongiosus 5. Gluteus maximus 3. Superficial transversus perinei 6. External anal sphincter

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
An appendectomy incision would involve the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles from superficial to deep.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. linea alba 2. rectus abdominis 3. transversus abdominis 4. tense the abdominal wall and compress the contents of the abdominal cavity 5. tense the abdominal wall and flex the vertebral column
Part B 1. pelvic 2. anal canal and vagina 3. support the pelvic viscera 4. bulbospongiosus 5. constrict the vagina 6. ischial tuberosity
Laboratory Exercise 22
Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 22.1 1. Psoas major 2. Iliacus 3. Tensor fasciae latae 4. Sartorius 5. Rectus femoris 6. Vastus lateralis 7. Adductor longus 8. Gracilis 9. Vastus medialis
Figure 22.2 1. Gluteus medius 5. Sartorius 2. Gluteus maximus 6. Rectus femoris 3. Biceps femoris 7. Vastus lateralis 4. Tensor fasciae latae
Figure 22.3 1. Adductor magnus 5. Gastrocnemius 2. Gracilis 6. Gluteus medius 3. Semitendinosus 7. Gluteus maximus 4. Semimembranosus 8. Biceps femoris
Figure 22.4 1. Tibialis anterior 2. Peroneus (fibularis) longus 3. Extensor digitorum longus
Figure 22.5 1. Gastrocnemius 4. Tibialis anterior 2. Soleus 5. Extensor digitorum longus 3. Peroneus (fibularis) longus
Figure 22.6 1. Gastrocnemius 2. Soleus 3. Flexor digitorum longus 4. Peroneus (fibularis) longus

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. c 5. b 2. d 6. a 3. e 7. f 4. g 8. h
Part B 1. gluteus medius and gluteus minimus 2. adductor magnus 3. sartorius 4. gastrocnemius 5. tensor fasciae latae 6. vastus lateralis 7. semitendinosus 8. vastus medialis 9. flexor digitorum longus
10. tibialis anterior

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answers
Part C (figure 22.7)

1. Rectus femoris 5. Vastus medialis
2. Vastus medialis 6. Tibialis anterior
3. Vastus lateralis 7. Gastrocnemius
4. Sartorius 8. Soleus

Laboratory Exercise 23
Nervous Tissue and Nerves

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 23.1 1. Chromatophilic substance (Nissl bodies) 6. Axon (nerve fiber) 2. Dendrites 7. Schwann cell 3. Nucleus 8. Cell body 4. Nucleolus 9. Neurofibrils 5. Nodes of Ranvier
Figure 23.2 1. Schwann cell nucleus 2. Myelin (myelin sheath) 3. Axon (nerve fiber) 4. Neurilemmal sheath (neurilemma)

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. h 7. d 2. i 8. f 3. g 9. k 4. c 10. j 5. a 11. e 6. b
Part B 1. (sketch) 2. (sketch) 3. (sketch) 4. (sketch) 5. (sketch)
Laboratory Exercise 24
The Reflex Arc and Reflexes

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 24.1 5 3 4 1 2

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. Nerve pathways 6. quadriceps femoris 2. central nervous system (spinal cord) 7. quadriceps femoris 3. Reflexes 8. upright posture 4. muscles 9. skin 5. sensory 10. Flexor
Part B 1. Table:
|Response Observed |Effector Involved |
| Extension of leg |Quadriceps femoris |
| Plantar flexion |Gastrocnemius and soleus |
| Flexion of forearm or slight biceps twitch |Biceps brachii |
| Extension of forearm or slight triceps twitch |Triceps brachii |
| Plantar flexion of foot and flexion of toes |Gastrocnemius, soleus, and flexor digitorum longus |

2. The quadriceps femoris is stretched, stimulating stretch receptors within the muscle. As a result, impulses pass along sensory neurons into the spinal cord and synapse with a motor neuron. Motor impulses travel out of the cord on nerve fibers that lead to the quadriceps femoris. Muscle fibers contract, and the leg is extended.

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
All of these reflexes are rapid, subconscious responses to physical stimuli.

Laboratory Exercise 25
The Meninges and Spinal Cord

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 25.1 1. Spinal nerve 6. Ventral root of spinal nerve 2. Dorsal root ganglion 7. Dorsal root of spinal nerve 3. Gray matter 8. White matter 4. Body of vertebra 9. Subarachnoid space 5. Epidural space
Figure 25.2 1. Posterior horn 6. Lateral horn 2. Lateral funiculus 7. Central canal 3. Anterior horn 8. Gray commissure 4. Posterior funiculus 9. Anterior median fissure 5. Posterior median sulcus 10. Anterior funiculus

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. b 4. a 2. d 5. c 3. e
Part B 1. spinal nerves 7. gray commissure 2. cervical enlargement 8. central canal 3. lumbar enlargement 9. funiculi 4. posterior median sulcus 10. nerve tracts (ascending and descending) 5. horns 11. meninges 6. anterior
Part C (figure 25.3) 1. Dorsal root of spinal nerve 4. Gray matter 2. White matter 5. Dorsal root ganglion 3. Ventral root of spinal nerve 6. Central canal
Laboratory Exercise 26
The Brain and Cranial Nerves

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 26.1 12 6 1 11 8 5 10 7 4 9 3 2
Figure 26.2 1. Frontal lobe 2. Temporal lobe 3. Parietal lobe 4. Occipital lobe
Figure 26.3 1. Motor area for voluntary 4. Cutaneous sensory area muscle control 5. General interpretative area 2. Motor speech area (Broca's area) 6. Visual area 3. Auditory area
Figure 26.4 1. (I) Olfactory nerve 2. (II) Optic nerve 3. (III) Oculomotor nerve 4. (IV) Trochlear nerve 5. (V) Trigeminal nerve 6. (VI) Abducens nerve 7. (VII) Facial nerve 8. (VIII) Vestibulocochlear nerve 9. (IX) Glossopharyngeal nerve 10. (X) Vagus nerve
11. (XI) Accessory nerve
12. (XII) Hypoglossal nerve

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. h 6. i 2. d 7. f 3. c 8. j 4. a 9. e 5. g 10. b
Part B (figure 26.5) 1. Corpus callosum 2. Thalamus 3. Hypothalamus 4. Diencephalon 5. Midbrain 6. Pons 7. Medulla oblongata 8. Brain stem 9. Cerebrum
10. Cerebellum
Part C 1. vestibulocochlear 2. facial, glossopharyngeal 3. optic 4. olfactory 5. vestibulocochlear 6. trigeminal 7. trigeminal 8. oculomotor 9. oculomotor
10. oculomotor
11. oculomotor, trochlear, abducens
12. facial, glossopharyngeal
13. accessory
14. vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
15. glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
Laboratory Exercise 27
Dissection of the Sheep Brain

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION

Rather than have the students dissect sheep brains, you might want to provide the class with samples of whole sheep brains and sectioned brains for examination. This should extend the use of the available specimens.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. The human cerebral hemispheres are relatively larger than those of the sheep. 2. There are more convolutions and sulci in the human cerebrum. 3. The human cerebrum with its large size and greater number of convolutions is more complex and thus able to carry on more complex functions. 4. The human cerebellum is divided in the midline into two hemispheres, but the sheep cerebellum is not divided. 5. The olfactory bulbs of the sheep brain are larger than those of the human brain. 6. The olfactory, optic, and trigeminal nerves seem to be the most highly developed in the sheep brain. 7. The senses of smell and sight and the sensory functions associated with the trigeminal nerve are highly developed.

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answers

Part B
1—5. Answers will vary. The sheep brain and the human brain features are more similar than different. Therefore a complete list of similar features would be very long. Among similar features include two cerebral hemispheres, medulla oblongata, pineal gland, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, olfactory bulb, four ventricles, and others. (Note only 5 answers are needed.)

Laboratory Exercise 28
The Ear and Hearing

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 28.1 1. Auricle 8. Oval window 2. Malleus 9. Tympanic membrane (eardrum) 3. Incus 10. Auditory tube 4. Semicircular canals 11. External auditory meatus 5. Stapes 6. Cochlea 7. Vestibulocochlear nerve
Figure 28.2 4 5 1 6 3 2
Figure 28.3 1. Tectorial membrane 2. Hair cells (outer) 3. Cochlear nerve (branch) 4. Hair cell (inner)
5. Basilar membrane

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The largest ear structure is the auricle which is able to trap and funnel a minute sound wave into the middle and inner ear structures. This will allow a concentration of the vibrations making the sound detection more likely to occur.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. c 7. h 2. j 8. d 3. i 9. e 4. g 10. a 5. b 11. f 6. k
Part B (figure 28.7) 1. Scala media (cochlear duct) 2. Tectorial membrane 3. Hair cells 4. Basilar membrane 5. Scala tympani
Part C 1. (experimental results) 2. (experimental results) 3. (experimental results) 4. Answers will vary.
Laboratory Exercise 29
The Eye

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 29.1 1. Lacrimal gland 3. Lacrimal sac 2. Canaliculi (superior and inferior) 4. Nasolacrimal duct
Figure 29.2 1. Superior oblique 5. Lateral rectus 2. Superior rectus 6. Inferior rectus 3. Medial rectus 7. Inferior oblique 4. Levator palpebrae superioris
Figure 29.3 1. Ciliary body 9. Retina 2. Suspensory ligaments 10. Choroid coat 3. Iris 11. Sclera 4. Lens 12. Vitreous humor 5. Pupil 13. Fovea centralis 6. Cornea 14. Optic nerve 7. Aqueous humor 15. Optic disc 8. Anterior 16. Posterior

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The delicate retina is only located next to the choroid coat by the pressure maintained by the vitreous humor.
Any alteration of this pressure could allow the retina to detach as was easily observed during the dissection. No connective tissue was observed between the inner and middle tunics of the eye.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A 1. b 10. a 2. l 11. k 3. e 12. m 4. d 13. c 5. g 14. h 6. i 15. cornea, aqueous humor, pupil of iris, lens, 7. n vitreous humor, retina 8. j 16. Answers will vary. 9. f
Part B 1. The outer tunic (sclera) is toughest. 2. Dense (fibrous) connective tissue is responsible. 3. The pupil of the dissected eye was probably elliptical in shape, and the human pupil is round. 4. Aqueous humor occurs between the cornea and the lens. 5. The dark pigment absorbs excess light and keeps the eye dark inside. 6. The lens is biconvex and transparent (a preserved lens becomes cloudy). 7. The vitreous humor is a transparent, jellylike fluid.
Laboratory Exercise 30
Visual Tests and Demonstrations

[pic]CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION ANSWER
When using both eyes for observations, if the image of a small object falls on the optic disc of one eye, the object is still seen by the other eye. This can be confirmed because the blind-spot demonstration will not work with both eyes open.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. (experimental results) 2. (experimental results) 3. (experimental results) 4. (experimental results) 5. a. A person with 20/70 vision can see from 20 feet what the normal eye sees from 70 feet. This person has less than normal vision. b. A person with 20/10 vision can see from 20 feet what the normal eye sees from 10 feet. This person has better than normal vision. c. Astigmatism results in blurred vision because some parts of the image on the retina are in focus, while other parts are not. d. The elastic quality of the lens tends to decrease with age. e. The retina is lacking cones that are sensitive to red or green wavelengths (an X-linked/sex-linked trait).
Part B 1. (experimental results) 2. The optic disc lacks receptors (rods and cones) and thus creates a blind spot in the retina. 3. The photopupillary reflex involves the constriction of the pupil in response to exposure to bright light. 4. The photopupillary reflex occurs in both eyes even when one eye is shielded from the light; however, the shielded eye may not show as much change as the exposed one. 5. When an eye is focused on a close object, the pupil constricts. 6. When the eyes are focused on a close object, they converge toward the midline.
Laboratory Exercise 31
Endocrine System

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 31.1 1. Hypothalamus 6. Thyroid gland 2. Pituitary gland 7. Thymus 3. Parathyroid gland 8. Adrenal gland 4. Testis (male) 9. Pancreas 5. Pineal gland 10. Ovary (female)
Figure 31.2
1. Anterior lobe of pituitary gland 4. Pituitary stalk
2. Sphenoid bone 5. Posterior lobe of pituitary gland
3. Hypothalamus 6. Sella turcica
Figure 31.3 1. Thyroid gland 4. Colloid 2. Larynx 5. Follicular cell 3. Isthmus 6. Extrafollicular cell
Figure 31.4 1. Pharynx 2. Thyroid gland 3. Parathyroid glands 4. Esophagus 5. Trachea
Figure 31.5 1. Adrenal cortex 4. Zona fasciculata 2. Adrenal medulla 5. Zona reticularis 3. Zona glomerulosa
Figure 31.6
1. Gallbladder 5. Pancreatic duct
2. Small intestine 6. Pancreas
3. Common bile duct 7. Duct (of exocrine cells)
4. Digestive enzyme-secreting cells 8. Islet of Langerhans (endocrine) (exocrine)

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
1. Growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin
2. Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
3. a. antidiuretic hormone b. growth hormone c. thyroid-stimulating hormone d. oxytocin e. adrenocorticotropic hormone f. prolactin
4. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine
5. Calcitonin
6. Parathyroid hormone
7. Bones, intestine, kidneys
8. Epinephrine, norepinephrine
9. Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, rise in blood sugar concentration, increased metabolic rate, increased breathing rate, dilation of airways, decreased activity in the digestive tract (These are seven possible responses for five requested.)
10. Aldosterone
11. Kidneys conserve sodium ions, kidneys increase excretion of potassium ions, kidneys conserve water (reduce urine volume) (These are three possible responses for two requested.)
12. Cortisol
13. Decreases protein synthesis, increased release and use of fatty acids, stimulates liver to produce glucose from noncarbohydrates
14. Insulin, glucagon

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
Glucagon stimulates change of glycogen to glucose, causing an increase in the blood glucose concentration. Insulin causes a decrease in the blood glucose concentration by promoting the transport of glucose into cells.

Part B
(sketches)
Laboratory Exercise 32
Blood Cells

WARNING

Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood slides are prepared in the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood slides be used in this exercise. The instructor, however, may wish to demonstrate the procedure for preparing such a slide.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. erythrocytes 9. agranulocytes 2. biconcave 10. neutrophils 3. transporting and exchanging gases 11. eosinophils 4. Hemoglobin 12. Basophils 5. oxyhemoglobin 13. Monocytes 6. nuclei 14. Lymphocytes 7. leukocytes 15. megakaryocytes 8. granulocytes 16. nucleus
Part B
(sketches)
Part C
1. (experimental results)
2. Answers will vary.

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
A total white blood cell count provides the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood; a differential white blood cell count gives the relative percentages of types of white blood cells in a blood sample.
Laboratory Exercise 33
Blood Testing−A Demonstration

WARNING

Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another during blood-testing procedures, it is suggested that the following demonstrations be performed by the instructor.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A
(demonstration results)
Part B 1. Answers will vary. 2. Various forms of anemia will produce a decreased red blood cell percentage. 3. Polycythemia, due to dehydration or an excessive production of red blood cells, will produce an increased percentage of red blood cells.
Part C 1. Answers will vary. 2. Iron-deficiency anemia, lack of certain amino acids or vitamin B12, pregnancy, severe hemorrhage, excessive menstrual flow, or excessive fluid intake may cause a decreased hemoglobin content. 3. Polycythemia, obstructive pulmonary diseases, congestive heart failure, and living at high altitudes may cause an increased hemoglobin content.
Part D 1. Answers will vary. 2. Anemia, leukemia, and severe hemorrhage may cause a decreased red blood cell count. 3. Severe dehydration, diarrhea, exercise, living at high altitudes, rise in temperature, or polycythemia may cause an increased red blood cell count.
Part E 1. Answers will vary. 2. Aplastic anemia and adverse drug reactions may cause a decreased white blood cell count. 3. Acute infections, leukemia, infectious mononucleosis, and menstruation may cause an increased white blood cell count.

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
RBC percentage (hematocrit), hemoglobin, and RBC count are all blood tests that could indicate anemia.

Laboratory Exercise 34
Blood Typing

WARNING

Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood testing is performed in the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood-typing kits, containing virus-free human blood, be used for ABO blood typing. The instructor may wish to demonstrate Rh blood typing.
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The anti-A serum would contain anti-A antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type A blood. The anti-B serum would contain anti-B antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type B blood.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. red blood cell membranes 2. four 3. A 4. B 5. anti-B 6. anti-A 7. AB 8. O 9. two to eight months
Part B 1. (experimental results) 2. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Answers will vary.
Part C 1. rhesus monkey 2. antigen D 3. Rh-negative 4. Rh-negative 5. agglutinate 6. Rh-positive
Part D 1. (demonstration results) 2. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Answers will vary.
Laboratory Exercise 35
Structure of the Heart

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS

1. You may want to have the students use colored pencils to color the features of the heart and blood vessels in figure 35.3. This activity should help them observe the illustrations more carefully and locate the various features shown from different views in the figures. They can check their work by referring to the corresponding figures in the textbook, which are presented in full color. 2. Instead of using preserved sheep hearts, you might want to provide fresh pig hearts for dissection. 3. To reduce the cost of the specimens used, you might provide predissected, preserved sheep hearts for observation and save the specimens for use with other classes. 4. Fresh beef hearts are sometimes available from meat-packing houses. You might want to demonstrate the dissection of this large heart. Try to make sure that the atria and large blood vessels are left attached for this purpose.

Figure Labels

Figure 35.1 1. Aorta 8. Left atrium 2. Superior vena cava 9. Left coronary artery 3. Right atrium 10. Cardiac vein 4. Right coronary artery 11. Left ventricle 5. Right ventricle 6. Inferior vena cava 7. Pulmonary trunk (artery)
Figure 35.2 1. Aorta 6. Apex of the heart 2. Left pulmonary artery 7. Superior vena cava 3. Left pulmonary veins 8. Right atrium 4. Left atrium 9. Inferior vena cava 5. Left ventricle 10. Right ventricle
Figure 35.3 1. Aorta 10. Left pulmonary veins 2. Superior vena cava 11. Left atrium 3. Aortic valve 12. Pulmonary valve 4. Right atrium 13. Bicuspid valve 5. Tricuspid valve 14. Papillary muscle 6. Chordae tendineae 15. Interventricular septum 7. Inferior vena cava 16. Left ventricle 8. Left pulmonary artery 17. Right ventricle 9. Pulmonary trunk

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. b 8. g 2. i 9. h 3. m 10. j 4. k 11. d 5. c 12. e 6. l 13. a 7. f

Part B 1. The tricuspid valve is composed of three relatively large flaps, or cusps; the pulmonary valve is made up of three smaller pocketlike cusps. 2. The cusps of the tricuspid valve moved upward into a horizontal position and closed the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle. 3. The chordae tendineae prevent the cusps of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves from everting into the atria when the ventricles contract. The papillary muscles pull on the chordae tendineae and help to open the cusps when the ventricles are relaxing and filling with blood. 4. The thicker wall of the aorta allows it to withstand the higher pressure of the blood pumped out from the left ventricle. The thinner wall of the pulmonary trunk (artery) is related to the lower pressure of the blood that leaves the right ventricle.
5. Vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary artery, capillary of lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The thicker wall of the left ventricle allows it to contract with greater force and create the high pressure needed to move blood to all parts of the body (systemic circuit) except the lungs. The thinner wall of the right ventricle creates the lower pressure needed to move blood a relatively short distance to the lungs (pulmonary circuit).
Laboratory Exercise 36
The Cardiac Cycle

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS

Part A 1. systole 2. diastole 3. closed 4. open 5. vibrations 6. A-V (tricuspid and bicuspid) 7. pulmonary and aortic
Part B 1. (experimental results) 2. (experimental results)
Part C 1. cardiac muscle 6. cardiac cycle 2. sinoatrial (S-A) 7. polarized 3. atrioventricular (A-V) 8. atria 4. A-V bundle 9. ventricles 5. Purkinje fibers 10. ventricles
Part D 1. (labeled ECG recordings) 2. Answers will vary. 3. Normal is 0.12–0.20 sec. 4. The P-Q (P-R) interval indicates the time it takes for the atria to depolarize and the cardiac impulse to reach the atrioventricular node. 5. Since each QRS wave in the pattern indicates a ventricular contraction, the heart rate can be determined by counting the QRS waves that occur in a minute. 5. (experimental results)

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
36

Laboratory Exercise 37
Blood Vessels

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION

If live frogs are not available for the microscopic observation of blood vessels, you might want to provide small goldfish. The head of a fish can be wrapped loosely in wet cotton to keep its gills moist, and the fish can be placed on a glass plate on the stage of a microscope. If its tail is spread out beneath a microscope slide, the blood vessels can be observed with low- and high-power magnification. However, if the fish is not returned to water within a few minutes, it is likely to die.

Figure Labels

Figure 37.1 1. Tunica interna 2. Tunica media 3. Tunica externa
Figure 37.2 1 4 3 2
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A 1. endothelium 8. Precapillary sphincters 2. middle layer (tunica media) 9. diffusion 3. outer layer (tunica externa) 10. hydrostatic 4. vasoconstriction 11. osmotic 5. vasodilation 12. lymphatic 6. capillaries 13. Valves 7. greater 14. Veins
Part B 1. (sketch) 2. (sketch) 3. The inner and outer layers are similar in the artery and vein. The middle layer of the artery contains relatively greater amounts of smooth muscle and elastic tissue than that of the vein.
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
Because arteries are under higher pressure than veins, the thicker arterial walls help to maintain the strength and elasticity necessary against their walls.

Part C 1. The blood in an arteriole moves with a pulsating rapid flow, but blood in a venule moves with a steady, slower flow. 2. A capillary could be identified by its small diameter and the presence of blood cells moving in single file. 3. Blood moves fastest in arterioles, somewhat slower in venules, and slowest in capillaries.
Laboratory Exercise 38
Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS

The following suggestions should be considered when trying to obtain an accurate blood pressure: 1. The room environment should have a moderate temperature and be quiet (no talking). 2. The client needs to be relaxed and comfortable. A temporary increase in blood pressure could exist from smoking, pain, anxiety, or a full urinary bladder. 3. Palpate the pulse first so that you are certain to pump the cuff high enough to not miss the first tapping sound. It also assures that you do not pump the cuff so high that we alter the blood pressure when releasing air.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. inner walls of blood vessels 2. arterial 3. systolic 4. diastolic 5. cardiac cycle 6. alternate expanding and recoiling of an arterial wall 7. brachial
Part B 1. (test results) 2. Answers will vary.
Part C
1. (test results)
2. (test results)
3. Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary.

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
A palpated pulse would be characteristic of the systolic pressure as the arterial wall is expanding at that moment under the higher pressure.
Laboratory Exercise 39
Major Arteries and Veins

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 39.1 1. Superior vena cava 4. Pulmonary veins 2. Pulmonary trunk 5. Pulmonary artery 3. Inferior vena cava 6. Aorta

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The left ventricle wall is thicker which provides a more powerful contraction to force the blood through the longer distance of the systemic circuit.

Figure 39.2 1. Right common carotid artery 7. Right common iliac artery 2. Right subclavian artery 8. Left common carotid artery 3. Brachiocephalic artery 9. Left subclavian artery 4. Aortic arch 10. Coronary artery (left) 5. Ascending aorta 11. Abdominal aorta 6. Right renal artery
Figure 39.3 1. Superficial temporal artery 6. Thyrocervical artery 2. Occipital artery 7. Subclavian artery 3. Internal carotid artery 8. Facial artery 4. External carotid artery 9. Common carotid artery 5. Vertebral artery 10. Brachiocephalic artery
Figure 39.4 1. Subclavian artery 4. Brachial artery 2. Axillary artery 5. Radial artery 3. Deep brachial artery 6. Ulnar artery
Figure 39.5 1. Common iliac artery 6. Internal iliac artery 2. External iliac artery 7. Femoral artery 3. Deep femoral artery 8. Anterior tibial artery 4. Popliteal artery 9. Dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal pedis artery) 5. Abdominal aorta
Figure 39.6 1. External jugular vein 4. Vertebral vein 2. Subclavian vein 5. Brachiocephalic vein 3. Internal jugular vein
Figure 39.7 1. Internal jugular vein 5. Brachiocephalic veins 2. Axillary vein 6. Subclavian vein 3. Cephalic vein 7. Superior vena cava 4. External jugular vein 8. Azygos vein

Figure 39.8 1. Subclavian vein 6. Basilic vein 2. Brachiocephalic vein 7. Medial cubital vein 3. Axillary vein 8. Radial vein 4. Brachial vein 9. Ulnar vein 5. Cephalic vein
Figure 39.9 1. Hepatic portal vein 4. Splenic vein 2. Superior mesenteric vein 5. Inferior mesenteric vein 3. Gastric vein (right)
Figure 39.10 1. Common iliac vein 5. Femoral vein 2. External iliac vein 6. Great saphenous vein 3. Inferior vena cava 7. Popliteal vein 4. Internal iliac vein 8. Anterior tibial vein

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. d 7. h 2. i 8. j 3. c 9. g 4. a 10. e 5. f 11. k 6. b

Part B 1. right subclavian artery 5. left common carotid artery 2. aortic arch 6. brachial artery 3. phrenic artery 7. external iliac artery 4. gonadal artery
Part C 1. a 5. h 2. b 6. c 3. d 7. g 4. e 8. f
Part D 1. brachiocephalic vein 5. renal vein 2. popliteal vein 6. external iliac vein 3. common iliac vein 7. hepatic vein 4. basilic vein
Part E (figure 39.11) 1. Common carotid artery 2. Brachiocephalic vein 3. Superior vena cava 4. Femoral vein 5. Great saphenous vein 6. Internal jugular vein 7. External jugular vein 8. Subclavian artery

9. Subclavian vein 10. Pulmonary vein 11. Inferior vena cava 12. Aorta 13. Common iliac vein 14. Common iliac artery 15. Femoral artery
Laboratory Exercise 40
Lymphatic System

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 40.1 6 3 2 4 8 1 5 7
Figure 40.2 1 4 6 5 2 3

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. lymphatic capillaries 5. valves 2. squamous epithelial 6. lymph nodes 3. lymph 7. thoracic 4. veins
Part B 1. lymphocytes 5. afferent 2. hilum 6. tonsils 3. Nodules 7. Peyer's patches 4. lymph sinuses
Part C 1. thymus 6. blood 2. lobules 7. white pulp 3. immunity 8. red pulp 4. thymosins 9. macrophages 5. spleen
Part D
(sketches)
Laboratory Exercise 41
Organs of the Digestive System

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 41.1 1. Lip 5. Palatine tonsils 2. Hard palate 6. Tongue 3. Soft palate 7. Vestibule 4. Uvula
Figure 41.2 1. Parotid gland 4. Tongue 2. Masseter muscle 5. Sublingual gland 3. Submandibular gland
Figure 41.3 1. Enamel 4. Crown 2. Dentin 5. Gingiva 3. Root 6. Root canal Figure 41.5
1. Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) 6. Oropharynx
2. Opening of auditory tube 7. Lingual tonsils (eustachian tube) 8. Epiglottis
3. Nasopharynx 9. Laryngopharynx
4. Oral cavity 10. Esophagus
5. Palatine tonsils 11. Trachea
Figure 41.6 1. Esophagus 6. Pyloric region 2. Cardiac region 7. Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter) 3. Pyloric sphincter (valve) 8. Fundic region 4. Duodenum 9. Body region 5. Pyloric canal 10. Rugae
Figure 41.7 4 1 2 3 5 7 6
Figure 41.9
1. Cystic duct 5. Common bile duct
2. Gallbladder 6. Pancreatic duct
3. Duodenum 7. Hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi)
4. Hepatic duct (common)

Figure 41.10 10 6 1 9 3 8 7 5 2 4

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The small intestine, which is much longer than the large intestine and contains villi, provides more surface area for absorption than the large intestine.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. d 9. f 2. m 10. i 3. g 11. o 4. h 12. e 5. j 13. a 6. n 14. c 7. l 15. b 8. k
Part B 1. nasopharynx 2. oropharynx 3. laryngopharynx 4. The soft palate is raised; the hyoid bone and larynx are elevated; the tongue is pressed against the soft palate; the longitudinal muscles of pharyngeal wall contract, pulling the pharynx upward; muscles in the inferior pharynx relax, opening the esophagus; a peristaltic wave forces food into the esophagus. 5. Mucus 6. 25 7. The esophagus provides a passageway for food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Part C 1. cardiac, fundic, body, and pyloric regions 6. pepsin 2. pyloric sphincter (valve) 7. intrinsic factor 3. mucous, chief, and parietal cells 8. gastrin 4. chief cells 9. The stomach receives food from the esophagus, 5. parietal cells mixes it with gastric juice, initiates the digestion of protein, does limited amount of absorption, and moves food (chyme) into the small intestine.
Part D 1. d 6. f 2. b 7. i 3. e 8. c 4. g 9. h 5. a Part E 1. duodenum, jejunum, and ileum 2. A mesentery supports and suspends organs. It contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves that supply the organs. 3. lacteal 4. intestinal glands 5. peptidases, sucrase, maltase, lactase, and intestinal lipase 6. ileocecal sphincter (valve) 7. vermiform appendix 8. The small intestine receives secretions from the pancreas and liver, completes digestion of nutrients, absorbs the products of digestion, and transports the residues to the large intestine. 9. The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes, and forms and stores feces.
Laboratory Exercise 42
Action of a Digestive Enzyme

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION

For this experiment to work, it is very important to obtain amylase that is free of any sugar. Most of the amylase sold by laboratory suppliers in 2002 contained sugar, as can be determined by the control in tube 1 of this experiment. Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., does handle amylase (alpha amylase from Bacillus subtilis; catalog #39 W 0058) that is free of sugar and several other companies plan to add this product to their catalogs. If in doubt, call the supply company and consult with the person in technical support. Keep any of the unused amylase frozen.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. Expected experimental results: Tube Starch Sugar 1 0 0 2 + 0 3 (varies) + 2. a. Testing the amylase solution for the presence of starch and sugar demonstrates the negative results of the tests. b. Tube 2 demonstrates that starch will not change to sugar when warmed to 37(C (98.6(F). c. The change of starch to sugar is a result of the action of the amylase in tube 3.
Part B 1. Expected experimental results: Tube Starch Sugar 4 + varies 5 (varies) + 6 + 0 2. a. Amylase is slow to act or inactive at either a low temperature or a high temperature. Its optimum temperature is near 37(C (98.6(F). b. The tubes in which digestion failed to occur could be placed in the 37(C (98.6(F) water bath. If digestion occurred at this temperature, the enzyme was not destroyed by the previous treatment.
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The test would show a positive result for sugar. The experiment would not be valid as it would not show a change from starch to sugar when sugar is already present. (Note: some amylase sold is contaminated with sugar.)
Laboratory Exercise 43
Organs of the Respiratory System

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 43.1 1. Nostril 7. Frontal sinus 2. Oral cavity 8. Nasal cavity 3. Epiglottis 9. Pharynx 4. Larynx 10. Trachea 5. Bronchus (right) 11. Left lung 6. Right lung
Figure 43.2 1. Epiglottic cartilage 4. Epiglottic cartilage 2. Thyroid cartilage 5. Thyroid cartilage 3. Cricoid cartilage 6. Cricoid cartilage

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. h 6. d 2. b 7. j 3. i 8. f 4. a 9. g 5. e 10. c
Part B 1. (sketch) 2. (sketch)
Part C 1. The sticky mucus is secreted into the upper and lower respiratory tract, which will trap particles of dust and microorganisms. 2. The cilia create a current of mucus toward the pharynx. The mucus contains entrapped particles that are usually swallowed. 3. If the smooth muscle of the bronchial tree relaxes, the air passages dilate, which allows a greater volume of air movement.

[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
The simple squamous epithelial cells allow for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the alveolar air.
Laboratory Exercise 44
Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities

[pic]CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION ANSWER
Aging results in some natural loss of elasticity of the lungs as well as the muscles (diaphragm and intercostal muscles) used in breathing. This can be measured by a vital capacity test.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. ventilation 7. external intercostal 2. atmospheric 8. visceral pleura 3. 760 9. surfactant 4. atmospheric pressure 10. elastic recoil 5. phrenic 11. internal intercostal muscles 6. increases 12. abdominal wall
Part B 1. a 5. d 2. g 6. h 3. e 7. c 4. f 8. b
Part C 1. (experimental results) 2. a. Answers will vary. b. Answers will vary. c. A measurement of the residual volume is needed. 3. Answers will vary.
Laboratory Exercise 45
Structure of the Kidney

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 45.1 1. Minor calyx 6. Renal pyramid 2. Major calyx 7. Renal column 3. Renal pelvis 8. Renal capsule 4. Renal papilla 9. Renal medulla 5. Ureter 10. Renal cortex
Figure 45.3 1. Glomerular capsule 7. Interlobular vein 2. Proximal convoluted tubule 8. Afferent arteriole 3. Glomerulus 9. Distal convoluted tubule 4. Efferent arteriole 10. Peritubular capillary 5. Descending limb of the nephron loop 11. Collecting duct 6. Ascending limb of the nephron loop

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. e 6. i 2. a 7. c 3. h 8. d 4. f 9. g 5. b
Part B 1. A renal corpuscle is the cluster of capillaries (glomerulus) and the saclike structure (glomerular capsule) that surrounds it; a renal tubule is the coiled tube that leads away from the glomerular capsule and empties into a collecting duct. 2. 3 5 2 4 1 6 3. Blood enters the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole and leaves through the efferent arteriole. Since the afferent vessel has a somewhat greater diameter than the efferent one, blood pressure is increased in the glomerulus. 4. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a structure located where the distal convoluted tubule contacts the afferent and efferent arterioles. It is composed of epithelial and smooth muscle cells and plays a role in regulating blood flow through renal vessels.
Part C
(sketch)
Part D
(sketch)
Laboratory Exercise 46
Urinalysis

WARNING

While performing the urinalysis, students should wear disposable latex gloves so that skin contact with urine is avoided.

Instructional Suggestion

Since most student urine will produce negative results for glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin, you may want to provide samples of “artificial urine'' (distilled water that contains weak concentrations of some of these substances). By performing the urinalysis tests on such samples, the students will be able to obtain some positive results.

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. (test results) 2. Answers will vary.
[pic]Critical Thinking Application Answer
If urine is not refrigerated, substances within it will begin to change as a result of bacterial action, and the composition of the urine will be altered.
Part B 1. (sketch) 2. Answers will vary.
Laboratory Exercise 47
Male Reproductive System

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 47.1 1. Vas deferens 7. Ejaculatory duct 2. Urethra 8. Prostate gland 3. Penis 9. Bulbourethral gland 4. Glans penis 10. Epididymis 5. Prepuce 11. Testis 6. Seminal vesicle 12. Scrotum
Figure 47.2 1 5 4 3 7 2 6

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. seminiferous tubules 7. acrosome 2. epididymis 8. epididymis 3. spermatogenic 9. fructose 4. spermatogonia 10. alkaline 5. Spermatogenesis (meiosis) 11. bulbourethral 6. 23 12. glans penis
Part B 1. (sketch) 2. (sketch) 3. (sketch) 4. a. The supporting cells support, nourish, and regulate the spermatogenic cells. b. Spermatogenic cells give rise to sperm cells by meiosis (spermatogenesis). c. Interstitial cells produce and secrete male sex hormones. d. The epididymis stores sperm cells while they mature and propels them into the vas deferens. e. The corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum form three columns of erectile tissue that contain vascular spaces that become engorged with blood during an erection.
Laboratory Exercise 48
Female Reproductive System

FIGURE LABELS

Figure 48.1
1. Uterine tube 6. Labium majus
2. Ovary 7. Vaginal orifice
3. Uterus 8. Fimbriae
4. Clitoris 9. Cervix
5. Labium minus 10. Vagina

Figure 48.2 5 8 10 1 9 2 4 7 3 6
Figure 48.3 1. Areola 2. Nipple 3. Lactiferous duct 4. Alveolar glands (mammary glands) 5. Adipose tissue

Laboratory Report Answers

Part A 1. pelvic 9. cervix 2. ovarian follicles 10. endometrium 3. follicular 11. smooth muscle 4. first polar body 12. hymen 5. FSH 13. vulva 6. Ovulation 14. mons pubis 7. fallopian tubes or oviducts 15. clitoris 8. infundibulum 16. vestibular glands
Part B 1. (sketch) 2. (sketch) 3. (sketch) 4. (sketch) 5. a. A mature follicle swells and ruptures under the influence of certain hormones. As this happens, the oocyte and follicular fluid escape from the ovary. b. The cilia that line the uterine tube beat toward the uterus and help to draw the oocyte into the infundibulum of the tube. c. The glandular endometrium thickens throughout the menstrual cycle until it culminates in menstrual bleeding (menses).
Appendix 1 Materials Needed

THIS IS A COMPOSITE LIST OF MATERIALS NEEDED FOR THE ENTIRE LAB MANUAL. THE AMOUNT OR NUMBER OF EACH ITEM WILL DEPEND UPON THE LABORATORY SIZE AND THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS WORKING AS A GROUP. THE LABORATORY MANUAL HAS THE MATERIALS NEEDED LISTED AT THE BEGINNING OF EACH LAB, AS SOME OF THESE MATERIALS MIGHT NOT BE NEEDED IF CERTAIN LABS, DEMONSTRATIONS, OR OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES ARE NOT ATTEMPTED. ITEMS INDICATED WITH AN (*) ARE EITHER DEMONSTRATION OR OPTIONAL MATERIALS.

Prepared Microscope Slides

Three colored threads
Mitosis (whitefish blastula)
Human chromosomes from leukocytes in mitosis*
Simple squamous epithelium (lung)
Simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney)
Simple columnar epithelium (small intestine)
Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelium (trachea)
Stratified squamous epithelium (esophagus)
Transitional epithelium (urinary bladder)
Loose (areolar) connective tissue
Dense connective tissue
Adipose tissue
Elastic connective tissue
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
Fibrocartilage
Bone tissue
Blood smear (Wright's stain)
Skeletal muscle tissue (cross section and longitudinal section)
Smooth muscle tissue
Cardiac muscle tissue
Nervous tissue (spinal cord smear and cerebellum)
Human scalp or axilla
Heavily pigmented human skin*
Dorsal root ganglion (section)
Neuroglial cells (astrocytes)
Peripheral nerve (cross section and longitudinal section)
Spinal cord cross section with spinal nerve roots
Cochlea (section)* Pituitary gland
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland
Adrenal gland
Pancreas
Pathological blood, such as eosinophilia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, and lymphocytosis*
Artery cross section
Vein cross section
Lymph node section
Human thymus section
Human spleen section
Parotid gland (salivary gland)
Esophagus
Stomach (fundus)
Small intestine (jejunum)
Large intestine
Trachea (cross section)
Lung, human (normal)
Lung tissue (smoker)*
Lung tissue (emphysema)*
Kidney section
Testis section
Epididymis, cross section
Penis, cross section
Ovary section with maturing follicles
Uterine tube, cross section
Uterine wall section
Uterine wall, early proliferative phase*
Uterine wall, secretory phase*
Uterine wall, early menstrual phase*
Apparatus/Supplies/Equipment

Safety equipment (first aid kit, disposable latex gloves, safety glasses, laboratory coats, and disinfectant solution)
Compound microscopes
Micrometer scale on compound microscope*
Stereomicroscopes (dissecting microscopes)
Oil immersion objective on compound microscope*
Lens paper
Microscope slides
Coverslips
Transparent plastic millimeter ruler
Medicine dropper
Dissecting needle (needle probe)
Toothpicks (flat)
Single-edged razor blade*
Petri dish
Forceps
Thistle tube
Molasses (or Karo dark corn syrup)
Dialysis tubing of 1 5/16 inch diameter or greater
Ring stand and clamp
Beakers (assorted sizes)
Rubber bands
Test tubes
Marking pen
Test-tube rack
Graduated cylinder (10 mL)
Glass funnel
Filter paper
Hand magnifier
Radiographs (X-ray films) of skeletal structures and joints*
Rubber percussion hammer
Anatomic charts of various systems
Dissection instruments (scalpel, probe, scissors, and forceps)
Dissecting trays
Long knife
Watch that ticks
Tuning fork (128 or 256 cps)
Sterile cotton
Meterstick
Audiometer*
Ophthalmoscope*
Snellen eye chart
3" x 5" cards
Astigmatism chart
Pen flashlight
Ichikawa's color plates or other color-blindness test
Water bath with temperature control
Laboratory thermometer

Sterile disposable blood lancets*
Slide staining rack and tray*
Heparinized microhematocrit capillary tube*
Sealing clay (or Critocaps)*
Microhematocrit centrifuge*
Microhematocrit reader*
Hemoglobinometer*
Hemolysis applicator*
Hemocytometer*
Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting red blood cells* (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of Unopette systems)
Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting white blood cells* (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of Unopette systems)
Hand counter (tally)*
ABO blood-typing kit
Anti-D serum*
Slide warming box (Rh blood-typing box or view box)*
Stethoscope
Electrocardiograph (or other instrument for recording an ECG)
Cot or table
Electrode cream (paste)
Plate electrodes and cables
Lead selector switch
Paper towels
Frog board
Dissecting pins
Thread
Masking tape
Ice
Hot plate
Clock with second hand
Sphygmomanometer
Pulse pickup transducer or plethysmogram*
Physiological recording apparatus*
Test-tube clamps
Wax marker
Porcelain test plate
Pipets (1 mL and 10 mL)
Pipet rubber bulbs
Spirometer, handheld (dry portable)
Disposable mouthpieces for the spirometer
Disposable urine-collecting container
Urinometer cylinder
Urinometer hydrometer pH test paper Reagent strips (individual or combination) to test for the presence of glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin/occult blood in the urine Centrifuge
Centrifuge tubes
Normal and abnormal simulated urine specimens*
Paper cups
Models/Skeletons

Dissectible torso (manikin) with musculature
Animal cell
Animal mitosis
Human long bone, sectioned longitudinally
Articulated human skeleton
Disarticulated human skull (Beauchene)
Human skull, sagittal section
Fetal skull*
Disarticulated human skeleton
Vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar examples)
Male and female pelves*
Synovial joints (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee)
Skeletal muscle fiber model
Muscular model of the upper limb
Muscular model of the lower limb Muscular models of the male and female pelves
Neuron
Spinal cord
Dissectible human brain
Dissectible ear
Dissectible eye
Dissectible human heart
Teeth, sectioned
Tooth model, sectioned
Larynx model
Thoracic organs model
Kidney model
Model of male reproductive system
Model of female reproductive system
Mechanical model of the respiratory system*
Preserved Materials

Spinal cord with meninges intact*
Human brain
Sheep brains
Beef or sheep eyes Sheep or other mammalian hearts
Pig or sheep kidneys
Animal lung with trachea*

Living Specimens/Fresh Material

Amoeba culture*
Paramecium culture*
Plant materials such as leaves, soft stems, fruits, and vegetables*
Uncoagulated animal blood
Fresh chicken bones (radius and ulna from wings)* Fresh animal bones, sectioned longitudinally and transversely
Fresh round beefsteak*
Fresh animal joint (knee joint preferred)*
Frog

Chemicals, Reagents, and Biologicals

(This includes any ingredients needed to mix solutions described in Appendix 1 of the laboratory manual).
Distilled water
Methylene blue (dilute)
Iodine-potassium-iodide (IKI) stain
Potassium permanganate crystals
0.9% NaCl (aqueous solution)
3% NaCl (aqueous solution)
Powdered charcoal
1% glucose solution
1% starch solution
Benedict's solution
Vinegar*
Wright's stain*
70% alcohol
Frog Ringer's solution
0.5% amylase solution (must be free of any sugar)
0.5% starch solution
Sedi-stain
Bacterial amylase powder (store in a freezer) (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of amylase that is free of any sugar)
Glucose
Sodium chloride
Cornstarch
Potassium iodide
Iodine
95% ethyl alcohol
Potassium hydroxide
Sodium bicarbonate
Potassium chloride
Calcium chloride
Appendix 2 Laboratory Suppliers

THIS LIST IS NOT COMPLETE, BUT IT DOES CONTAIN WELL-ESTABLISHED NAMES RECOGNIZED BY MOST ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY instructors. Additional suppliers often advertise in scientific journals or have booths at scientific association meetings. Some of these companies also have regional offices.
Bio Corporation
3911 Nevada Street
Alexandria, MN 56308 http://www.biologyproducts.com Carolina Biological Supply Company
2700 York Road
Burlington, NC 27215 http://www.carolina.com

Central Scientific Company (CENCO)
3300 CENCO Parkway
Franklin Park, IL 60131 http://www.cenconet.com Connecticut Valley Biological Supply Co.
82 Valley Road, P.O. Box 326
Southampton, MA 01073 http://www.ctvalleybio.com Cynmar Corporation
21709 Route 4 North
P.O. Box 530
Carlinville, IL 62626 http://www.cynmar.com Fisher Scientific
U.S. Headquarters
2000 Park Lane
Pittsburgh, PA 15275 http://www.fisheredu.com (Fisher Scientific is a supplier of Becton Dickinson Unopette blood counting systems. For cases of 200, the RBC Unopette system catalog number is 13-680-23, and the WCB Unopette system catalog number is 13-680-1.)

Flinn Scientific
P.O. Box 219
Batavia, IL 60510 http://www.flinnsci.com Frey Scientific
P.O. Box 8101
Mansfield, OH 44901 http://www.freyscientific.com Intelitool/Phipps & Bird
P.O. Box 7475
Richmond, VA 23221 http://www.intelitool.com Nasco, Inc.
901 Janesville Ave.
Fort Atkinson, WI 53538 http://www.nascofa.com Nebraska Scientific
3823 Leavenworth St.
Omaha, NE 68105 http://www.nebraskascientific.com Sargent-Welch Scientific Company
P.O. Box 5229
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089 http://www.sargentwelch.com Science Kit & Boreal Laboratories
777 East Park Drive
P.O. Box 5003
Tonawanda, NY 14151 http://www.sciencekit.com Southern Scientific
P.O. Box 368
McKenzie, TN 38201 http://www.southernscientific.com The Scope Shoppe
113 Read St., P.O. Box 1208
Elburn, IL 60119 http://www.scopeshoppe.com Ward’s Natural Science Establishment, Inc.
5100 West Henrietta Road
P.O. Box 92912
Rochester, NY 14692 http://www.wardsci.com (Ward’s Natural Science Establishment is a supplier of the enzyme amylase that is free of sugar. The catalog number is 39W0058.)

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