Free Essay

Biopolymers

In: Science

Submitted By shelbychew
Words 724
Pages 3
SYNTHETIC BIOPOLYMERS – Biopol®


Biopol is the trade name of one of the most common synthetic biopolymers produced today. This biopolymer is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and it is a co-polymer (2 different monomers joined), consisting of the monomers polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV).



Biopol is produced industrially, using the fermentation of sugars by the bacterium “Alcaligenes eutrophus” which grow in tanks with a carbon-based food source. The polymer is then separated and purified. •

More recently, it has been attempted to produce the biopolymer more economically by using genetic engineering techniques. Genetically engineering bacteria such as E. Coli so that it produces PHA is beneficial. Faster growth, better yields, easier recovery (accumulation of the biopolymer in the bacteria causes them to become fragile) and less waste biomass are all advantages of using genetically-engineered E. Coli. By also genetically engineering plants such as cress and potatoes, biodegradable plastics can also be produced cheaply. The plants create the biopolymer instead of storing starch.



The polymers made from plants have the same structure as those produced by bacteria. The significance of these methods of production is that Biopol is produced naturally by renewable agricultural resources.



Biopol is stable in air and is quite stable when stored in humid conditions. Biopol is also fully biodegradable with degradation to carbon dioxide and water only occurring when Biopol is exposed to micro-organisms found naturally in soil, sewage, river bottoms, and other comparable environments. The rate of degradation depends on the thickness of the material and how much bacteria is present. Biopol can decompose more speedily without oxygen, which is noteworthy because oxygen is not always present in large amounts in modern-day landfills.



Biopol is also insoluble in water, permeable to oxygen, UV light resistant, acid and base resistant, soluble in chlorinated hydrocarbons, and biocompatible (little chance of being rejected by the body).
Biopol also has a high melting point, high tensile strength, is denser than water and is non-toxic.

w ww.chemistrycoach.com.au



There are many potential uses for the biodegradable polymer Biopol. More uses are continually being found because of Biopol’s biocompatibility and biodegradability.

Applications for Biopol include:


A replacement for petroleum-derived plastics because Biopol has high tensile strength, it is insoluble in water, non-toxic and biodegradable.



Disposable products used in the food industry such as utensils, cups and plates because Biopol is strong, insoluble in water, non-toxic and biodegradable.



Plastic wrap for packaging, coatings for paper and cardboard, moisture barrier films for hygienic products, disposable containers for shampoo and cosmetics, and disposable items such as razors, rubbish bags and disposable nappies because Biopol has high tensile strength, it is insoluble in water, non-toxic and biodegradable.



Agricultural uses include a carrier for slow release of pesticides, herbicides or fertilisers because
Biopol is biodegradable and non-toxic.



Medical and pharmaceutical uses such as gauzes, sutures, filaments, implants, drug carriers, and coatings for drugs because Biopol is biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic.



Biopol has also been used to make a bicycle helmet. The helmet was made with Biopol fibres and cellulose high performance fibres. It degraded after being buried 40 days in the soil.



Even though Biopol is at present more expensive to produce than conventional plastics, it is biodegradable, therefore allowing more effective waste management. Biopol is also made from renewable crops rather than fossil fuels. Using transgenic plants to produce Biopol is expected to lower costs so that this polymer becomes price-competitive with petroleum-based polymers.



The fact that Biopol is biodegradable is important because containers and disposable items would decompose more rapidly, therefore reducing the space occupied by landfill. Also using Biopol to produce the above products will reduce dependence on fossil fuels, thus making fossil fuels last longer. Biopol in medicine will also save more lives, due to biocompatibility and fewer allergic reactions. •

Biopol is a viable, albeit more expensive alternative to current fossil fuel products. Using Biopol to make the above products reduces negative effects on the environment, as Biopol eventually degrades to only carbon-dioxide and water, instead of being present for a large amount of time like current plastic products. Future developments for the uses of Biopol will be beneficial, as landfill will be reduced and perhaps new life-saving drugs could be formed with the help of Biopol. w ww.chemistrycoach.com.au

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Blah Blah

...back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid. In other words, the process of producing proteins is irreversible: a protein cannot be used to create DNA. The dogma is a framework for understanding the transfer of sequence information between sequential information-carrying biopolymers, in the most common or general case, in living organisms. There are 3 major classes of such biopolymers: DNA and RNA (both nucleic acids), and protein. There are 3×3 = 9 conceivable direct transfers of information that can occur between these. The dogma classes these into 3 groups of 3: 3 general transfers(believed to occur normally in most cells), 3 special transfers (known to occur, but only under specific conditions in case of some viruses or in a laboratory), and 3 unknown transfers (believed never to occur). The general transfers describe the normal flow of biological information: DNA can be copied to DNA (DNA replication), DNA information can be copied into mRNA (transcription), and proteins can be synthesized using the information in mRNA as a template (translation).[2] ------------------------------------------------- Biological sequence information Main article: Primary structure The biopolymers DNA, RNA and proteins, are linear polymers (i.e.: each monomer is connected to at most two other monomers). The sequence of their monomers effectively encodes information. The transfers of information described by the central dogma are faithful, deterministic transfers, wherein one...

Words: 1399 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Review of Battery

...Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Faculty of Engineering EMM 5977 Independent Study Lecturer: Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Nor Mariah Adam Name Lai Jee Inn Matrik No. GS 42146 INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT Review on How to Improve the Efficiency of the Rechargeable Batteries-Lithium Batteries Lai Jee Inn GS42146 ABSTRACT Batteries are playing important role in our life especially in this high technology era. Laptop, mobile phone, camera and otherwise are using battery to make it to function. In order to improve the efficiency the batteries, several methods are discussed in this paper. INTRODUCTION In this advanced technology era, batteries have been commonly used by the consumers. We use them in different fields like cars, mobile phone, laptop and other else. (Hiroki Kitamura, 2012).Batteries is divided into two main groups which are primary and secondary batteries. (Clean Up Australia, 2009) Primary batteries are the batteries that normally use in dairy life such as remote control, clock but for this kind of batteries is a non rechargeable battery which means that we only can use it for one time and will be throw away after used. This kind of batteries is actually converting the chemical energy to electrical energy and they are normally known as the alkaline batteries. Secondary batteries are batteries that can be rechargeable and recycle after it cannot be recharge. This batteries mostly use for our mobile phone, laptop and other.......

Words: 5125 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Student

...Book 3 - Technology, use and potentialities of Latin American starchy tubers Chapter 18 Starch-based plastics Olivier Vilpoux1 & Luc Averous.2 18.1. Introduction Brazil disposes of approximately 240,000 tons of waste per day, an amount lower than that in the USA (607,000 t./day), but fairly above those in countries such as Germany (85,000 t./day) and Sweden (10,400 t./day). Of that total, a large amount goes to open waste deposits. Only a small quantity is disposed of in appropriate places. A city like São Paulo spends, per day, US$ 300,000 with waste. According to the Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas – IPT (Institute of Technological Research), only few municipalities have specific teams and public policies engaged in dealing with the waste. When it is not treated, waste becomes a serious sanitary problem, since it exposes the community to illnesses like diarrhea, amebiasis, and parasitosis, apart from contaminating the soil, waters and water tables. Among solutions, there are the creation of sanitary landfills in appropriate places, adoption of selective collecting and recycling programs, conducting of campaigns with the aim of both making society conscious about the problem and demanding a greater participation of government authorities (Editora Abril, 2002). The manufacturing of biodegradable material offers an interesting solution for plastic materials. Like it happens with organic residues, such as foodstuff, elimination of biodegradable......

Words: 8897 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Lalalalala

...Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The world population is living, working, vacationing, increasingly mixing along the coasts, and standing on the front row of the greatest, most extraordinary, plastic waste tide ever faced. Washed out on the coasts in obvious and clearly visible form, the plastic pollution display obviously seen on the beaches is only the preface of the greater story that unfolded further away in the world’s oceans, yet mostly originating from where people stand: the land. In 2008, our global plastic consumption worldwide has been estimated at 260 million tons, and, according to a 2012 report by Global Industry Analysts, plastic consumption is to reach 297.5 million tons by 2015. Plastic is versatile, lightweight, flexible, moisture resistant, strong, and relatively inexpensive. Those are the attractive qualities that lead us, around the world, to such a voracious appetite and over-consumption of plastic goods. However, durable and very slow to degrade, plastic materials that are used in the production of so many products all, ultimately, become waste with staying power. Our tremendous attraction to plastic, coupled with an undeniable behavioral propensity of increasingly over-consuming, discarding, littering and thus polluting, has become a combination of lethal nature. Plastic bags are in use by consumers worldwide since the 1960’s, (Mc Kinley, 2010). These bags are sometimes called single-use bags, referring to carrying items from a store to a home. Open bags......

Words: 8501 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Chitosan Case Study

...1. Introduction: Chitosan is a natural biodegradable polymer composed of 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucose (D-glucosamine) with β (1-4) linkage, and with occasional N-acetyl glucosamine residues (Austin et al., 1981). This is a biopolymer that is consistently playing an important role in the world’s economy since it is biocompatible, biodegradable, edible, and antimicrobial (Muzzarelli & Muzzarelli, 2005). As compared with other bio-based food packaging materials, chitosan has antibacterial activity by the incorporation of functional substances such as minerals or vitamins (Chen et al., 2002). Due to these reasons, chitosan films have been used as a packaging material for a variety of foods to preserve its quality (Park & Zhao, 2004). Recently, chitosan-starch...

Words: 2144 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Retentate Fraction Research Paper

...enzymatic method using Aspergillus and Kluyveromyces enzymes, possesses greater sweetening power than lactose and is used in the confectionary and ice cream industries replacing saccharose or starch syrup. One method of increasing the economic value of whey permeate is to identify bioactive compounds that can be used in the food/health industry. Considering that bovine milk oligosaccharides are mainly made of 3–10 monomers, it is entirely possible that they pass through the membrane and end in the whey permeate. Numerous papers and patents deal with oligosaccharide presence in whey, whose interest is their compositions similar to those present in human milk then used in infant lactation. (3.2, 3.3) Finally Lactose is used in production of biopolymer namely PHA with fermentations using microbial consortium (Rastonia) and PLA that is more experimented...

Words: 1222 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Apple - Business History

...Though our revenue has grown, our greenhouse gas emissions per dollar of revenue have decreased by 21.5 percent since 2008. And we’re still the only company in our industry whose entire product line not only meets but exceeds the strict energy guidelines of the ENERGY STAR specification. Environmentally conscious materials. In addition to eliminating toxins and designing products with highly recyclable aluminum enclosures, Apple works with environmentally conscious materials including recycled plastics, recycled paper, biopolymers, and vegetable-based inks. We have also found ways to reengineer secondary materials to the high standard of our designs. For example, our fan assemblies in Mac Pro use advanced materials derived from repolymerized plastic bottles. Speaker assemblies and internal brackets in the Apple Thunderbolt Display are made from recycled PC-ABS. In 2012, our latest achievements included the AirPort Express enclosure, which includes biopolymers derived from industrial-grade rapeseed and recycled PC-ABS. And the aluminum stand on the iMac is made using 30 percent recycled content. Our packaging designs for many products use pulp fiber from post-consumer paper streams, and we use vegetable-based inks for in-box materials. And not only are iTunes Gift Cards recyclable, they are made...

Words: 1300 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Production of Materials

...available evidence to gather and present data from secondary sources and analyse progress in the recent development and use of a named biopolymer. This analysis should name the specific enzyme(s) used or organism used to synthesise the material and an evaluation of the use or potential use of the polymer produced related to its properties. a) Name a biopolymer (eg. Biopol) outlining how it’s produced. Biopol: Made in the 1960s In an American company. This biopolymer is a PHA and is produced industrially by growing it in tanks with bacteria such as Alcaligenes eutrophus along with a carbon based food source. It is then isolated from the tank to be purified by various methods such as dissolving the PHB in trichloromethane and then removing all its waste to create Biopol. b) Construct a table, relating its uses/possible uses to its properties. Uses Properties related Act as a carrier for slowly releasing insecticides and herbicides and fertilizers Biodegradable – able to break down in the natural environment Use as containers for plastics as well as shampoo containers and cosmetics insoluble in water and relatively high tensile strength Medical applications Biocompatibility and biodegradable Non toxic c) Evaluate the importance of this biopolymer now and its potential for use in the future based on part b. Biopol is quite an important biopolymer as a future resource because firstly, there have been attempt to make this product more economically by genetic......

Words: 6532 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Namaste

...After the initial observation that many of the beaches in New Zealand had high concentrations of plastic pellets, further studies found that different species of prion ingest the plastic debris. Hungry prions mistook these pellets for food, and these particles were found intact within the birds' gizzards and proventriculi. Pecking marks similar to those made by northern fulmars in cuttlebones have been found in plastic debris, such as styrofoam, on the beaches on the Dutch coast, showing that this species of bird also mistakes plastic debris for food.[20] An estimate of 1.5 million Laysan albatrosses, which inhabit Midway Atoll, all have plastics in their digestive system. Midway Atoll is halfway between Asia and North America, and north of the Hawaiian archipelago. It’s a remote location, and the plastic blockage has proven deadly to these birds. These seabirds choose red, pink, brown and blue plastic pieces because of the similarities they share with their natural food source. On the shore, thousands of birds corpses can be seen with plastic remaining where the stomach once was. The durability of the plastics is visible amongst the remains. In some instances, the plastic piles are still present while the bird's corpse has decayed.[4] As a result of plastic ingestion, the digestive tract can be blocked resulting in starvation. The windpipe can also be blocked, which results in suffocation.[4] The debris can also accumulate in the animal’s gut, and give them a false sense......

Words: 1659 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Nucleotides

...Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. They are called carbohydrates because, at the chemical level, they contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates provide fuel for the central nervous system and energy for working muscles. Carbohydrates are classified as simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates contain just one or two sugars, such as fructose (fruits) and galactose (milk products). These single sugars are called monosaccharides. Carbs with two sugars — such as sucrose (table sugar), lactose (dairy) and maltose are called disaccharides. Complex carbohydrates, which are also called polysaccharides have three or more sugars. They are often referred to as starchy foods and include beans, lentils, potatoes, corn, whole-grain breads and cereals. Lipids Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells. Examples of lipids include fats, oils, waxes, certain vitamins, hormones and most of the non-protein membrane of cells. Lipids are not soluble in water. They are non-polar and hydrophobic. Lipids contains a functional group including neutral fats, waxes, phospholipids, and glycolipids. The fatty acids with no carbon-carbon double bonds are called saturated. The ones that have two or more double bonds are called polyunsaturated.  Proteins Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules. They are made up of hundreds......

Words: 371 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Economics

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The technology status report on oil-field chemicals covers the classification, function, production technologies, end-uses, international scene, status of Indian Industry, technological gaps etc. in respect of drilling oil field chemicals. This report enable one to assess the state of art of the Indian Industry, identify technological gaps and deduce the measures that need to be taken to fill the gaps including the need for import of technology if so required. The oil-field chemicals used in the various operations for completion of any oil well can be grouped into the following categories. — — — — — — Drilling fluid/Mud chemicals and Mud additives Cement and cement additives Production chemicals Water Injection Chemicals Well Stimulation Chemicals Process Chemicals. Drilling fluids or liquids perform a variety of functions that influence the drilling rate, the cost, efficiency and safety of drilling operations. There are many types of drilling fluid systems available like water base muds, oil base muds, stable foam muds, air or gas base muds from which the right system may be chosen. Main drilling mud additives include viscosifying agents, fluid loss control agents, drilling fluid dispersants and corrosion inhibitors. Cement and cement additives are considered to be critical inputs in the completion of any oil and gas well. The increase in demand for cement suitable for oil and gas wells led to the establishment of API codes by the American Petroleum......

Words: 1844 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Biotechnology

...products or to do tasks for human beings. Biotechnology is the practice of using plants, animals and micro-organisms such as bacteria, as well as biological processes - such as the ripening of fruit or the bacteria that break down compost - to some benefit. For example, biotechnology is used in industry, medicine and agriculture to produce foods, medicines, and test for diseases and remove waste. Examples of industry, medicine, agricultural? Industry: Some examples that are used in biotechnology industries is most laundry detergents produced in the United States contain biotechnology-based enzymes. The other example in industry biotechnology has also led to the creation of a wide range of materials, such as biodegradable plastics, biopolymers and bio-pesticides, novel fibres and even timbers. Some are used as fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors, ink carriers, solvents, hair conditioners and perfumes. Medicine: one example of medicine in biotechnology is making vaccines and drugs to determining genetic origins of disease, producing organs for xenotransplant and developing nonmedical diagnostic methods. The other example in the use of medicine in biotechnology has made new therapies and vaccines, including products to treat cancer, diabetes, HIV/ AIDS and autoimmune disorders. Agriculture: Agricultural biotechnology benefits farmers, consumers and the environment. By increasing yields and farm income, decreasing pesticide applications and improving soil and water......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Recycle

...films. These properties have made them popular in many durable or disposable goods and for packaging materials. These materials have molecular weight ranging from several thousands to 1,50,000. Excessive molecular size seems to be mainly responsible for the resistance of these chemicals to biodegradation and their persistence in soil environment for a long time. Plastic in the environment is regarded to be more an aesthetic nuisance than a hazard, since the material is biologically quite inert. The plastic industry in the US alone is $ 50 billion per year and is obviously a tempting market for biotechnology goral enterprises. Biotechnological processes are being developed as an alternative to existing route or to get new biodegradable biopolymers . 20% of solid municipal wastes in US is plastic. Non-degradable plastics accumulate at the rate of 25 million tones per year. According to an estimate more than 100 million tones of plastic is produced every year all over the world. In India it is only 2 million tones. In India use of plastic is 2 kg per person per year while in European countries it is 60 kg per person per year while that in US it is 80 kg per person per year. * disposal of waste plastic Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the combustion of organic materials and/or substances. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste...

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

International Paper

...natural resources. IP is constantly “finding ways to reduce, reuse, and recycle energy at each of its facilities” to reduce their air emissions (“International Paper,” 2012). One such facility in Vicksburg, Mississippi recovers 38,000 pounds of steam per hour and reuses it in other areas within the facility saving an estimated $2.4 million in fuel cost annually which is then transferred into saving for the customers. Another way IP defies social criticism is through creating “innovative products that meet the needs of consumers” (“International Paper,” 2012). One example of this is the newly invented ecotainer. The ecotainer replaces the old plastic lined coffee cups with an environmentally friendly cup lined with resin made from modified biopolymer. With this new lining cups can become compost to be used for landscaping, farming, and gardening. 2. Analyze International Paper according to the Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility. According to textbook the Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility states that a company is responsible for four things: economic responsibilities, legal responsibilities, ethical responsibilities, and philanthropic responsibilities (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2014). IP is economically responsible by constantly being profitable. In 2011, IP sold over $25 billion gaining them ranking of 105 on the Fortune 500 list. IP maintains legally responsible by “transparently reporting its activities to the public for...

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Biocompatibility of Coronary Stents

...| Biocompatibility of Coronary Stents | | By | Josh DeBoer | Prepared for Dr. Lim Term PaperAdvanced Biomaterials (Engm 491)4/27/11 | | Abstract Right now, endovascular stents have less than desirable biocompatibility, resulting in many unwanted complications. Plasma activated coatings (PAC) have shown great promise to make endothelial cell interactions more active by using recombinant human tropoelastin. These articles seek to alter the plasma vapor composition of these coating properties by adding oxygen, argon, nitrogen, or hydrogen. Each of these gases had pros and cons, and these articles seek to find the best combination for these coatings. Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the world, killing more than 15 million people according to the American Heart Association. It has many risk factors, including: * Diabetes * High blood pressure * High LDL "bad" cholesterol * Low HDL "good" cholesterol * Menopause * Not getting enough physical activity or exercise * Obesity * Radiotherapy to the chest, * Hypertension, * Hyperlipidemia. * Smoking Coronary heart disease is usually caused by a condition called atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty material and a substance called plaque builds up on the walls of a person’s arteries. This causes the coronary arteries to narrow, blocking or slowing blood flow to the heart, causing chest pain (stable angina), shortness of......

Words: 2445 - Pages: 10