Free Essay

Birla Case

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ankit5687
Words 1182
Pages 5
Birla #1: The “Unknown” Global Indian Conglomerate
The Aditya Birla Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. The group is primarily structured around its three holding companies: Grasim Industries, Hindalco Industries and AB Nuvo. These companies through their respective subsidiaries are into various areas like viscose staple fibre, metals, cement (largest in India), viscose filament yarn, branded apparel, carbon black, chemicals, fertilizers, insulators, financial services, telecom (third largest in India), BPO and IT services. Many of them exist to support the group's strategy of vertical integration.
Before liberalization, the group had to grapple with issues like the license raj and bureaucracy. However the 1991 economic liberalization opened the door of opportunities to become truly multinational. Also Kumar Mangalam Birla's take over as the Chairman of the Aditya Birla Group in 1995 after the death of his father, Aditya Birla, proved fruitful. All apprehensions about his ability to lead the group with varied interests in textile and garments, cement, aluminum, fertilizers etc. were put to rest under his leadership. He had also grown to become one of the most respected industrialists in the country. With his strong emphasis on building a culture of meritocracy, the Aditya Birla group expanded into Telecom, Software, BPO and other areas while consolidating its position in existing businesses. Unlike his predecessors, Kumar Birla had a long term focus and was far more demanding.
In terms of statistics, when Kumar Birla took over the reins from his father, the turnover was only $2 billion and overseas operations accounted for a miniscule part of the overall business with only Egypt, Thailand and Indonesia being major centers. Under KM Birla's strong leadership the group's turnover spiraled to over $40billion. It has expanded operations to more than 40 countries including Australia, Dubai, and reaching out to North America, Canada, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Spain, Hungary and China. 60 percent of the group's revenues now come from abroad and several thousand people are being hired globally for their business operations.
The general direction of the Birla group's strategy now was to be either the biggest or most profitable in its each business area, with vertical integration to increase cost-competitiveness, or to invest in high growth sunrise industries. The Birla group also created Aditya Birla Management Corporation (ABMC) and 14 corporate cells. While ABMC provided the strategic overview, vision and setting of defined goals for the group's companies, the corporate cells covered major corporate functions like communications, HR, finance, legal, health and environment.
Apart from above, Kumar Birla Carried out several other changes such as: 1. Retirement policy. 2. Recruitment process. 3. 360 degree appraisal. 4. Scholarship to students and awards to employees. 5. Happiness at work. 6. Hierarchy based on performance of employees. 7. Changes in reporting system
The new restructured Birla group thus resembled the General Electric structure of 1980s with a mixture of both old and new. However the rival Indian conglomerates such as Tata and Reliance have also changed since the beginning of the economic reform period. They have shed moribund low-margin firms and industries and have concentrated on new high-margin, high-growth investments. Still claiming to be "Birla #1"-its rallying cry for several generations-is the group actually still number one, or is it being left behind by its more aggressive rivals is still unclear.
Globally the Aditya Birla Group is * A metal powerhouse, among the world’s most cost-efficient aluminium and copper producers. Hindalco-Novelis is the largest aluminium rolling copany. It is one of the 3 biggest producers of primary aluminium in Asia, with the largest single location copper smelter. * No.1 in viscose staple fibre * No.1 in carbon black * The 4th largest producer of insulators * The 5th largest producer of acrylic fibre * Among the top 10 cement producers globally * Among the best energy-efficient fertiliser plants * The largest Indian MNC with manufacturing operations in the USA
In India, the group is * The largest fashion (premium branded apparel) and lifestyle player * The second-largest manufacturer and largest exporter of viscose filament yarn * The largest producer in the chlor-alkali sector * Among the top three mobile telephony companies * A leading player in life insurance and asset management * Among the top two supermarket chains in the retail business * Among the top 6 BPO companies * The largest manufacturer of linen fabric
However, the Birla group still has to go a long way in becoming India's #1 conglomerate. The Birla group was formed almost at the same time as the TATA group and more than 100 years before the Reliance group, however with a gross revenue of USD 40 Billion (in 2012) it is still far behind the TATA Group with revenue of just over $100 Billion and just RIL group with revenue of $ 74 Billion
There are four possible reasons behind this lag. 1. The first seems to be its inability to divest weak businesses. When he took the reins, Kumar Mangalam Birla tried to go the GE way, by proclaiming its aim to be in top 3 of all the businesses it is operating in. However, it did not divest certain unprofitable business, let alone businesses which are still not in top 3, such as BPO business. Thus, there was a shortfall in implementation of strategy initially devised. It tried to mirror GE, but failed to incorporate the essential aspects of GE strategy. 2. The second issue is the separation of Corporate Strategy and Business Development Cell, which divorces strategy from operations, a dangerous situation. Further, this cell also suggests potential M&A, JV candidates, and blueprints for development. This introduces bureaucracy in the structure which creates a divide between the CEO and the individual businesses. Strategy is not made an integral part of the business structure, which may also result in misplaced priorities. 3. The third issue is the lack of integration of business. The group still functions as three separate companies, operating in silos as opposed to the Tata Group and the Reliance Industries. Though, Mr. Birla overseas and the Aditya Birla Management Corporation oversee the overall functioning of the group, at the grass root level, there seems to be a lack of integration. 4. Finally, the structure is still bureaucratic. There are 3 different companies, and within 3 companies, the businesses are divided as per different subsidiaries. The structure is too bulging. There also is some overlap between businesses of companies under the 3 main holding companies. For eg. While VSF is under Grasim, certain textile businesses are under AB Nuvo. Similar is the situation with chemical business. AB Nuvo is a residual company encompassing all the subsidiaries not previously forming part of Grasim or Hindalco. This results in diffusion of focus. Rather, the division can be according to business segments with grouping of companies with similar businesses. Also, too many companies give rise to administrative and management hassles, thus there being a strong case for merger of related companies. Thus there is a need of reorganization of the group structure and portfolio rebalancing in order to introduce more focus to each of the diverse businesses.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Case Study

...Tutorial 8 – Chapter 7 Global Alliances Tutorial activity 1: Ongoing Semester Case Study – Businessville Hotel. Beijing Businessville Hotel is proving to be extremely successful. It has just been announced that a major world trade expo is to be held in Ho Chi Minh City. Around the World Hotels is interested in providing accommodation for some of the expected thousands of delegates. However, there is no time to build a new hotel. Around the World are considering approaching an existing hotel group to form an alliance. • What issues need to be considered when establishing an alliance in this case? Choosing the right form of governance. The benefits of cooperation versus the dangers of new competition. Managing the reputation. Staffing needs. • What form would you suggest the alliance take? Non-equity strategic alliance. Because this is a short term event and this is the easiest form of strategic alliance to form in such a short time. The company could work with another hotel group to forge a similar deal as airline code-sharing. This would allow Around the World Hotels guests to potentially book through their website, and receive the same premium guest experience in the hotels in Vietnam. The reputation of Around the World Hotels could be used to attract more guests to the hotel in Vietnam. • Outline the major challenges for Around the World Hotels in establishing the type of alliance you recommend. How would you suggest they overcome them? Ensuring a......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Aditya Birla Analysis

... Christ University Institute of Management | Introduction Grasim Industries Limited, a flagship company of the Aditya Birla Group, ranks among India's largest private sector companies, with a consolidated net revenue of Rs.216 billion and consolidated net profit Rs.22.8 billion (FY 2011). Starting as a textiles manufacturer in 1948, today Grasim's businesses comprise viscose staple fibre (VSF), cement, chemicals and textiles. Its core businesses are VSF and cement, which contribute to over 90 per cent of its revenues and operating profits. The market capitalization is INR 92 Crores. The Aditya Birla Group is the world’s largest producer of VSF, commanding a 21 per cent global market share. Grasim, with an aggregate capacity of 333,975 tpa has a global market share of 10 per cent. It is also the second largest producer of caustic soda (which is used in the production of VSF) in India. In cement, Grasim through its subsidiary UltraTech Cement Limited ("UltraTech") has a capacity of 52 million tpa and is a leading player in India. In July 2004, Grasim acquired a majority stake and management control in UltraTech. One of the largest of its kind in the cement sector, this acquisition catapulted the Aditya Birla Group to the top of the league in India. Grasim has a strong presence in fabrics and synthetic yarns through its subsidiary, Grasim Bhiwani Textiles Limited (GBTL), and is well known for its......

Words: 1781 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Lenzing Ag Case

...Lenzing AG: Expanding in Indonesia Case Review Summary Lenzing AG is one of the worlds largest rayon fiber manufacturers, originating in Lenzing, Austria.  In 1938 Lenzing AG was founded, starting pulp and viscose fiber production. Up until the 1980’s, Lenzing was a company that held its production and management in the same country and town where the company had originated. Until one day , the Chairman of Lenzing had agreed to go into a joint partnership with an international investor. The joint venture was with an Indian entrepreneur by the name of Ashok Birla, who saw opportunity in Indonesia for Lenzing and the rayon industry within. Lenzing viewed this as an opportunity to break out of their domestic Austrian market, and tap into Indonesia’s none existent textile market. The resulting partnership would be South Pacific Viscose (SPV). In the beginning, SPV was the only producer of rayon textiles in Indonesia, and by 1994 had grown to be successful, more so than Lenzing management had originally thought. Over the years, there began to be an increase in competition throughout Indonesia, although none reaching the capacity of production that SPV was reaching each year. Lenzing and SPV began to view some long term potential problems as the years went on, with tariffs and trade barriers becoming an issue, as well as potential political problems in Indonesia possibly effecting the company in the future. Problem Statement In 1994, Lenzing AG, the world's......

Words: 1208 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...there are special class of foreign investors such as the venture capital funds, non resident Indians and FII’s. Foreign Company has the following options to set up business operations in India By incorporating a company under the Companies Act, 1956 A wholly owned subsidiary. Joint venture company - existing company or new company with domestic partner As an unincorporated entity Liaison Office Project Office Branch Office Mode of Entry FDI as a mode of foreign market entry provides a permanent foothold in the foreign market and can generate high returns when managed properly. However, FDI requires a substantial investment which entails additional risks, such as foreign exchange risk, political risk and cultural risk that do not exist in case of domestic investment. These additional risks may or may not be offset by higher expected earnings. The different mode of entry consists of Alliance: Joint Venture Expansion: Acquisition: Minority Stake Another dimension of definition is whether a FDI is Greenfield or Brownfield In essence, foreign direct investment (FDI) constitutes three components; viz., equity; reinvested earnings; and other capital. Equity FDI is further sub-divided into two components, viz., Greenfield investment; and acquisition of shares, also known as mergers and acquisitions (M&A). Reinvested earnings represent the difference between the profit of a foreign company and its distributed dividend and thus represents undistributed dividend. Other capital refers to...

Words: 24307 - Pages: 98

Free Essay

Organizational Culture of Aditya Birla Group

...I want to explain you about Aditya Birla Group, the third largest Indian Multi-National organization. It is head quartered in Mumbai, India. The group consists of 136,000 employees belonging to 42 different nationalities with gross revenue of approximately US $40 billion in the year 2012. This group operates in 36 countries including India. The values of this group were designed to serve its stakeholders. Their mission is to deliver superior value to their customers, shareholders, employees and the society. The terminal values of this group are integrity, commitment, passion, seamlessness and speed. These were mainly concentrated on developing service to their stakeholders, especially the customers. Coming to the instrumental values, they have different rules and conducts for different companies organized by them but all of them were mainly concentrated on providing a pleasant work environment for their employees, which they believe motivates their employees and makes them give their maximum efforts in work. They provide all the facilities to their employees which they want in innovation. The Aditya Birla Group’s CSR- Corporate Social Responsibility has a Centre for Community Initiatives and Rural Development through which they adopted the rural areas around its industries and developing them in all the fields. With regard to their service in development of rural areas, Government of India sharing some funds to them from the Human Development sector of 5 year Plan. All......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...India Harish Manwani - Hindustan Lever Harsh Goenka - RPG Group Hemendra Kothari - DSP Merrill Lynch Jagdish Khattar - Maruti Udyog Jaspal Bindra -Standard Chartered Jeh & Ness Wadia - Bombay Dyeing K Anji Reddy - Dr. Reddy's Labs K Ramachandran - Phillips India Karsanbhai Patel - Nirma Kiran Mazumdar Saw - Biocon Kishore Biyani - Pantaloon Retail KR Kim - LG India Kumar Mangalam Birla - AV Birla Group Lalitha Gupte - ICICI Bank Mallika Srinivasan - TAFE MB Lal - Hindustan Petroleum Mukesh Ambani - Reliance Industries MV Subbiah - EID Parry Naina Lal Kidwai - HSBC India Nandan Nilekani - Infosys Technologies Naresh Goyal - Jet Airways Niall Booker - HSBC India Nimesh Kampani - JM Morgan Stanley Noel Tata - Trent Kris Gopalaswamy- Infosys Technologies NS Sekhsaria - Gujarat Ambuja Cement Onkar S Kanwar - Apollo Tyres Peter Mukerjea - Star TV India Proshanto Banerjee - GAIL R Seshasayee - Ashok Leyland Rahul Bajaj - Bajaj Auto Rajeev Bakshi - Pepsi Co. Rajiv Bajaj - Bajaj Auto Rana Kapoor - Yes Bank Ratan Tata - Tata Group Ravi Venkatesan - Microsoft India Renuka Ramnath - ICICI Ventures RS Lodha - Birla Corp S Ramadorai - TCS Sanjay Nayar - Citigroup India Sarthak Behuria - IOC SB Mathur - UTI Scott Bayman - GE India Shashi Ruia - Essar Group Shikha Sharma - ICICI Prudential Shiv Nadar - HCL Technologies Shobana Bhartia - HT Media SP Hinduja - Hinduja Group Subhash Chandra - Zee Telefilms Subir Raha - ONGC Sunil Mittal - Bharti Enterprises Suresh Krishna - Sundaram Fasteners......

Words: 24272 - Pages: 98

Free Essay

Kk Birla V. R.S. Lodha

...CASE PRESENTATION KRISHNA KUMAR BIRLA V. RAJENDRA SINGH LODHA AND ORS (2008) 4 SCC 300 ADITI SAHAY ROLL. NO. 577 BBA LLB (HONS.) VTH SEMESTER FACTS: 1. The facts of the case involve the controversial will of Late Priyamvada Birla executed in the year 1999 making R.S. Lodha the sole beneficiary. 2. Both M.P. Birla and Priyamvada Birla executed a mutual will on 10th May, in the year 1981, bequeathing their respective estate(s), barring certain specific legacies to the other and on the death of the survivor to the 'charities' to be nominated by the executors. 3. The said wills were revoked and another set of mutual wills were executed on 13th July, 1982. 4. Four executors were appointed for each of the wills, who are listed as under: Executors for Madhav Prasad Birla’s will were Smt. Priyamvada Devi Birla, Krishna Kumar Birla, Kashinath Tapuria and Pradip Kumar Khaitan Executors nominated in Priyamvada Birla’s will were Madhav Prasad Birla, Ganga Prasad Birla, Kashinath Tapuria, Pradip Kumar Khaitan. 5. 14th July, 2004: K.K. Birla, B.K. Birla and Yashovardhan Birla filed caveats in the Calcutta High Court, to oppose the grant of probate to the Will created by Mrs. Priyamvada Birla in 1999 (hereinafter referred to as the 1999 will) 6. 19th July, 2004: Caveats entered by Ganga Prasad Birla and Laxmi Devi Newar. 7. 19th July, 2004: The first respondent, R.S. Lodha filed an application for grant of probate  of 1999 Will (P.L.A. No. 204 of...

Words: 2819 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Aditya Birla Case Study

... Date Aditya Birla Group: Global Vision – Indian Values Aditya Birla Group (ABG) was a US28$ billion worth corporation back in 2008. With the number of over 100,000 employees, business operations were spread all over the world including the wide variety of product and service companies. The product portfolio comprised Aluminum, Copper, Fertilizers, Textiles and Cement, Insulators, Viscose Filament Yarn, Carbon Black, Insurance, Telecommunications and Business Process Outsourcing. Over the years, the ABG approached the methods of strategic alliances and acquiring big producers, adding to the value chain of the business, from metal to downstream products. By entering an international joint venture with NGK Corporation of Japan, the company was expected to open up to global markets and provide access to the latest in product and manufacturing technology. The idea was to exit from that area of business where they couldn’t compete due to a lack of competencies and business strengths. Kumar Mangalam Birla (Chairman of the Group) introduced several organizational and management changes that focus on learning centers, young managers and organizational health surveys. Along with the Aditya Birla Sun awards, this approach resulted in healthy competition among the companies. The growth strategy in this case study is mainly based on the process of acquiring a company to build on strengths or......

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Aditya Birla Group Marketing Case Study

...The Aditya Birla Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It operates in 33 countries with more than 136,000 employees worldwide. Following are the various businesses under this group: 1. Cement (largest in India) 2. Telecom (third largest in India) 3. Branded apparel 4. Financial services 5. BPO and IT services 6. Others like viscose staple fiber, metals, viscose filament yarn, chemicals, fertilizers, insulators It is the third largest Indian private sector conglomerate behind Tata Group with revenue of just over USD 100 Billion and RIL with revenue of USD 74 Billion. For the BCG analysis we have focused on few of the SBU’s of Aditya Birla group. Based on the market share of the BSU in its sector and on the total market growth we have divided those selected BSU’s under various heads – Star, Question mark, Cash Cows, Dogs. Following are the focused BSU’s for the assignment: Birla Sunlife Insurance: Birla Sun Life Insurance Company Limited (BSLI) is a joint venture between the Aditya Birla Group and Sun Life Financial Inc, leading international financial services organization from Canada. The AUM of BSLI stood at 21062crore as on March 31, 2012, while the company has a robust capital base of Rs. 2450crore. Birla Sunlife market share in India is 2.46%. The biggest competitor in Life insurance market is LIC with 63.47%. Idea Cellular Limited: Idea Cellular is a telecommunication sector company dealing in cellular......

Words: 1097 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Case to Case

...CASE STUDY 2 I. THE ARALIN TEACHER Mrs. Boots De Vola was assigned to teach the first section in third year level. She assumed that she is an effective and efficient teacher in Araling Panlipunan because of that. There are many teachers qualified and much deserving to teach the star section. Now, the students are complaining of the expenses regarding projects, special projects and the way she behave in classroom. II. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE FACTS Mrs. Boots De Vola have underwent the process of being LSB teacher, PSB teacher, before she was declared as regular teacher in Banana National High School. It has been five years that she handled Aralin in section one. There are congruency on each year complaint but since the students are afraid of failing her subject they remained quiet. I seldom hear news about her projects and the money she collected from her advisory class. Every single mistake has an specified amount to be collected as fine, but the students don’t know where these money will be spent. Another concern about Mrs. Boots De Vola is the way she handled and treated her students. She always nag and shout to students, for her it’s the way of disciplining her students. Some of the students chose to dropped schooling because they felt being degraded and they do not have money for everyday fine. Lately, a mother asked her about the special project of her son amounting one hundred thirty pesos. The project was properly discussed, but we found out that......

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited

...Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited [pic] Caustic Soda Lye |Physical Properties | |Appearance |Colourless viscous liquid. | |Boiling point |142- 148oC | |Fusion Point |12- 15 oC | |Specific Gravity |1.52 at 20°C | |Physical state |Lye | |Solubility in water |Complete | |pH |14 | |Odour |Odour less | |Others |Soluble in alcohol, methanol, and glycerol | |Chemical Identity ...

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Case Report

...Case Study Business Policy & Strategic Mgmt Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani INTRODUCTION Kun Hee Lee is the chairman of Samsung Electronics, a Korean major in semiconductor industry. Semiconductor industry can be divided into logical chips and memory chips. Samsung overtook its Japanese rivals in 2003 and became leader in memory segment of the industry. By 2003 it showed the second largest net profit of any electronics company outside US. The memory industry is one with high degree of competition and rivalry. Currently Samsung is facing threat from Chinese companies. Chinese companies have the advantage of obtaining capital from the world market and with the talent available locally then can create serious threat to Samsung. It may happen that they will overtake Samsung just as it did against Japanese companies. Kun Hee Lee, who do a lot of research and analysis of Samsung’s competitors, their products and the man behind the low cost high quality principle of Samsung saw this potential threat and want to work out a strategy that will help Samsung to avoid this and excel. The case is about this strategy formulation that Kun Hee Lee have to do for making Samsung capable of taking over its Chinese rivals and ensuring a win. PROBLEM STATEMENT To design a strategy that makes Samsung capable to take on expected threat from Chinese rivals who have better cost advantage and win the situation. PEST ANALYSIS: Porter’s 5 Forces: SWOT......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Aditya Birla Retail Ltd

...CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY Retailing in India is receiving global recognition and attention and this emerging market is witnessing a significant change in its growth and investment pattern. It is not just the global players like Wal-Mart, Tesco and Metro group are eying to capture a pie of this market but also the domestic corporate behemoths like Reliance, K K Modi , Aditya Birla group, and Bharti group too are at some stage of retail development. Reliance, announced that it will invest $3.4 billion to become the country's largest modern retailer by establishing a chain of 1,575 stores by March 2007. The last couple of years have been rosy for real estate developers and the retailers are finding suitable retail space in prominent locations. The industry is buoyant about growth and the early starters are in expansion mood. There is increased sophistication in the shopping pattern of consumers, which has resulted in big retail chains coming up in most metros; mini metros and towns being the next target. Consumer taste and preferences are changing leading to radical alteration in lifestyles and spending patterns which in turn is giving rise to new business opportunities. Companies need to be dynamic and proactive while responding to the ever-changing trends in consumer lifestyle and behavior. Retailing consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, or by post, in small or individual lots......

Words: 7607 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Case Case

...Case Analysis - FPL Energy FPL Energy is one of the nation’s leading independent generators of electricity. Dedicated to generating clean energy, 80 % of its capacity is fueled by clean and renewable resources. The United States is the nation with the largest generator of wind energy, and it operates the two largest solar fields in the world. FPL Group, with annual revenues of more than $8 billion, is one of the nation's largest providers of electricity-related services. Its principal subsidiary, Florida Power & Light Company, serves approximately 3.9 million customer accounts in Florida. FPL Energy, LLC, and FPL Group energy-generating subsidiary, is a leader in producing electricity from clean and renewable fuels. 2. Historical Overview FPL Group is a far different company today than the one Jim Broadhead joined in January of 1989 when he became president and chief executive officer. FPL Group was then engaged in a number of businesses unrelated to its core electric skills, including insurance and financial services, real estate, cable television, and agriculture. The company's principal subsidiary, Florida Power and Light, was considered a well-managed utility with an emphasis on quality. However, the utility's spiraling costs had resulted in electric rates among the highest in the Southeast. Today, FPL Group is nationally known as a high quality, efficient, and customer-driven organization focused on energy-related products and services. With a......

Words: 3471 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Manageent in Aditya Birla Group

...Motivation in an organisation. The Project submitted is true to the best of our knowledge. Signatures Riddhimaan Nandgaonkar (07B431) Pravin Nadar (07B402) Akshay Jain (07B418) Rishabh Dwivedi (07B410) Chirag Mehta (07B464) Brian Ridley (07B440) Ravindra Thakur (07B452) Certificate I Hereby certify the project done by : ________________________________ from Vidyalankar School of Information Technology on the topic of Human Resource Planning and the information submitted is true to best of my knowledge. _____________ (Project Guide) Table of Contents Introduction 1 Motivation 4 Application in business 8 About Aditya Birla Group 11 Motivation in Aditya Birla group 14 Conclusion 24 Bibliography 25 Webliography 26 Annexure 27 Introduction Ask any person who is successful in whatever he or she is doing what motivates him/her, and very likely the answer will be "goals". Goal Setting is extremely important to motivation and success. So what motivates you? Why are you in college? If you are in college because that's what your parents want, you may find it difficult to motivate yourself. Sure, it's possible to succeed with someone else providing the motivation for you. ("If you graduate from college, I'll give you a car!" or worse "If you don't graduate from college, you won't get a car.") But motivation that comes from within really makes the......

Words: 4963 - Pages: 20