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Birth of Op-Amp

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The Birth of Operational Amplifiers
Terrell Zackery
ITT Technical Institute
June 25, 14

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Integrated circuits are referred to my multiple different names like IC, a chip, or a microchip. They are sets of electronic circuits on a small chip of semiconductor material like silicon. Varying in size they can contain billions of transistors and are used to make many of the household devices and appliances we have in our home function in the way we know them too. One circuit type that most people today have in their homes and not know about are what’s Operational Amplifiers or op-amps.. You can find them in the amplifiers in our home theater systems or simple TVs or in our transportation like airplanes and automobiles. The op-amp common used in radios or communication devices amplifies the voltage that flows in the differential input out of the single output thousands and thousands of times than the initial input which is why it’s the key component of amplification. This key function is why hooking up a car amp to a set of subs at one end and the head unit at the other gives you that loud booming bass that the young generation loves to have. The op-amp had its earliest begins in the 20th century by J.A.Fleming in 1904 which was a vacuum based rectifier. Used also in analog computers for solving mathematic equations it wasn’t until the 1920s when Bells Lab invented the feedback amp for the telephone. Used a lot in WWII these style of vacuum tubes were then starting to be replaced around the 1950s and 60s because they were large hot and required a lot of power. As technology improved so did the op-amp over the years there has been many different types of amps like IC op-amp, reactor bridge op-amp designed to have very small input current, or the monolithic op-amp. The op-amp we know of today works in both open and closed loop operations. In a open loop the feed forward and feed back path are not connected where as in a closed loop they are. Because of this have a closed loop would greatly decrease the gain of the circuit causing less feedback. There are also two categories that have their own characteristics that are different. There are ideal and real amps. What most would want would be the ideal amp because it would operate to the degree of just about anything that you want like infinite open-loop gain and input impedance, zero input offset voltage and output impedance, and zero noise. Those being the characteristics wanted the actual real characteristics of op-amps are finite gain and input impedances, non zero output impedance, input offset voltage and common mode gain. As of now these are the op-amps and uses we have available to use. Technology improves everyday and more and more great minds continue to grow and develop. Based on recent trends we can expect these amps to get smaller and smaller and increase in overall function be it the op-amp itself or the uses of them.

References
Retrieved from http://www.analog.com/library/analogdialogue/archives/39-05/web_chh_final.pdf
Retrieved from http://www.ittc.ku.edu/~jstiles/412/handouts/2.2%20The%20Inverting%20Configuration/Closed%20and%20Open%20Loop%20Gain%20lecture.pdf
Integrated circuit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit
Operational amplifier - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_amplifier#Ideal_op-amps…...

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