Free Essay

Birth of Op-Amp

In: Film and Music

Submitted By trzackery
Words 599
Pages 3
The Birth of Operational Amplifiers
Terrell Zackery
ITT Technical Institute
June 25, 14


Integrated circuits are referred to my multiple different names like IC, a chip, or a microchip. They are sets of electronic circuits on a small chip of semiconductor material like silicon. Varying in size they can contain billions of transistors and are used to make many of the household devices and appliances we have in our home function in the way we know them too. One circuit type that most people today have in their homes and not know about are what’s Operational Amplifiers or op-amps.. You can find them in the amplifiers in our home theater systems or simple TVs or in our transportation like airplanes and automobiles. The op-amp common used in radios or communication devices amplifies the voltage that flows in the differential input out of the single output thousands and thousands of times than the initial input which is why it’s the key component of amplification. This key function is why hooking up a car amp to a set of subs at one end and the head unit at the other gives you that loud booming bass that the young generation loves to have. The op-amp had its earliest begins in the 20th century by J.A.Fleming in 1904 which was a vacuum based rectifier. Used also in analog computers for solving mathematic equations it wasn’t until the 1920s when Bells Lab invented the feedback amp for the telephone. Used a lot in WWII these style of vacuum tubes were then starting to be replaced around the 1950s and 60s because they were large hot and required a lot of power. As technology improved so did the op-amp over the years there has been many different types of amps like IC op-amp, reactor bridge op-amp designed to have very small input current, or the monolithic op-amp. The op-amp we know of today works in both open and closed loop operations. In a open loop the feed forward and feed back path are not connected where as in a closed loop they are. Because of this have a closed loop would greatly decrease the gain of the circuit causing less feedback. There are also two categories that have their own characteristics that are different. There are ideal and real amps. What most would want would be the ideal amp because it would operate to the degree of just about anything that you want like infinite open-loop gain and input impedance, zero input offset voltage and output impedance, and zero noise. Those being the characteristics wanted the actual real characteristics of op-amps are finite gain and input impedances, non zero output impedance, input offset voltage and common mode gain. As of now these are the op-amps and uses we have available to use. Technology improves everyday and more and more great minds continue to grow and develop. Based on recent trends we can expect these amps to get smaller and smaller and increase in overall function be it the op-amp itself or the uses of them.

Retrieved from
Retrieved from
Integrated circuit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2014, from
Operational amplifier - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2014, from…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Home Birth vs. Hospital Birth

...Home Birth vs. Hospital Birth Delivering a baby in the home and in the hospital both provide comfort to some, but homebirth offers decreased cost and hospital births offer more options. Some women have different birthing methods in mind when it comes to delivering a child. Some women feel that it is more convenient to stay home to deliver their child. Mothers-to-be will choose to have a hospital birth because they may feel safer or more secure knowing that if something is not right or if she has had complications, the doctor is there and she is in a hospital and everything will be okay. Are you a mother-to-be? Are you having trouble trying to figure out whether to have a homebirth or a hospital birth? I sure hope that this paper will help you make your final decision. The reason women choose to have a homebirth is because it is more convenient to stay home. She has no bags to pack, long and uncomfortable rides to the nearest hospital, and she does not have any paperwork or registration. Her chosen midwife (a person trained to assist women during childbirth) comes to her when she is ready for her. Of course, it is more convenient after the baby is born as well. She will have all of her own baby items there and there would be no need for her husband to drive home to get the baby clothes or anything. The reason women choose to have a hospital birth is because it is usually more convenient for them. They feel as though all they have to do is pack a few things and head to the...

Words: 1056 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...current can flow into the op-amp. This is due to the grounding at the non-inverting terminal and result in the 0V in the inverting terminal. During the experiment, one of the procedures is to use the dc offset to make sure no dc voltage is in Vin. This is because the input offset voltage is not zero or another word, the supplied voltage work together with AC and DC. Hence, the dc input voltage will be integrated and the output voltage starts to drift. Part 4.6 An op-amp without a feedback resistance is original a difference amplifier. The difference op-amp produces the algebraic difference between the two input signals. Few cases can be done in the difference op-amp. Example like the two input voltage have the same magnitude and the output voltage will be zero which will be the most common. There are no amplification take places when all the external resistors value is the same. Hence, the amplification of the difference op-amp is depends on the ratio of the resistor value. V+ V- B A The output voltage equation can be derived using super position theorem and voltage divider. At first, we will ground the V2 causing the non-inverting terminal and inverting terminal to be zero volt. Hence, at node A Vo1=-R2R1V1 When V1 is grounded, V+=R2R1+R2V2 V+=V- Vo2=1+R2R1V- Vo2=(1+R2R1)R2R1+R2V2 V02=R2R1V2 By superposition theorem Vo=Vo1+Vo2 Vo=-R2R1V1+R2R1V2 Vo=R2R1(V2-V1) Part 4.1 During the experiment, one of the simplest inverting op-amp was build. In the......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Global & Amp; Applied Economics

...Subject: Global & Applied Economics Subject code: ECO 2263 Lecturer: Ms Sandra Submission date: 29th October 2012 STUDENT PARTICULARS Name: Xu Tieyang Student ID no: SCM-016679 Course: Bachelor of Business Management (Hons) Password: G54049654 Table of Content 1.0 Introduction on social media -------------------------------------------------------------3 2.1 Explain the meaning of social media---------------------------------------------3 2.2 Provide example of social media------------------------------------------------3 2.3 Explain the usage of social media in global businesses---------------------5 2.0 The advantages and opportunities created by social media------------------------5 3.0 disadvantages of social media----------------------------------------------------------7 4.0 Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 5.0 Reference-------------------------------------------------------------------------------10-11 1.0 Introduction on social media 1.1 Explain the meaning of social media These are so many examples for social media, such as Twitter, Facebook, and Pinterest. Here, that’s sure you heard all these words, you should add it in the lowest on other three website list, and then start from scratch to find. But you know what social media is?? Social media is a kind of online media type, can speed up the steps of the traditional media's......

Words: 2180 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Amp Handbook

...December 2012 MSc Finance & Business Management MSc International Business & Management MSc Marketing & Business Management Contents 1.Background to the unit 2 2.How the AMP works 2 3.AMP induction timetable 4 4.AMP tutorial support 4 5.Handing in the AMP report and reflective report 5 6.Main report format 6 7.Reflective report format 7 8.Academic offences 8 9.Referencing 10 10.Assessment marking 10 11.Assessment criteria 11 Appendix 1 - Applied Management Project Marking Scheme 13 Appendix 2 - Submitting your Work Through BREO 18 Appendix 3 - Guide to Referencing 19 Appendix 4 - Unit Information Form 23 Appendix 5 - AMP Session Timetable......................................................................29 1. Background to the unit This unit is completed at the end of the taught part of your programme. You have successfully completed the first two semesters of study and therefore should have a thorough grasp of the taught elements of the programme. You will be expected to draw on the learning that you have achieved during the taught units. The Applied Management Project (AMP) is the final assessed piece of work of the Masters Programme. It is designed to simulate a real management situation, giving you the opportunity to demonstrate your ability to use the knowledge and skills acquired through the taught element of the course in context. The purpose of the AMP is to bring......

Words: 9363 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Birth Control

...and bared _children from their union: Nettie of Delaware Johnie married __and bared _ children from their union: Annie Jones of Charlotte, NC Pantsy Owens married __ and bared _ children from t Detroit, Michigan Sara married Jerry Williams and bared _ children from St. Matthews, Kathy, Dwight, Bruce, Jennifer Laura married _ Davis and bared _ children from New York; Lee Rogers Extended Family of Anna: Father- Daniel (1885) and Mother Henrietta (1881 Glover), she had a brother named Joe (1896) lived in Norristown, PA where we believed he died; two sisters Hennie (1915), Jesse (1926), and a brother Earthley (1919 my father); there was also a brother named John Dave Cheeseboro borne out of the union. two siblings that were preceded her birth not known of sex. Mrs. Henrietta had sisters: Pearl (who married a Johnson, they had Morris, Doftis, and Bennie) this union us with the Johnsons. There were also brothers of the Daniel Hagood. Earthley Hagood and Celia Green were married in 12/26/1939; Sons: James (2/3/1940) was killed 1964, in London England while serving in the USAF Earsley Burns (3/9/1942) died in 2/2011 in Orangeburg, SC after living in Tarrytown, NY for over 40 years, his wife Ruby and two daughters Stacey (Boyd) a son Lee Tracey resides in SC. John Cecil (3/8/1945) aka JC was borne in Calhoun County and grew up in Cayce, SC; his first union to Ruby Hill was two children Tina (3/21/1971) was married Jarnell Jackson) Four children from their union:......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Birth of Ubl

...BIRTH OF UBL: On November 9, 1959, UBL was notified and included as a privateschedule bank with authorized capital of Rs. 20 million; issued and paid up capitalof Rs. 10 million divided into 1 million shares of Rs. 10/ each. Currently BODand president/ CEO Mr. Amar Zafar Khan being a member of this newly formedset up manage UBL. Chairman His Highness Shaikh Nahayan Mabarak Al Nahayan and Deputy Chairman Sir Mohammed Anwar Pervez are the twosupreme controllers of the bank’s affairs. Another development is the appointmentof director operation, Nauman Hussain by the newly privatized bank. Senior management of the bank is shown in the chart given at the end of chapter. 2.5NUMBER OF BRANCHS: UBL has a large network of branches, which extends to the remotest areasof the country. In December 1983, there were 1623 branches whereas in 1974 ithad only 1238 branches and in October 2003 these figures show total number of 1007 branches 3 . UBL has been very active in increasing its overseas branches network. Thefirst foreign branches were established in London in 1963. Now UBL has branches in Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen ArabRepublic, UK Switzerland, Egypt, Oman and The United States. These branchesare playing a significant role in channeling home remittances and foreign trade of Pakistan. 2.6SUBSIDIARIES: UBL has four subsidiaries, namely:  United National Bank Limited (UNB), UK   United Bank AG (Zurich), Switzerland 3 UBL (2003) Annual Report ...

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Birth of the Celebrity

...production stimulated the American economy by creating an entire realm of defense and jobs that had not existed. The increase in jobs and productivity the twenty years following World War II saw an unprecedented spike in the American economy. The American gross national product quadrupled, the middle class became a dominant force in America, and by 1960 the majority of Americans owned a television, refrigerator, car, and a single-family home; A tremendous increase as these items were only affordable to a small minority thirty years prior.9 The birth of the thriving middle class affected how the average American family lived. While some women joined the workforce during this time, many women continued to stay at home becoming “housewives” for the husband and family. Men continued to work as their full time salaries typically covered expenses for the entire household. The single-person income structure, with excess spending money, gave birth to new realms of ideology that forever changed American culture. Superstars in American culture had existed throughout the twentieth century. Movies were a popular medium for people to view their beloved stars such as Buster Keaton or “heroes” such as Batman, created in 1939 to combat the “evil Japanese Empire”. Americans would spend the little excess money they available to them to go to the picture show to view their stars and even hear the news. However, the prosperity of the middle class changed Hollywood and media forever.......

Words: 2092 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Hurtinghealing &Amp

...HurtingHealing & Rough Draft Peggy Matthews COM/172 6/9/2014 Mrs. Clarke Healing & Hurting Rough Draft Marijuana and opiates help when there’s pain you cannot naturally fight. But when abused they both get you higher than a kite. Medical Marijuana and opiates are used for pain relief, but are widely used for substance abuse. What is Marijuana? Is it an illegal drug? Or is marijuana a medical breakthrough? The United States Government contradicts itself everyday with this issue. The United States Government allows all states to pass bills if they so choose to, allow medical marijuana to be used as treatment for patients with chronic pain and recreational use. The other states are absolutely against the legalization of medical marijuana, saying “it is immoral”. What is the history behind Marijuana? I am going to take you on a journey ten thousand years ago in ancient civilization. Marijuana also called Cannabis was used for fiber. The humans in this time period also used the hemp seed for food. It was only natural that they discovered the medical properties of the plant. Cannabis was actually used for a list of reasons such as hemorrhoids, insomnia, headaches, pain, and even childbirth. But that was some time ago. In the 1970’s scientist were able to extract the THC from the plant. Thus making a synthetic version of the plant, and calling it Marinol. Marinol was approved from the Government and the FDA to be prescribed to patients. It was used to treat......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Birth of Subculture

...The Birth of Subculture COM/172 The Birth of Subculture According to many psychologists, being accepted by a group peers is essential to achieve emotional well-being. On the other hand, many people find it necessary to express their individuality in order to be happy. So, how does someone maintain his or her place in a group while conveying his or her independence as a person? Many people have found themselves in this exact situation. Although many people strive to be different, there is still a deep desire to be accepted as part of a culture resulting in the birth of subculture. The Want to be Different A person’s desire to express his or her individuality can be a driving force for many life choices. It can be as simple as a pair of shoes or as complex as spirituality. Many people have a basic want to express themselves, to show others who they are, what they believe in, and how they are different. This is what makes them special and unique. Even choosing not to make bold statements is a way of expressing someone’s personality. So what creates this inherent need to be different than everybody else? It could be environmental influences, past experiences, or even genetics that contribute to this need. According to David P. Barash in We need a general theory of individuality, “Generalizations about behavioral individuality are, at this stage in our knowledge, difficult to support.” (2010) The answer may be challenging because there is no control group from...

Words: 3668 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

J&J Amp

...To: Date: December 2 At the meeting last week, J&J was considering how it should account for the Shiny Teeth coupon drop that took place on October 1, 2012. As discussed of your concerns, we conducted our audit in accordance with auditing standards general accepted in the United States of America. My responsibility is to express an opinion on our findings of the audit. I believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion. Our focus was on the Shiny Teeth coupon drop. The accounting issue is determining redemption rate offered on September 1 and drop on October 1, 2012. According to FASB Accounting Standards Codification 605-50-05-1a a vendor's accounting for consideration given by a vendor to a customer (including both a reseller of the vendor’s products and an entity that purchases the vendor’s products from a reseller). Such consideration (including sales incentives) offered by a vendor on either a limited or a continuous basis to a customer may take various forms including discounts, coupons, rebates, and free products or services. The accounting issue is the correct recognition of coupons offered on the sale of toothpaste. We will address the issue of timing and measurement of the revenues and liabilities resulting from the coupon. Next, we looked at the effect of the Shiny Teeth coupon drop on its financial and how it should be recognized. The sale incentive (coupon) offered by the company and retailer reduced the price of the......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Supply Chain Design Paper – Learning Team D OPS/571 Riordan Manufacturing is one of the largest plastics manufacturers in the world. Riordan’s mission statement states that it’s focus is to “Six Sigma, leading edge R&D and exceeding ISO standards” (Riordan Mfg. Internet, home page, 2014). Riordan’s fan manufacturing operation is located in Hangzhou, China. Team D will evaluate the Riordan’s fan manufacturing supply chain design and perform a comprehensive evaluation of the operational effectiveness of the supply chain. Manufacturing Strategy Riordan’s Intranet states, that the Hangzhou plant bases its forecasts by “taking the average of sales for the last three years and extrapolating it into the next year” (Riordan, Operations, Hangzhou, China, 2014, p. 1 para 4). Riordan’s use of this approach has lead to a 93 percent on-time delivery rate. Team D believes that the information regarding Riordan’s manufacturing strategy, taken from the firm’s intranet website is an indication that it employs a “Stable Workforce-Variable Work Hours” production planning strategy. This strategy varies the number of hours worked through flexible work schedules or overtime to match the production quantities to orders” (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, pg. 534). It helps assure that the workforce has continuity which helps with employee morale. It is extremely important for employees to feel secure in their work environment. Many workers face everyday pressure on their jobs and in their......

Words: 1413 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Amp Ltd Case Study

...Report Case Study – AMP Australian Financial Services Adam Carlyon LMC501B Background Corporate Sustainability (CS) is very much aligned with the concept of the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) in that both are management theories which focus on the long term viability of the organisation through its economic, environmental and social activities (Matten & Spence, 2008). AMP Australian Financial Services (AFS) is responsible for the distribution of the financial products of AMP Capital Investors and AMP Bank. The business unit services the approximately 1700 AMP aligned financial planners in around 800 practices across Australia. It delivers technical, compliance, administrative, remuneration and business support services along with sales and marketing support and initiatives to both assist the individual practices in their productivity as well as deliver shareholder returns through flows of new investor funds, retention and growth of existing investor funds and increases in premiums in force for the risk product suite. The financial services market has shifted dramatically since the GFC with margin pressure due to current legislation along with regulation change and increased competition from the major banks – all of which now own their own financial products and services business units. To remain competitive and hold its position as the “fifth pillar” in the Australian financial services market, AMP needs to innovate and adapt to......

Words: 1532 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Story of Amp

...The Story of AMP 1 Abstract This case study provides an excellent example of the importance of business strategy. It demonstrates how the correct corporate strategy can provide prosperity for a company while a poor strategy can result in dire consequences. The study also highlights how factors such as company size, economic conditions, competition, and corporate culture influence the development and the ultimate success of the business strategy. AMP Incorporated was used as the basis for this case study. AMP Incorporated is a global company that specializes in electronic and electrical connectors. The company, which was started in 1941, quickly grew into the world’s largest manufacturer of connector and interconnection devices. But in 1998, the company’s stock fell, resulting in a hostile takeover bid by Allied Signal and the eventual purchase of the company by Tyco International. History of AMP Founder of AMP Born in Lincoln, Kansas in 1900, Uncas Aeneus Whitaker grew up in a tiny southwestern town in Missouri. He was named after the hero of James Fenimore Cooper’s classic tale, The Last of the Mohicans. In the fall of 1941, Whitaker would start his quest to live the legacy of a hero by taking over a small firm called Industrial Manufacturers in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Industrial Manufacturers was a producer of solderless electrical terminations for the aircraft and shipbuilding industry. Prior to World War II, terminations of electrical conductors were......

Words: 6773 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Amp About

...About AMP AMP has been helping Australians take control of their financial futures and own their tomorrows for over 160 years. Founded in 1849, AMP has played a substantial role in shaping modern Australia and New Zealand by helping millions of customers build financial security, providing protection for families and assets, and financing property and infrastructure projects. By delivering the right balance of security and performance, AMP helps its customers and clients own their tomorrows through: * financial planning and advice * superannuation, retirement income and other investment products for individuals * superannuation services for business and employer-sponsored schemes * income protection, disability, general and life insurance * selected banking products * investment including shares fixed interest, property and infrastructure About AMP AMP has been helping Australians take control of their financial futures and own their tomorrows for over 160 years. Founded in 1849, AMP has played a substantial role in shaping modern Australia and New Zealand by helping millions of customers build financial security, providing protection for families and assets, and financing property and infrastructure projects. By delivering the right balance of security and performance, AMP helps its customers and clients own their tomorrows through: * financial planning and advice * superannuation, retirement income and other investment products for......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Birth of Libor

...Birth of LIBOR LONDON (Reuters) - Minos Zombanakis, born 86 years ago on a Greek island, remembers the birth of the interest rate benchmark now at the heart of a global rigging scandal well. "I was, more or less, if you excuse the lack of modesty, the one who started the whole thing," he laughs, speaking by telephone from his village among citrus orchards in Crete. Zombanakis was running the newly-opened London branch of Manufacturer's Hanover, now part of JPMorgan, when the bank organised one of the first syndicated loans pegged to what he dubbed a London interbank offered rate (Libor) in 1969. The $80 million loan, for the Shah of Iran, embodied the way cross-border financial markets that had been effectively closed since 1929 were being prised open - sowing the seeds for London to flourish as a global financial centre. The ambitious bankers of that era had little idea that the rate they were using to price these loans would become a central cog in the global financial system and a benchmark for $550 trillion in contracts ranging from interest rate derivatives to home loans and credit cards. Four decades on, that rate has been discredited by the brazen attempts of traders to game it, by the banks that have lied about their true costs of borrowing and by the regulators accused of either condoning or failing to stop manipulation. Libor, designed to reflect a bank's borrowing costs accurately, burst into the headlines in June when Barclays (BARC.L) was fined a record......

Words: 1495 - Pages: 6