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Blood Pressure Essay

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Submitted By poet1984
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Pages 6
Blood pressure is: the force of the blood exerted against the walls of arteries.
A decrease in blood volume will cause a decrease in blood pressure. There are specialized receptors in the body that are able to detect whether blood pressure is going up or down and these are called baroreceptors. Baroreceptors are found in 3 different places; the carotid arteries, aortic arch and the kidneys. The baroreceptors in the carotid arteries watch the blood pressure in the head, the aortic arch baroreceptors measures pressure in the peripheral body and the baroreceptors in the kidneys monitor abdomen and pelvic pressure. If the blood pressure drops, the baroreceptors will send a signal to the cardiac center in the medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata then stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the SNS will then release epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Heart Rate:
When epinephrine (epi) and norepinephrine (norepi) bind to the beta receptors on the SA (Sinoartial) node of the heart, the K+ funny leak gates in the autorhythmic cells will close more times per minute. When the K+ funny leak gates close more times per minute, more K+ will accumulate faster in the cell causing faster depolarization. As action potentials travel through the gap junctions of the myocardial cells, repelling K+ down the membrane. The K+ being repelled down the membrane will accumulate in the transverse tubules, raising the membrane potential from -60mV to -50mV, causing the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ into the cell causing muscle contraction. Every time there is an action potential there will be a muscle contraction that will cause a heartbeat, therefore an increase in action potentials from the SA node will increase the heart rate. An increase in heart rate will increase the cardiac output (CO) (mL of blood the heart pumps out per minute)
Therefore an increase in heart rate...

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