Premium Essay

Blood Pressure Essay

In: Science

Submitted By poet1984
Words 1371
Pages 6
Blood pressure is: the force of the blood exerted against the walls of arteries.
A decrease in blood volume will cause a decrease in blood pressure. There are specialized receptors in the body that are able to detect whether blood pressure is going up or down and these are called baroreceptors. Baroreceptors are found in 3 different places; the carotid arteries, aortic arch and the kidneys. The baroreceptors in the carotid arteries watch the blood pressure in the head, the aortic arch baroreceptors measures pressure in the peripheral body and the baroreceptors in the kidneys monitor abdomen and pelvic pressure. If the blood pressure drops, the baroreceptors will send a signal to the cardiac center in the medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata then stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the SNS will then release epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Heart Rate:
When epinephrine (epi) and norepinephrine (norepi) bind to the beta receptors on the SA (Sinoartial) node of the heart, the K+ funny leak gates in the autorhythmic cells will close more times per minute. When the K+ funny leak gates close more times per minute, more K+ will accumulate faster in the cell causing faster depolarization. As action potentials travel through the gap junctions of the myocardial cells, repelling K+ down the membrane. The K+ being repelled down the membrane will accumulate in the transverse tubules, raising the membrane potential from -60mV to -50mV, causing the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ into the cell causing muscle contraction. Every time there is an action potential there will be a muscle contraction that will cause a heartbeat, therefore an increase in action potentials from the SA node will increase the heart rate. An increase in heart rate will increase the cardiac output (CO) (mL of blood the heart pumps out per minute)
Therefore an increase in heart rate...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Essay On Blood Pressure

...Monitoring blood pressure from sphygmomanometer gives an accurate result if it is used by trained practitioner and doctors.In many cases doctors prefer to use sphygmomanometer rather than digital monitors because it gives an accurate results.But if you are not trained and want to use these monitors then don’t worry we made it easy you just have to follow some easy steps to measure your blood pressure. Manual sphygmomanometer composed with inflatable cuff through which air is inflate and deflate into the cuff.You have to inflate and deflate the cuff your focus should be on heartbeat by using stethoscope. Best manual sphygmomanometer to buy in india It is a good idea to check your blood pressure at home.However many people suffer from hypertension...

Words: 1845 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Essay On High Blood Pressure

...What causes high blood pressure during pregnancy? causes Icon According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), there are several possible causes of high blood pressure during pregnancy. These included: being overweight or obese failing to remain active smoking To drink alcohol first time to pregnancy a family history of kidney disease, preeclampsia, chronic hypertension or carrying more than one child age (over 40) assistive technology (such as IVF) unhealthy lifestyle choices can lead to high blood pressure during pregnancy. Being overweight or obese, or failing to remain active, are the main risk factors for high blood pressure. Women who experience early pregnancy are also more likely to have high blood pressure. Fortunately,...

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Meow Kitty

...alcohol on the couple’s blood pressure? 3. What could the body have done to reverse the decreasing blood pressure, if it had been possible? 4. Identify several procedures that might have helped save the couple if they had been found unconscious but still above water and alive. Essay Put yourself in the role of Detective Garrison. You must now write a report explaining what Renee might have said with regard to the above questions. You should use all of your knowledge about blood pressure and the information from this case to explain each of the following aspects of blood pressure and discuss their relation to the above questions. Describe the role of the nervous system, adrenal glands, kidneys and pituitary as appropriate to the relation of each of the seven factors listed below: 1. Peripheral resistance 2. Heart rate 3. Venous return 4. Stroke volume 5. Cardiac output 6. End systolic and diastolic2. What were the specifi c eff ects of the Lasix, hot water, and alcohol on the couple’s blood pressure? 3. What could the body have done to reverse the decreasing blood pressure, if it had been possible? 4. Identify several procedures that might have helped save the couple if they had been found unconscious but still above water and alive. Essay Put yourself in the role of Detective Garrison. You must now write a report explaining what Renee might have said with regard to the above questions. You should use all of your knowledge about blood pressure and the......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Hot Tube Mystery

...Instructions: Answer the questions from the three parts of the unit project below. Do not write the essay in Part III, but rather briefly use the terms and concepts (that we discussed in class) listed under “Essay” in your answers to any questions where it is relevant (especially Part III). “The Hot Tub Mystery” by Herbert House Page 1 Part I—The Discovery Cast of Characters • Sam Garrison—Detective • Roma and Clint Underhill—The hot couple • Kavita Dickson and Larry Gonzales—EMT paramedics • Renee Volenbach—Physiologist in the Biology Department at Noletown University Friday, 7PM Roma and Clint Underhill had both had a long day. They were the owners of a successful real estate company in Desert Palm. Each had several clients, and the strain of the current real estate market was getting to them. It had been an unusually cool day for January, with temperatures hovering around 60 degrees. On coming home they decided to relax in their hot tub with some wine. While Roma changed from her work clothes, Clint said that he would join her in the hot tub after he took his Lasix. Saturday, 8AM “911… Please state your emergency.” “Oh, Oh, I… I… ” “Ma’am, please calm down and tell me the address.” “I think…, yes, OK, it’s… it’s 2560 Oak Creek Drive.” “What is the problem, please?” “I’m the maid for Mr. and Mrs. Underhill and… and I didn’t find them in the house when I came in this morning, so I looked around outside. I just found them in their hot tub out back.......

Words: 1254 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Septic Shock

...According to Urden, Stacy, and Lough (2006), shock is a life-threatening condition that can lead to ineffective tissue perfusion or may further progress to multiple organ dysfunction and death. The different types of shock include hypovolemic shock, cardiogenic shock, anaphylactic shock, neurogenic shock, and septic shock (Urden, Stacy, & Lough, 2006). This essay will analyze septic shock based on the analysis of a presented case study. To further understand this concept, a review of treatment and management of septic shock as used in the writer’s practice setting will be discussed. The writer chooses the “case study one” as an issue of septic shock because Karen’s vital signs, physiological and behavioral symptoms are clear indicators of septic shock. Septic shock is described as the body’s inflammatory response to overwhelming infection (Urden, Stacy & Lough 2006). It is also classified as existence of an infection with hypotension despite fluid replacement along with the presence of tissue perfusion abnormalities (Urden, Stacy & Lough 2006). According to Bench (2004), the diagnostic criteria for septic shock include a heart rate greater than 90 beats per minute, a respiratory rate greater than 20 beats per minutes, an increased white cell count, hypotension, and temperature greater than 38 degrees or less than 36 degrees. Karen met these criteria with an increased temperature of 41 degrees which is usually an indicator of infection, increased heart rate and......

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sepsis a Case Study

...The aim of the essay is to analyse the care of a septic patient. While discussing the relevant physiological changes and the rationale for the treatment the patient received, concentrating on fluid intervention. I recognise there are other elements to the Surviving Sepsis Bundles, however due to word limitation; the focus will be on fluid intervention. The essay will be written as a Case Study format. To maintain patient confidentiality any identifying features have been removed in keeping with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2008) the patient will be referred to as Mr X. Mr X was an 80-year-old male admitted to ITU, from the Medical Assessment Unit, with increasing respiratory failure. His initial clinical observations were: Systolic Blood Pressure: 100mmHg MAP: 58mmHg Heart Rate: 120 beats per minute Lactate: 3.2mmol/l Temperature: 38.6* These clinical observations indicated that the patient was experiencing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as the patient had a pyrexia above 38*C and a heart rate above 90 beats per minute. The results of the blood cultures and chest radiograph indicated pneumonia. The patient’s condition was now treated as sepsis. Sepsis is characterized by SIRS, which is complicated by a severe infection (Neveire, Parsons and Wilson 2008). The pathophysiology of systemic inflammatory response, experienced by Mr X is portrayed in Table 1: Table 1 Morton et al 2005 Mediator |......

Words: 3132 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Question for Biology Study Guide

...have which kind of muscles?; know the three types of levers described in class, and be able to give an example or each Immune system Cold vs the flu; what is a virus? What is a bacteria? Which is killed by antibiotics?; know the components of the: FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE; SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE; THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE; what is immunity? How do you acquire immunity? Why is the flu a serious disease (I am not referring to the flu you typically get) Cardiovascular system Know the chambers of the heart; Sino-Atrial Node; Atrio-ventrical Node’ Blood flow through the heart and out to the body, and blood returning to the heart. Arteries, veins and capillaries (structure and function); the basics of the electrocardiogram (EKG); blood pressure (what is systole and diastole?) (and problems and causes of hypertension). What is a heart attack? General Aspects of the Movie “The Human Body” (as we develop and age) Changes in the Body-maybe as an essay…describe 5 changes the human body goes through as we go from newborn, to toddler, adolescent, young adult,...

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Methods of Fertility

...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Most common Types of Cancers and Cardio metabolic. SCI/163 ELEMENTS OF HEALTH AND WELLNESS Instructor: Deborah Stevens September 21, 2010 Team A Essay 1. Based on the Methods of Fertility Management section of Ch. six of the text. What are the guidelines recommended to evaluate the risk of contraceptive? Why is it important to be aware of any medical conditions before selecting a contraceptive? There are different types of contraceptives methods with different levels of effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections and issues to think about as cost, and health risk associated with a particular method. The term contraception refers to methods of preventing conception. These methods offer varying degrees of control over when and whether pregnancies occur. Society has searched for simple, infallible, and risk-free way to prevent pregnancy since people first associated sexual activities with pregnancy. But doctors or scientist has not found one yet. To evaluate the effectiveness of particular contraceptive method, we must be familiar with two concepts: perfect failure rate and typical use failure rate. Perfect failure rate refers to the number of pregnancies that are likely to occur in the first year of use(per 100 uses of the method during sexual intercourse) The typical use information is much more practical in helping people make informed decisions about contraceptive methods. Some contraceptive methods......

Words: 1453 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Exercise Affecting Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

...THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXERCISE AND HEART RATE AS WELL AS EXERCISE AND BLOOD PRESSURE PHYSIOLOGY ESSAY/ ERGONOMICS LABROTARY WRITE-UP Submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements for the Course Human Kinetics and Ergonomics 102. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics INTRODUCTION When the metabolic motion of skeletal muscles increases, the flexibility of the heart can be detected throughout the exercise (Okutucu et al., 2010). The heart and blood vessels make up the cardiovascular system, which respond to exercise with an increase in heart rate and strength of reduction with each heartbeat, causing a higher cardiac output (amount of blood pumped through the heart per minute) and blood pressure (Okutucu et al., 2010). This report presents an assessment of “exercising” blood pressure and heart rate. The aim of this assessment was to obtain an understanding of how heart rate and blood pressure respond to submaximal exercise of the same intensity. The hypothesis tested was what impact exercise had on blood pressure and heart rate. The purpose of assessment of “exercising” heart rate was to measure heart rate while exercising at a submaximal intensity as well as to measure recovery heart rate following submaximal exercise. The purpose of assessment of “exercising” blood pressure was to measure blood pressure while exercising at a submaximal intensity and to measure recovery blood pressure following submaximal exercise. This report presents the procedures......

Words: 2570 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Reflective Essay

...Reflective essay: Intro: Vital signs are a fundamental component of nursing care and indicate the body’s ability to maintain blood flow, regulate temperature and regulate oxygenate the body tissue. Taking vital signs are essential in revealing any sudden changes in the body, which could potentially indicate clinical deterioration of the patient. As a first year student I was assigned to take a patients vital sighs while my peer videoed it. Throughout the video blood pressure, pulse, respirations, and temperature was recorded to check if everything was in normal range, while ensuring a comfortable environment, and communicating with the patient to build trust and confidence in my ability to make an accurate assessment and judgement on the results of her vital signs results. Para 1: hand wash Prior to taking the vital signs, I demonstrated and explained how to theorectically wash your hand and dry them, this was a social hand wash lasting between 15 – 30 seconds (Tollefson, 2010). A social hand wash- The removal of any jewellery is essential before undertaking Hand hygiene and wash and must occur * before and after shifts, * between patients, and when * dealing with any bodily fluids. The social hand wash ensures the prevention of cross contamination between both patients/ staff and the increase of bacteria dispersing from one patient to another. Para 2: blood pressure I made sure that the environment was comfortable for the patient. Providing......

Words: 893 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Capstone Topic

...Running Head: THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF MEDITAION The Health Benefits of Meditation Article Critique Part two Paper Rasheedah Long Grand Canyon University NSG 325: Evidence Based Practice 03/30/2015 The purpose of composing this paper is to review one article that supports the PICOT statement. This paper will be written as an essay and will scrutinize major components of the study such as the introduction, the review of literature, the methods used, the findings, and lastly the discussion. This paper will provide an analytical view of the chosen article, determining the applicability of the findings, the clinical importance, the validity and the reliability of the issue addressed in the article. There are many different types of mediation practices. Transcendental meditation and mindfulness based stress reduction meditation are two of the most commonly researched. Meditation is now widely accepted into mainstream and is being used as a way for maintaining health and wellness. Several medical and rehabilitation facilities have proved meditation to be a safe and effective tool for treating: “stress, fatigue, depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, tinnitus, congestive heart failure, general pain, as well as many other health ailments. (Natural Medicine Database, 2014) Article Introduction The introduction to the study was clear and concise. It clearly identified what the researchers were looking to establish. The......

Words: 1202 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

My Experience in Clinicals

...knowledge gained in the field of nutrition and legality, but my greatest satisfaction has been in clinical practice in the hospital assigned. I have experienced the importance of a proper performance of nursing technique in each of the procedures to be performed with the patients, the interest of nurses in training us and the gratitude of patients when we give them a quality service. It is extremely important to follow the steps in each nursing techniques because omit or used incorrectly can have negative consequences in the diagnosis, treatment and complications in the patient. Once, the equipment used in hospital to measure blood pressure did not work properly and it was necessary to use a conventional aneroid sphygmomanometer, the result was a significant difference in the patient's blood pressure due to an incorrect technique. Diastolic blood pressure was very high because they interpreted the change in tone of the last heartbeat and not its total disappearance as a reference in this data. In another case, a patient suffered a slight aspiration due to the angle used to raise the head of the bed was less than the appropriate while eating lunch. These experiences were used by nurses to discuss them later in a teaching exercise. So excellent nurses on duty explained to us in detail each of these techniques and their different experiences in the clinical setting. We had the opportunity to ask questions from our point of view and so we left that day more focused on the......

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Sepsis An Overview Health And Social Care Essay /essays/health-and-social-care/sepsis-an-overview-health-and-social-careessay.php Sepsis is an infection of the bloodstream. The infection tends to spread quickly and often is difficult to recognize. One of our roles as a nurse is that of patient advocate, and as such we are closest to the patient, placing us in a key position to identify any subtle changes at their earliest onset and prevent the spread of severe infection. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of SIRS, sepsis, and septic shock is key to early recognition. Early recognition allows for appropriate treatment to begin sooner, decreasing the likelihood of septic shock and life-threatening organ failure. Once sepsis is diagnosed, early and aggressive treatment can begin, which greatly reduces mortality rates associated with sepsis. sep•sis (ˈsep-səs) n. Sometimes called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body's often deadly response to infection or injury (Merriam-Webster, 2011) Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by the immune system's reaction to an infection; it is the leading cause of death in intensive care units (Mayo Clinic Staff, Mayo Clinic 2010). It is defined by the presence of 2 or more SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) criteria in the setting of a documented or presumed infection (Rivers, McIntyre, Morro, Rivers, 2005 pg 1054). Chemicals that are released into the blood to fight infection trigger widespread......

Words: 3635 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Nursing Case Study

...warning sighs always show on a patient before the adverse events such as unexpected deaths, admission to the ICUs or even cardiac arrests. It has been noted that, these warning signs are sometimes not identified, hence not acted upon (Adam, Odell, & Welch, 2010). This study is meant to discuss the case of Mrs. Jones, a 72 year old lady who has been admitted in the ward with increasing confusion and decreasing mobility. Her recent history suggests that she has had Urinary Tract Infection, and she usually has a GCS of 15. Her normal blood pressure always ranges from 140 to 150. During the primary assessment, it is noted that she is not in danger and she opens her eyes when her name is called. She is able to talk and her airway is patent. Her accessory muscle use is increases; her RR is at 22 and SP02 is at 95% on room air. She is also pale and diaphoretic. Her pulses are weak and thread y with the heart rate of 120 and blood pressure of 95/50, GCS at 13/15, temp at 38.5, BGL at 13.2mmol/L and pain in the lower abdomen. Nurses role in recognizing and responding to clinical deterioration The nurses also have a role of ensuring that the medication that a specific patient is getting provides the best possible results. Any specific medication taken by a patient has the capability of working effectively if the nurse involved is able to efficiently observe and identify any worsening conditions a patient might be having, in order to take the necessary actions to manage......

Words: 3607 - Pages: 15

Free Essay


...These changes have subsequently led to the emergence need of registered nurses having to work with personnel who will assist them in their work. Delegation of tasks is important so that the nurse can have more time to critically reason, plan and coordinate healthcare given to patients. The act of delegating is attributed to the fact that, as a registered nurse, one has greater knowledge and critical reasoning ability than the assistive personnel. As a result, the RN has the responsibility of delegating, assigning and supervising the assistive personnel. According to the NCBSN and the ANA, appropriate delegation of tasks can result in effective and safe nursing care (NCSBN & ANA, 2006). In the case study given, the recently graduated registered nurse (RN) is new in the field, thus does not have enough experience with regard to attending to six patients during the morning shift. Six patients are too many for the new RN thus, need for the UHCW. Delegation of duties as stated earlier on should be done so that the registered nurse gets enough time to complete tasks that require his or her specialized attention and knowledge. The reason why the RN has delegated the UHCW to assess the patients’ vital signs is so that he or she can do the final touches with regard to personal hygiene care. This reason is not professional enough in that the RN can use the help of the UHCW in completing the personal hygiene care process. The UHCW can gather up the dressing the used up dressing......

Words: 1945 - Pages: 8