Free Essay

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

In: Science

Submitted By priddle1111
Words 2889
Pages 12
14 December 2014
Blood and Guns The world of Forensic Scientist is an amazing and fascinating place. There are so many aspects that go into forensic science but in this paper we are only covering bloodstain spatter patterns. Bloodstain spatter patterns are not solely used to solve crimes but I do feel it is one of the most important. Bloodstains never lie.
A bullet is traveling at its fastest speed when it leaves the barrel of the gun. Bullets traveling after firing is said to be using kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy the bullet has due to its motion from the firing pin striking the gun powder causing an explosion that forced the bullet to discharge from the barrel. Now this bullet possess kinetic energy and will do harm to anything lying within its targeted path. (Kinetic Energy website)
The kinetic energy given to bullets fried from rifles will be a higher velocity then that of a pistol or shot gun. Rifles barrels are longer and constructed to with stand more pressure and thus leading to a greater velocity of kinetic energy on a bullet (Warlow 67). Death can occur from firing a bullet straight up in the air. When the bullet is returning to the earth due to the gravitational pull it will pick up velocity. However the bullet can return either base or head side up (89).
Powders also have different burning rates for different guns. When you have a longer barrel your burning rate of powder will be longer but if your barrel is shorter then you will have a faster burning rate (Warlow 67). On today’s market most smokeless powder is made up of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. If it is a single base powder then it is made up of nitrocellulose. If it is a double base powder then it is a mixture of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine in their pure form are extremely volatile to use so they must be mixed with other compounds such as ether and alcohol then reduced in size to be used within a bullet. This mixture even in reduced size is still to explosive and needs stabilizers added. Stabilizers commonly used are diphenylamine and potassium sulfate (Warlow 67).
When you fire a gun not all of the powder will burn up and the powder left behind will leave a residue on your clothing or skin if you have fired the weapon or were standing close to a fired weapon. This residue will also be on your target if you are close to your target. This can help forensic scientist determine how far away from the target you were standing upon firing your weapon (Warlow 69-70). To determine if residue is on an individual forensic personal will use a scanning electron microscope (71-72).
Each gun barrel has what we like to call a signature. This means that when a bullet is fired from that gun it will leave behind striations unique to that weapon. This signature is actually made of imperfections with in the barrel or marks that occur over time. When examining a gun for a bullet striations match they will perform a test fire and this test can be performed in many ways. From shooting into a bullet proof case filled with gelatin material to shooting a bullet into water, either way you must fire the bullet into a material that will quickly and safely slow the bullets kinetic energy to avoid accidents within the forensic lab (Warlow 72-73).
We have internal and external ballistics. Internal ballistics is only concerned with the bullet while it remains in the barrel (Warlow 65). External ballistics deals with the bullet from the time it leaves the barrel until it hits its final target. External ballistics has much more ground to cover than internal. External ballistics deals with the bullets flight path, weather conditions that may affect the pathway of the bullet, and that basic law of gravity. Items that did not burn completely up upon the firing of the weapon will also be discharge and looked at under external ballistics. Sometime you have coal and wood pieces that will fly into your target and cause damage depending on how close you are standing (Warlow 81).
Depending on what the bullet hit will depend on the damage that is done. The bullet will so receive damage itself causing it to be deformed and sometime disintegrate depending on the target. Damage to the human body varies depending on where the bullet penetrates. Muscle will offer more resistance to the bullet versus fatty tissue or an organ such as the liver. If a bullet penetrates your lungs it will cause them to collapse. Bullets have also been known to bounce off a person’s ribs. Depending on what clothes you are wearing, like a heavy thick sheep skin jacket will have a tendency to help slow down the bullet but won’t stop it from penetrating the human body. There is no set rules of what will happen when you are shot. The closer the range to the intended target the more damage you will do. This is one reason suicide via gunshot wounds are so big (Warlow 109).
Upon arrival at a crime scene you will need to speak with the lead officer or lead crime scene investigator to find out what allegedly happened at the crime scene. There are certain precautions that are taken at crime scenes to preserve evidence. First you will have to wear protective gear including, hair net, shoe covers, plastic surgical gloves, suits and any other items that are required to prevent scene contamination. This gear will also help protect you against any health hazards that may be located in the crime scene such as blood or tissue contaminates. Before entering a crime scene be sure to look for protective plates that are put in place to preserve footprints left behind, and if you do not see any be sure to lay them. Before you can begin collecting evidence you must first make a complete sketch of the entire crime scene. Ensuring that you include where bodies are lying, bullets, spent cartridges, any weapons, blood splatter, and any other items deemed important. Photographs of the scene will be accomplished by the scene of crime officers before forensic investigators arrive, but forensic investigators will also take pictures. Evidence will be marked with numbered markers and photographed again. Any and all dimensions will be measured and recorded (Warlow 139-140).
Bloodstain pattern analysis is the study of the physical nature of bloodstains and from this study forensic investigators try to gain a picture of what took place at the crime scene. Blood spatter patterns at crime scenes is often referred to as static aftermath. In this “Dispersion, shape characteristics, volume pattern, the number and size of bloodstains and their relationship to the surrounding scene are part of this aftermath” (Bevel and Gardner 1).
Blood is a fluid that will react to an outside force like any other fluid will. “The cohesive forces of surfaces tension and viscosity, the various external forces (e.g. impact, accelerated motion, stream ejection) as well as gravity and air resistance will act together to produce similar results (patterns) under generally similar conditions” (Bevel & Gardner 1). What this means is when fluid is subjected to an outside force it will react in certain ways and these reactions can be reproduced so we can establish normal patterns of behavior of blood from this. These patterns of blood spatter can help investigators solve crimes or lead them to ask more questions. One important thing to remember about blood is that it runs the entire length of your body in just a minute (Ritichey Chromosomes).
We have many patterns that we look at called, impact, cast off, spurt and gush, drip and drip trails, pools and flows, blood into blood patterns, blow back, atomized blood, void and blood misting and lastly smears and pattern transfers. Now let’s briefly describe what each of these are (Bevel and Gardner 2).
For the impact pattern let’s imagine a juicy watermelon in an oval shape similar to a human head and you hit this water melon on one side with a bat. The watermelon would bust under the pressure of the hit and would spread out to the surrounding area from the point of impact. The juice and matter from the watermelon would leave impact patterns all around the point of origin. Since it was a direct impact it is typically that you measure a 3ft dimensional radius for this. Also forensic scientist would check for angle of impact and directionality to try and determine the height of the criminal. Most people when performing task with their hands will automatically use their dominate hand so in determining the directionality of the hit you can figure out the dominate hand of the criminal. Depending on the wound you can also draw a conclusion of the weapon used on the victim. If we see blood spatter on top of blood spatter this will help you determine the number of blows the victim has received and which blow actually killed the victim (Bevel and Gardner 2).
Continuing with the juicy watermelon example from above lets refer to the bat for this example. As you swing the bat back and forth hitting the watermelon there will be juice and pieces of the watermelon on the bat that will fly off with each swing and land on nearby objects or walls. This is referred to as cast off pattern. From this we can help to determine the amount of blows the victim received. This type of pattern will also help forensic scientist discover the directionality and angle of the blows which in turn will help determine where the criminal was standing (Bevel and Gardner 23).
Not let’s imagine that we are holding a water balloon and you poke that balloon with a safety pin creating a tiny hole. With all the pressure inside the balloon the water will shoot out of the balloon and leave a single wavy line pattern. This is what we call spurt and gust patterns. The reading explains that these patterns typically come from arterial or heart wounds, because these areas of your body have a higher pressure of blood pumping through them at one time and when this pressure is released the blood will rush out the first exit it finds (Bevel and Gardner 19).
Imagine running down a carpeted hallway with an open cup full of red Kool-Aid. You get a clear picture of the Kool-Aid splashing out of your cup leaving drops in a trail behind you. This is the same concept of drip and drip trails. After you reach the end of the hallway you will have left a long directional trail of red juice drops some will be larger and others will not be. From this we can determine where the crime scene started and what direction it moved forward (Bevel and Gardner 25).
For this next example of pooling let’s say you’re holding a plastic solo cup filled with red Kool-Aid and you stab the bottom of your cup with a knife. All your liquid will fall out onto the floor creating a puddle per say of Kool-Aid. According to the reading this puddle has no boundaries and will react with the flow of the room which is referred to as pooling and flow. The flow is determined by gravity, once it leaves the body. Flow can impact all blood spatter patterns. This mostly occurs from fatal wounds where the victim is left to bleed out on the spot (Bevel and Gardner 63-64).
Think about watching an artist throw black paint on a canvas and then he throws pink paint on top of the black paint. Well this is the same idea for blood into blood patterns. It is when blood is thrown on top blood and this type of pattern is more difficult for forensic scientist to analysis but not impossible. This is usually a result from multiple blows with a weapon or shots (Bevel and Gardner 20-21).
Let’s think back to the firearm discussion from earlier in this paper. We talked about how the closer you are to the target the more damage that will be done due to the kinetic energy being at its greatest velocity when the bullet leaves the barrel. Which in turn means damage will be greater to the human body the closer the gun is. From the reading we understand that at close range firing at a human target there will be what is referred to as blow back of blood, tissue and maybe small fragments of bone in the barrel of the gun. The closer you are the further up the barrel the blow back goes (Bevel and Gardner 21).
For this next example let’s think about Windex we are about to spray on a window which needs cleaned. You set your Windex bottle nozzle to mist and when you spray the bottle you get a somewhat round circle of tiny drops of Windex on the glass, well in blood spatter this is referred to as atomized blood and blood misting. Now in blood spatter it is not always in the shape of a circle and is usually created by some forced explosion. Example a shot gun wound, we have all seen this in the movies (Bevel and Gardner 21).
Imagine you are walking and you accidentally step into wet paint, as you walk the paint will transfer as you step on the floor in the pattern of the sole of your shoes. This concept is known as pattern transfer. (Bevel and Gardner 29) Whenever you spill thick pile of liquid on the counter and try to wipe it up leaving smears on the surface because you cannot quite soak it all up with one paper towel, this is called wipe which is a subcategory of smear. Smear has two categories and we just learned about wipe now let’s look at the one swipe. A good example of swipe would be after you spilled tomato juice on the floor and it started to dry and then you accidentally drag a pair of pants through it. The tomato juice will transfer to your pants leaving a streak or drag pattern in the tomato juice. (Bevel and Gardner 35)
The last and final pattern will discuss for blood spatter is void. A perfect example to describe this is an individual standing with his or her back against the wall with a firing squad standing in front. Now let’s say the guns are paint ball guns filled with red paint balls. The firing squad unleashes on the individual standing aginst the wall. When that individual walks away from the wall there will be a clean spot where they were standing and this is what we call a void. This means when investigating a crime scene that something was there and we must determine what it was (Bevel and Gardner 31-32).
All blood found at crime scenes will be processed in a lab to find its Deoxyribonucleic acid or as commonly known DNA. DNA is genetic material that created in each person and in reproduction it is referred to as chromosomes. And we get this DNA from both our parents. We all have 46 chromosomes or 23 pair’s altogether. During reproduction our cells containing chromosomes divide from 46 (known as diploid cells) to 23 (known as haploid cells). So when reproductions occur you will have the female egg and the male sperm both containing 23 chromosomes and when mixed they produce a baby with 46 chromosomes (Ritchey Chromosomes). DNA is specific to each individual meaning no one else will share that same exact DNA. This is important to the forensic scientist because if an individual was found guilty of another crime and served time their DNA will be found in the National DNA database on file. If one of your parents DNA is in the database and forensic scientist run your DNA through the system then your parents will come up flagged as having shared alleles. Alleles are the actual name of the genetic code for which your traits fall into. Example Windows peak hairline and the code would be W. Law enforcement will still be able to track you down when you commit a crime and your family members DNA is located within the DNA database (Ritchey Genetics).

Work Cited
Bevel, Tom, and Ross M. Gardner. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: With an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2008. Print.
Warlow, T. A. Firearms, the Law and Forensic Ballistics. London: Taylor & Francis, 1996. Print.
"Kinetic Energy." Kinetic Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. <>.
Ritchey, Mary. “Humans in the World of Biology.” Harrisburg Area community College. Introduction to Human Biology. George W. Leader, York. 20 Aug. 2012. Lecture.
Ritchey, Mary. “Chromosomes and Cell Division.” Harrisburg Area community College. Introduction to Human Biology. George W. Leader, York. 17 and 19 Sep. 2012. Lecture.
Ritchey, Mary. “Genetics.” Harrisburg Area community College. Introduction to Human Biology. George W. Leader, York. 24 Sep. 2012. Lecture.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

...Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is the examination of the shapes, locations, and distribution of patterns of bloodstains, in order to provide an interpretation of the physical events that gave rise to their origin. When BPA is done properly, many things can be discerned including distance from the blood source to the target, direction of travel and impact angles, nature of the force used to cause the bloodshed, sequencing of multiple bloodshed events, and interpretation of contact or transfer patterns. When it has been properly documented, BPA can also be used to confirm of refute the position of a victim, witness, suspect, or defendant, determine if there is evidence of a struggle, or if the assault was “one sided”, and confirm or refute statements made by the principles in a case, as in telling if the patterns match accounts given by victims, witnesses or defendants. Blood has specific characteristics that are exhibited in the way it behaves when separated from the blood source. Blood is always spherical in shape until it impacts a particular surface. This is due to the fact that blood naturally pulls in on itself, both horizontally and vertically, due to its specific surface tension. Spatters of blood occur when blood is acted upon by force and travels through the air before landing on a target surface. Transfers occur when a blood source comes in direct contact with the target surface area. Depending on the surface texture of the area,......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Blood Spatter Analysis

...Running Head: Blood Splatter Analysis Blood Spatter Analysis Kenisha Callahan AJS 592 Dr. Steven Gilbert Blood Spatter Analysis Blood spatter analysis is “the systematic assessment of the visual patterns of bloodstains at crime scenes based on the physics of fluids” (Brodbeck, 2012, p. 51). It has been studied since 1895 when Dr. Eduard Piotrowski published "Concerning the Origin, Shape, Direction and Distribution of the Bloodstains Following Head Wounds Caused by Blows." The next acknowledgment of BPA was in 1955 when Dr. Paul Kirk entered blood splatter evidence in the State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard case. Dr. Herbert MacDonell started training personnel of law enforcement about blood spatter analysis in 1971. Since that time, bloodstain pattern analysis has grown and continues to develop. Blood pattern analysis is used in a lot of crime scene investigations and can hold valuable information. Blood spatters can indicate important clues such as, the number of blows to the victim, the force of the blows, weapon used, and position and/or movement of the victim and suspect. Blood spatter can be classified into three categories, low velocity, medium velocity, and high velocity (Saferstein, 2011). Low velocity spatter consists of large separate or compound drops with diameters measuring three millimeters or more. It is usually the result of dripping blood.......

Words: 737 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Zimmerman Telegraph

...Blood Stain Pattern Analysis: Blood stain pattern analysis is a form of forensic science that examines blood at crime scenes. From analyzing blood at the crime scene analysts can determine many different things about the crime scene. Some of which include: Where the blood came from What caused the wounds? From what direction was the victim wounded? How were the victim(s) and perpetrator(s) positioned? What movements were made after the bloodshed? How many potential perpetrators were present? Does the bloodstain evidence support or refute witness statements? Because blood behaves according to certain scientific principles, trained bloodstain pattern analysts can examine the blood evidence left behind and draw conclusions as to how the blood may have been shed. From what may appear to be a random distribution of bloodstains at a crime scene, analysts can categorize the stains by gathering information from spatter patterns, transfers, voids and other marks that assist investigators in recreating the sequence of events that occurred after bloodshed. This form of physical evidence requires the analyst to recognize and interpret patterns to determine how those patterns were created. Analysts must obtain a four year degree in forensic science or a Bachelor of Science degree before becoming an analyst. Often elastic string is stretched from blood droplets on the angle that of impact to determine where the blood originated from. Blood splatter can tell the......

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Bloodstain pattern analysis are as the examination of shapes, locations and distribution patterns of bloodstains, in order to provide an interpretation of the physical events Bloodstain patterns can help investigators understand the actions and motions of the victim and the suspect throughout the crime scene. The patterns may indicate that a crime first thought of as a suicide was in fact a homicide. The analysis of bloodstain patterns is a complicated discipline and requires much experience with many different situations to learn to do an accurate reading. The bloodstain pattern analysis plays a very important role in the reconstruction of many crime scenes. The various types of bloodstains account for how the blood was projected from the body. Blood may be dripped out of the body, sprayed from an artery, oozed out through a large wound or flung off a weapon that has struck another person. Through bloodstain pattern analysis, analysts can determine, among other things, the type of injuries received, the order in which the injuries were received, whose blood is present at the scene, the types of weapons used in the crime, whether or not the victim was in motion at the time the injury was inflicted, and how far the blood droplets fell before hitting the surface upon which they were found. The shape of drops of blood can reveal all sorts of significant information. Some experienced analysts are even able to use some of the bloodstains to recreate the event. Three......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Trace Evidence

...Trace Evidence at Crime Scene Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Trace evidence are substances established in very small amounts at the point of crime that can be analyzed and investigated to come up with viable information about the subject under investigation. Such substances may include hair, fiber, glass, glass, metal, paper, paint or botanical sources such as soil, pollen or leaves. Presence of these traces is as a result of the culprits unconsciously coming into contact with the surface (Fish & Braswell, 2011). How long such traces remain at the crime scene depends on the persistence of the substance in terms of its size and shape, amount deposited, actions between deposition and revival, scenery of environment and the amount of time passed. Irregular services tend to collect the evidence more readily than smooth surfaces. Paint can be in term of liquid, fragments, or smears. This usually identified in terms of color, type, texture, layers structure and composition. When paint dries it forms a layer that is thin and hard. It is made up of several constituents that include carriers, pigments, modifiers, extenders and binders. Carriers are the substance that becomes a solid when evaporation takes place usually an organic liquid. Pigment is the substance that gives the paint its color (Fish & Braswell, 2011). It is worth noting that blue and green pigment is usually organic compounds whereas red, yellow and white...

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Blood Stain

...Natasha Warburton Homicide Week 7 Bloodstain pattern analysis is defined as the examination of shapes, locations and distribution patterns of bloodstains, this source has been a helpful resource to the law enforcement with solving there case and recognizing what type of criminal act was committed. Bloodstain patterns can help investigators understand the actions and motions of the victim and the suspect throughout the crime scene. The patterns may indicate that a crime first thought of as a suicide was in fact a homicide. The analysis of bloodstain patterns is a complicated discipline and requires much experience with many different situations to learn to do an accurate reading. The bloodstain pattern analysis plays a very important role in the reconstruction of many crime scenes. The various types of bloodstains account for how the blood was projected from the body. Blood may be dripped out of the body, sprayed from an artery, oozed out through a large wound or flung off a weapon that has struck another person. Through bloodstain pattern analysis, analysts can determine, among other things, the type of injuries received, the order in which the injuries were received, whose blood is present at the scene, and more. As I read throughout the chapter I notice that bloodstain pattern analysis can form a very interesting story that keeps the media itself entertained. The reason I said this is that, it turns out that the location where the blood lands, and the shape of the...

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Crime Scene Investigator

...Crime scene investigation is the meeting point between science, logic and law. Processing a crime scene is and long and tedious process and is the job of crime scene investigators (CSI). CSI has the responsibilities of collecting, documenting, preserving, reconstructing and presenting evidence. It is their job to examine any physical evidence that could remotely shed any light on what happened and who is responsible. There are no typical crime scenes, evidence or investigative approaches and every crime scene should be approached in a systematic sense. According to Robert R. Ogle Jr., a crime scene search is defined as a systematic, methodical search for any physical evidence at a crime scene. Before the job of CSI can begin, there has to be a crime committed. For instance, CSI are on call for murder scene investigations to collect and examine evidence. When CSI is contacted, their job begins. Evidence is a major part in any investigation. Without evidence, a case can grow cold quick. Anything can be evidence and when in a crime scene, everything should be treated as such. Evidence has many different categories: trace, firearm, impression, drug and alcohol, document, and biological fluids. All of these categories of evidence play an important part in finding out valuable information towards solving a case. The most important aspect of evidence collection and preservation is protecting the crime scene. When first approaching a crime scene, first responders should secure......

Words: 1445 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Forensics of Blood

...Forensics of Blood Blood evidence is the most common, most recognized and possibly most important evidence in the world of criminal justice. Throughout the history of violent and fatal crimes, bloodstain evidence has recently begun to emerge as a recognized forensic skill. “Blood is one of the most significant and frequently encountered types of physical evidence associated with forensic investigation of death and violent crime” (Eckert & James, 11). When a violent crime has been committed, blood is commonly left behind at the scene of the crime. This blood evidence allows police investigators to piece together the events of the crime. The texture, size, shape, and distribution of the blood can be used to determine when the crime occurred, what weapon was used, how the victim was standing, how many times the victim was hit, and more. Even if the perpetrator attempted to cover up the crime by cleaning the blood, evidence of blood still remains. Forensic investigators have different tests that can see where blood has been, whether it is blood, saliva, or semen, and also can test whether the blood is even human or not. Going even further, more tests can be done to compare the blood of different individuals to determine whether or not they were the perpetrator. Within the blood, there is a liquid portion called plasma making up about 55% of the total volume of blood. The plasma contains mostly water with some nutrients, minerals, and oxygen. In the plasma, there are red......

Words: 3486 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Blood Pattern Analysis

...Blood Spatter Pattern Analysis Kimberley Kanuch-Brown Everest University Abstract Given that blood spatter analysis is an emergent field, with rapidly occurring developments have significant probative implications for the court system, this project will seek to examine the multi-faceted elements of blood spatter analysis to provide an overview of the field’s different dimensions. Focusing on technical developments, analytical interpretation and court relevance, the project will propose that blood spatter’s analysis as a mainstream element of the CSI toolkit results from the combination of physical sciences and analytical rigor which lies at its core. Beginning with questions of technical and physical science, the project will examine the manner in which blood spatter analysis is increasingly capable of understanding how human usage of different weapons impacts the static nature of a given crime scene. Moving to questions of interpretation, the project will touch upon the manner in which information technology is improving the rigor and caliber of analysis, and thus leading to greater continuity and replicability in blood spatter analysis. Concluding, it will examine the manner in which the court system is now viewing blood spatter analysis with greater heft because of these developments. Blood Spatter Analysis and Science Beginning with questions of science, the work of Randall (2009) demonstrates how even the most esoteric of weapons can be analyzed using......

Words: 2999 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Beaten by a Hair

...also interesting that if the forensic officers had not gone through every single hair fiber on the brush they had found, they could not have had enough evidence to convict the killer. Science and Methods Used In this case there were many different scientific methods such as an ultraviolet light test, a luminol test, an amido black test, and the use of a highly trained dog. Two main scientific methods used in the solving of this case were hair and DNA analysis and the use of mass spectrometry. When the woman was missing and the only lead the forensic officers had was the bloody pillow case; they had to use various scientific methods in order to solve the case. The forensic officers started using their methods where they suspected the crime had taken place which was in the woman’s bedroom. They noticed that woman’s bed was clean and had no blood on it. They suspected that the blood might have been cleaned up and decided to use luminol. “Luminol is the most sensitive test that is capable of presumptively detecting bloodstains diluted to as little as 1 in 100,000;...

Words: 1816 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Forensic Misconduct

...Forensic Misconduct: Dr. Pamela A. Fish Kirstin L. Daniels Professor Ian Rodway George Mason University Forensic Misconduct: Pamela A Fish Forensic science is defined as the practice of utilizing scientific methodologies to clarify judicial inquiries. The field of forensic science contains a broad range of disciplines and has become a vital aspect of criminal investigations. Some forensic disciplines are laboratory-based; while others are based on an analyst’s interpretation of observable patterns (Kourtsounis, 2009). According to the Innocence project’s website; in greater than fifty percent of wrongful convictions, the use of invalidated or improper forensic techniques played a role in cases; which were later overturned by DNA testing. Unlike other forensic methods, serology has been subjected to rigorous scientific testing to achieve validation. Even still, these methods can be inaccurately conducted or counterfactually conveyed during the trial (Innocence Project, 2012). Since the evidence presented during a trial can be the difference between freedom, and incarceration in many cases and death in some cases, misconduct in the forensic field is not tolerated. Some types of forensic misconduct include exaggeration of statistics, false testimony and laboratory fraud. Evidence offered by forensic scientists is often called “expert testimony”. Nevertheless, what is an expert? Is it someone who has gone to school and earned an undergraduate,......

Words: 1626 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Biological Evidence

...Blood is a very good source of evidence. The DNA can be extracted from the blood and help narrow down suspects. The way the blood spatters are found in the crime scene can help investigators piece together the events of the crime. This is why it is important to correctly document and handle it while avoiding cross contamination. Forensic scientists are faced with either dried blood or wet blood. Different methods of extracting the blood sample sometimes depends !3 on the location of it. Each hold their advantages and disadvantages in their approaches to retrieve the best quality of samples. Biological Evidence Pertaining to dried blood stains, different methods are required to retrieve a good sample. One method is “tape lifting” bloodstains by...

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mathematics and Forensics

...Mathematics has even paved its way into music with each beat of music being timed by numbers. Math is everywhere and people with brilliant minds can use mathematics to contribute to the world in very positive ways. One such way is the science of forensics. Without math, forensics could not exist. As population growth increases at an alarming rate, people have to find ways of holding people accountable for unlawful behavior. Forensic science has allowed civilization to evolve and become less barbaric and move towards factual based evidence when solving crimes against nature. Forensic science measures facts involving a crime and figure out the truth behind those measurements. Whether it is the skid marks from a vehicle collision or blood splatter analysis; mathematics is the reason why this can be done. Forensics have paved the way to a better justice system providing factual based evidence based upon math laws that are accepted as truth. The study of ballistics and the trajectory of bullets is a crucial element in crime solving strategy. In the United States, it is everyone’s privilege to own a gun lawfully. If the majority of the people had guns, it would be important to have a way of holding citizens accountable. This is done with mathematics....

Words: 1097 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Forensic Chemist Careers

...Forensic Chemist The trunk of a stolen car smells of decomposed flesh, a pair of Converse high tops with tiny specs of blood spatter are all alone in the back seat of the same car, and a half smoked cigarette rests softly on a freshly mowed lawn next to the driveway. These are clues of a crime scene. Each clue adds up to the story of something terrible. A crime has taken place, and law enforcement is on the scene. Whether it is a detective, county Sheriff or the FBI, the investigators will rely on their forensic teams to link all the pieces of the puzzle that don’t quite fit yet. A Forensic Chemist can make them fit by scientifically analyzing the evidence. Chemistry, biology, materials science, and genetics to analyze clue found at the scene of the crime, on the victims or in the bodies of the bad guys. Forensic Chemists go into a case with many unknow pieces of the crime scene they need to analyze to determine the nature of each sample. Most Forensic Chemists work in a lab. It is rare for private labs to do this kind of work so most of the time these labs are associated with Local, State, or Federal law enforcement agencies. From local Medical Examiner’s labs to state of the art FBI labs, Forensics Chemists often provide the strongest evidence in court against the defendants. They have many different types of test and methods they use to figure out what the samples mean. Each crime scene brings new types of clues and samples so a Forensic Chemist must......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Welcome to Homicide

...Welcome to Homicide Forensic Science is a fundamental component of the justice system. Forensic scientists use scientific techniques and knowledge to assist law enforcement in investigations and solving crimes. They collect and analyze numerous types of evidence, including blood, body fluids; DNA; and human tissue. Forensic scientists assist the decision makers by showing the prosecutor if the issue has merit before it reaches the courtroom thereby reducing the number of cases having to be heard. Their decisions are based on scientific investigations and not circumstantial evidence or unreliable witnesses. Forensic scientists can restore faith in the judicial system with the use of science and technology for facts in criminal and civil investigations. The legal system is established on the belief that the legal process results in justice for all. History of forensic science The history of Forensic science or the applying of scientific principles to legal questions has a lengthy and interesting history. The first recorded autopsy was reported in 44 B.C was on Julius Caesar, where the Roman physician, Antistius proclaimed that he had 23 wounds on his body but only one was fatal. In 1248, a Chinese book entitled “His Duan Yu” (meaning The Washing Away of Wrongs) explaining how to tell apart a drowning from a strangulation. This was also the first recorded use of medicine to assist in solving crimes. In 1590, the first microscope was developed. In 1775,......

Words: 2382 - Pages: 10