Free Essay

Blooming Prospects of Functional Foods

In: Science

Submitted By ashism
Words 3151
Pages 13
BLOOMING PROSPECTS OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
Ashish Mishra1, T.R. Genitha2
1. B. Tech. Food Tech Student, 2. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Food Process Engg, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad 211007
Corresponding author: genithaimmanuel@yahoo.co.in

Introduction
The tenet "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food," espoused by Hippocrates nearly 2,500 years ago, is receiving renewed interest, now popularly used for Functional foods. The term functional foods was first introduced in Japan in the mid-1980s and refers to processed foods containing ingredients that aid specific bodily functions in addition to being nutritious. The Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board (IOM/FNB, 1994), Japan defined functional foods as "any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains." Functional foods are foods that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition due to certain physiologically active components, which may or may not have been manipulated or modified to enhance their bioactivity. These foods may help prevent disease, reduce the risk of developing disease, or enhance health. Rapid advances in food science and technology, an aging population, the rapid rise in health care costs, and changing government marketing and labeling regulations have also had an impact on the functional foods market.
Functional foods have been a part of Eastern cultures for centuries. Foods were used for medicinal purposes in traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) as early as 1000 b.c. From ancient times, the Indians have used foods for both preventive and therapeutic health effects, a view that is now being increasingly recognized around the world.

Table.1 Lists of Functional Foods with their Potential Health Benefits
Functional food Potential health benefit Labeling claim
Whole Foods
Oats

Soy

Fruits and vegetables

Fish

Garlic

Grapes/grape juice
Flaxseed

Tomatoes

Beef

Wine and Grapes.

Tea

Cranberry

Nuts

Enriched Foods
Grains

Fortified Foods
Juices with calcium

Grains with folic acid

Infant formulas with iron Reduces cholesterol and constipation, reduces risk of heart disease
Reduces cholesterol, reduces risk of osteoporosis, certain cancers, and heart disease
Reduces risk of certain cancers and heart disease; reduces hypertension
Reduces cholesterol and triglycerides
Reduces risk of heart disease and certain cancers, reduces cholesterol
Reduces risk of heart disease
Reduces risk of heart disease and certain cancers; reduces triglycerides; increases blood-glucose control
Lycopene, the primary carotenoid found in this fruit, and its role in cancer risk reduction May reduce the risk of heart disease

May reduce the risk of heart disease

May reduce the risk of some cancers; May reduce the risk of heart disease
None

None

Structure/function claim
None

May reduces risk of prostate cancer

None

May reduce platelet aggregation or clots

May reduce the risk of Heart disease, cancer, stomach disease
May reduce urinary tract infection
None

May reduce the risk of some cancers; May reduce the risk of heart disease

Helps maintain healthy bones and may reduce risk of osteoporosis
May reduce risk of brain and spinal cord birth defects
None

An anticarcinogenic fatty acid known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was first isolated from grilled beef. CLA has been shown to be effective in suppressing fore stomach tumors.
There is growing evidence that wine, particularly red wine, can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease
Have cancer chemo preventive effects

Efficacious in the treatment of urinary tract infections
Reduces risk of heart disease

Reduces risk of certain cancers, heart disease, and nutrient deficiencies

Reduces risk of osteoporosis, reduces hypertension

Reduces risk of heart disease and neural tube birth defects
Reduces risk of iron deficiency

Grains with added fiber

Milk with vitamin D

Juices with added fiber

Enhanced Foods
Dairy products with probiotics

Beverages and salad dressings with antioxidants

Foods and beverages containing herbal preparations
Sports bars
Spreads with stanol esters
Foods containing sugar alcohols in place of sugar
Eggs with omega-3 fatty acids
Reduces risk of certain cancers and heart disease; reduces cholesterol and constipation; increases blood-glucose control
Reduces risk of osteomalacia and osteoporosis

Reduces risk of certain cancers and heart disease; reduces cholesterol, hypertension, and constipation

Reduces risk of colon cancer and candidal vaginitis; controls inflammation; treatment of respiratory allergies, diarrheal disorders, and eczema
May support overall health

Varies with ingredients

Varies with ingredients
Reduces cholesterol
Reduces risk of tooth decay

Reduces risk of heart disease
May reduce the risk of some cancers; May reduce the risk of heart disease

Helps maintain healthy bones and may reduce risk of osteoporosis
May reduce risk of some cancers

Structure/function claim

Structure/function claim

Structure/function claim

Structure/function claim
Structure/function claim
May reduce risk of tooth decay
Structure/function claim
The Intersection of Food and Genes
Diet is one of the key environmental factors to which genes are exposed. Nutrients affect gene expression and formation of various proteins at discrete points in the processes of their formation. Discoveries in genetics make it possible to understand the effects of nutrients in processes at the molecular level and also the variable effects of dietary components on each individual. Disciplines such as nutrigenomics (study of interaction of dietary components with genes); proteomics (study of the proteins encoded and expressed by a genome); and metabolomics or metabonomics (metabolite profiling, measuring potential outcome of changes suggested by genomics and proteomics) have and will continue to contribute to the rapid development of functional foods.
Bioinformatics, a tool that uses computer database technology to integrate data from multiple disciplines, also plays an important role in this development. Early functional studies have focused on single genes; however, many common diseases are influenced by complex interactions among multiple genes, combined with environmental and lifestyle factors. There is a need for researchers to simultaneously study the functional interactions, networks and pathways. This research will reveal the effects of nutrients on the molecular-level processes in the body and document variable effects of nutrients under different conditions.
Regulations Related to Functional Foods
As it might be expected, Japan has led the way for establishing strict procedures for approval and marketing of functional foods under "Food For Specified Health Use” or “FOSHU" which was conceptualized in 1991. Under FOSHU, there are several categories and these are for gut health or for metabolic syndrome and lifestyle-related diseases. The categories so specified are products for gastrointestinal conditions, dental caries and mineral absorption and those for bone health and strength, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood cholesterol and blood triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Functional foods are now regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the authority of two laws. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) of 1938 provides for the regulation of all foods and food additives. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 amended the FD&C Act to cover dietary supplements and ingredients of dietary supplements. Functional foods may be categorized as whole foods, enriched foods, fortified foods, or enhanced foods. Labeling claims that are used on functional foods are of two types: (1) Structure and function claims, which describe effects on normal functioning of the body, but not claims that the food can treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure a disease (claims such as "promotes regularity," "helps maintain cardiovascular health," and "supports the immune system " fit into this category).; and (2) Disease-risk reduction claims, which imply a relationship between dietary components and a disease or health condition. Structure and function claims do not require preapproval by the FDA, and they require much less stringent scientific consensus than disease-risk reduction claims. Under the FD&C Act, structure and function claims cannot be false or misleading. However, the law does not define the nature or extent of evidence necessary to support these claims.
Disease-risk reduction claims, typically called health claims, do require FDA approval before they can be used on products and must reflect scientific consensus. For example, the health claim for soy protein and its relation to cardiovascular disease reads: "Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that includes 25 grams of soy protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease. One serving of (name of food) provides ___ grams of soy protein." This claim may appear only on soy products that provide at least 6.25 grams of soy protein per serving. Other FDA-approved health claims include those related to fruits and vegetables and a reduced risk of cancer; saturated fat and an increased risk of heart disease; sodium and increased risk for hypertension , and folic acid–fortified foods and reduced risk of neural tube defects.
Many developed functional foods seem to have benefits for human health. For example, calcium-fortified orange juice provides approximately the same amount of calcium as milk. Additionally, some herbal ingredients can be harmful, such as kava, which has been associated with liver damage, and belladonna, which is toxic.
Limitations of Current Policies
The existing terminology, policies and regulatory frameworks limit the scope and accuracy of consumer information and hinders development and marketing of functional foods. Current FDA policy requires that health benefits attributed to a food be derived from its ‘nutritive value’ in order for the food to be exempt from regulation as a drug. This policy unduly restricts the health effects of foods to the limited concept of nutritive value and appears to be inconsistent with the courts’ interpretation of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDC Act). The FDC Act defines a drug to exclude ‘food’ intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man. The courts have held that this exclusion from the drug definition applies to ‘food’ broadly, not just to the nutritive components or nutritive value of a food.
With regard to health claims, the FDC Act describes a health claim in terms of the relationship between a particular ‘nutrient’ and disease or other health-related condition. FDA policy requires that substances intended to be consumed at other than decreased levels contribute taste, aroma, nutritive value or a technical effect to the food in order to be eligible for a health claim. For this purpose, FDA defines nutritive value as “value in sustaining human existence by such processes as promoting growth, replacing loss of essential nutrients or providing energy.” The FDC Act provides that, in general, express or implied claims that a food can cure, mitigate, treat or prevent any disease are drug claims that make the food subject to regulation as a drug. Traditionally, what constitutes an implied drug claim has been interpreted very broadly by FDA. For example, FDA took the position that a claim that a food lowers cholesterol would be considered a drug claim because it implies treatment of abnormal cholesterol levels, which the agency considers to be a ‘disease’. Therefore, functional foods that affect cholesterol levels could only state that the food “maintains normal cholesterol levels,” which is a permissible structure/function claim. However, such a statement is potentially misleading if the food in fact lowers cholesterol levels. A petition for a health claim was filed linking consumption of phytostanol and phytosterol esters to a reduced risk of heart disease. After the time-consuming and costly health claim petition was approved, the cholesterol-lowering ‘disease’ claim was allowed, but only in general terms of coronary heart disease risk reduction. As long as claims are scientifically valid, enormous public health benefits would result from consumers understanding and acting on the claimed product benefit.
Consumers may be misled if qualified health claims are not adequately differentiated from approved health claims. To promote consumer understanding, the wording of qualified health claims should clearly indicate the degree of scientific support or certainty associated with a biological effect or modification of disease risk. The current scientific standard applied by FDA in evaluating qualified health claims is the “Weight Of The Scientific Evidence (WOSE), tempered by credible evidence.” Properly applied, this standard should operate to preclude dissemination of misleading information based on poor science.
Process for Bringing Functional Foods to Market
Panel of Experts identified a seven-step process that would address critical aspects in the design, development and marketing of functional foods. After identifying a potential new bioactive ingredient (step 1), the ingredient’s efficacy and safety must be evaluated (steps 2 and 3). When selecting an appropriate food vehicle for the bioactive substance (step 4), characteristics of the food, the ingredient and the intended consumer must be considered. An independent peer review and, if required, regulatory oversight (step 5) ensures the accuracy of health claims, which must be properly communicated to consumers (step 6). Finally, in-market surveillance confirms the findings of the pre-market assessments (step 7). Although all seven steps would be undertaken for each new bioactive substance and the resulting functional foods, the specific requirements within each step vary depending upon the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the functional component, the applicable regulatory requirements and the health claims to be made.
Safety Issues and Efficacy of Functional Foods
In general, the safety of functional foods should be based on the long-standing principle that foods are safe. Further, the safety assessment should accept the safety of components already established through Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) determinations and food additive approvals. That said, an objective, science-based evaluation process must establish that functional components are safe at their projected use levels. The safety assessment must also be sufficiently flexible to consider the many factors associated with consumer responses to food and food ingredients, including genetic predisposition, age, sex, nutrition status and lifestyle. The safety assessment would be concluded through current procedures for establishing GRAS status or as obtaining food additive approval.
A major recommendation pertains to the demonstration of scientific sufficiency of evidence for efficacy. This recommendation if implemented, is believed, would encourage public confidence in the labeling of functional foods and would conserve government resources. It is recommended that independent expert panels be established to make Generally Recognized As Efficacious (GRAE) determinations. These panels would be composed of respected scientists qualified to determine efficacy of the component under consideration. The multi-disciplinary nature of the panel would provide a broad context for data evaluation and assure that the resulting conclusions are scientifically defensible and relevant to consumer practices. The GRAE panel would apply the Hill criteria to determine if the proposed claims are supported by the available evidence. GRAE panels could be assembled and managed in a variety of ways as long as the panel’s independence is assured and conflicts of interest avoided. GRAE panels could be organized by a professional organization, by a private consulting organization or by the company developing the functional food (provided the panel is given complete autonomy).
The panel of independent experts with appropriate scientific expertise would be fully disclosed. The GRAE panel reports (accompanied by relevant scientific literature and data) would be submitted to FDA under a GRAE notification process similar to that used for GRAS notifications.
Role of Research
Extensive research is needed to achieve vast potential as well as to ensure safety and efficacy of the product. The following research areas are identified as vital to the development of functional foods:
• Understanding the mechanisms of action, dose/response relationship, clinical outcomes and individual response for nutrient and bioactive substances.
• Identification and development of additional biomarkers and surrogate markers, as well as further defining acceptable ones.
• Identification and tailoring food vehicles for delivery of bioactive ingredients.
• Expansion and use of exiting food composition and dietary intake databases to identify relationships between diet and health.
• Use of nutrigenomics to provide nutrient plans and products based on interaction of genetics and diets for groups and individuals (mass customization).
Further, research is needed in the areas of ethics, regulatory and legal implications of nutrigenomics. Appropriate incentives such as market exclusivity to the food industry for health and nutrition research would greatly enhance development of functional foods.
The Future
The future of functional foods will undoubtedly involve a continuation of the labeling and safety debates. As consumers become more health conscious, the demand and market value for health-promoting foods and food components is expected to grow. Before the full market potential can be realized, however, consumers need to be assured of the safety and efficacy of functional foods. Future research will focus on mechanisms by which food components such as photochemical positively affect health, and whether these components work independently or synergistically. According to the American Dietetic Association, dietetics professionals will be increasingly called upon to develop preventive meal plans, to recommend changes in food intake, to enhance phytochemical and functional food intake, and to evaluate the appropriateness of functional foods and dietary supplements to meet preventive (and therapeutic) intake levels for both healthy persons and those diagnosed with disease.
Conclusion
Mounting evidence supports the observation that functional foods containing physiologically-active components, either from plant or animal sources, may enhance health. It should be stressed, however, that functional foods are not a magic bullet or universal panacea for poor health habits.
Health-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking functional foods in an effort to control their own health and well-being. The field of functional foods, however, is in its infancy. Claims about health benefits of functional foods must be based on sound scientific criteria (Clydesdale, 1997). A number of factors complicate the establishment of a strong scientific foundation, however. These factors include the complexity of the food substance, effects on the food, compensatory metabolic changes that may occur with dietary changes, and, lack of surrogate markers of disease development. Additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefits of those foods for which the diet-health relationships are not sufficiently scientifically validated. Finally, those foods whose health benefits are supported by sufficient scientific substantiation have the potential to be an increasingly important component of a healthy lifestyle and to be beneficial to the public and the food industry.
References
Clydesdale F Functional Foods: Opportunity and Challenges. Food Technology. 2004;58:3540.
FAO, 2006. Food and nutrition paper no 85: Probiotics in food: Health and nutritional properties and guidelines for evaluation, Rome
Faulks RM, Southon S, Caroteniods: Metabolism and disease.In: Wildman RES, ed. Hand book of neutraceuticals and functional foods, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001;143–56.
FDA. 2003. CFSAN/Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplement September 2003. Claims That Can Be Made for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements. (Link: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/hclaims.html)
Hasler, C.M. Functional foods: their role in disease prevention and health promotion. Food
Technol 52 (11):63-70, 1998.
International Food Information Council. Background on functional foods. Newsroom. March 2002. International Food Information Council. Functional foods attitudinal research. Consumer and Opinion Leader Research. August 2002. International union of food science & technology (IUFoST) Scientific Information Bulletin June 2009 Ismail, A. 2006. “India: The Land of Opportunity.” Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, January. Shimizu T. Health claims on functional foods: the Japanese regulations and an international comparison. Nutrition Research Reviews 2003; 16: 241-252.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Working Student

...A Research Paper On Why Capitalism Succeeded In Generating An Industrial Revolution In Other Countries But Failed In The Philippines Submitted by Manuel Ortega Abis Student No. 11-71-003, BPA Special Program Batch 8-A CAPA, Universidad de Manila Professor Ronaldo J. Navata PREFACE The research materials and references used in this research paper were managed to be gathered through unlimited internet hours and limited library hours, but the pages on the web and the pages of the book offered equal enlightenment and enjoyment. The premises and conclusions built and reached in this paper are products of the researcher’s serious analysis of the Philippine economic situation. The researcher, however, is praying that his objectivity and the sincerity of his language shall not fail him in his own humble attempt to bring this mini-thesis to its just and proper course and closure. The twin causes formulated in this paper are generally subdivided into two: the concept of economic will (policy system of governance) and the concept of economic ownership (property system of the governed). Further reading is advised on critical and related topics of this paper. For the economy, these words: there is no such thing as the co-existence of freedom and equality. God bless the......

Words: 16024 - Pages: 65

Premium Essay

Finance

...Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION INDUSTRY PROFILE BUSINESS CONSULTING  In the corporate world the wants and needs of clients are constantly changing, becoming much more complex and specialized.  These needs can often exceed workforce and workplace capabilities.  When this happens, companies and organizations hire consultants to strategize solutions to business, organizational or industry specific problems Consultants are needed to help create new jobs, expand operations, and start new facilities. In short, consultants help organizations improve their performance These solutions can involve changing a company's problem solving initiatives, altering employee training techniques, and evaluating personal performance.  Employee engagement is a key element in this field.  A company's ability to build a corporate team with strong leaders will determine a company's ability to find answers to client and market concerns. Consultants help construct these teams and train the individuals in them.  These teams and their leaders can then innovate and create new ways to find new customers and markets while keeping the existing ones happy and engaged.  The people within the company will also start to think more like business owners and producers all on behalf of a clear strategic direction with adequate capacity to succeed.   Areas of Consulting  Consulting services include IT (Information Technology) consulting, management consulting, strategy consulting and industry specific consulting.  IT......

Words: 9137 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Kuharenko

...Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник. – Вінниця. «Нова книга», 2000 - 160 с. CONTENTS FOREWORD...............................................................................…………………………………………... 2 PRELIMINARY REMARKS.....................................................………………………………………….. 3 CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL LEVEL…............................... 13 Sound Instrumenting. Craphon. Graphical Means…………………………………………………………...6 Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency………………………………………………….11 CHAPTER II. LEXICAL LEVEL..............................................……………………………………….…14 Word and its Semantic Structure…………………………………………………………………………….14 Connotational Meanings of a Word………………………………………………………………………….14 The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning…………………………………………………….14 Stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary…………………………………………………………………..16 Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words…..…………………………………………………………..16 Lexical Stylistic Devices…………………………………………………………………………………….23 Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet…………………………………………23 Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron. ……………………………………………………………………23 CHAPTER III. SYNTACTICAL LEVEL..................................…………………………………………38 Main Characteristics of the Sentence. Syntactical SDs. Sentence Length…………………………………..38 One-Word Sentences. Sentence Structure. Punctuation.......

Words: 57354 - Pages: 230

Premium Essay

Jindal Steel - Report

...sustained growth through foresight ANNUAL REPORT 2009-2010 Vision Global recognition for size, culture and quality, while nurturing nature and society. Mission Supporting the nation’s growth in power and steel with speed and innovation. Core Values l Crystal clear l Passion for excellence l Drive with leadership l Young thinking l Challenging status quo Contents Vice Chairman’s Statement.....................................02 Highlights 2009-10.....................................................04 Board of Directors........................................................05 Notice...............................................................................06 Directors’ Report..........................................................11 Management Discussion and Analysis......................22 Report on Corporate Governance...............................38 Auditors’ Report.................................................................48 Standalone Accounts.......................................................50 Consolidated Accounts...................................................79 Shri O. P. Jindal August 7, 1930 – March 31, 2005 O. P. Jindal Group – Founder and Visionary Only a life lived for others is a life lived worth while An industrialist par excellence under whose aegis the O P Jindal Group grew from strength to strength. But for the world at large Late Shri O P Jindal was much more than that. He was also a leader of masses, some one......

Words: 76501 - Pages: 307

Premium Essay

A Book of Practice in Stylistics

...Кухаренко В. А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник. — Вінниця: Нова книга, 2000. — 160 с. Кухаренко Валерия Андреевна, д.ф.н., проф., кафедра лексикологии и стилистики английского языка факультетеа РГФ ОНУ им. И. И. Мечникова CONTENTS FOREWORD...............................................................................…………………………………………... 2 PRELIMINARY REMARKS.....................................................………………………………………….. 3 CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL LEVEL…............................... 13 Sound Instrumenting. Graphon. Graphical Means…………………………………………………………...6 Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency………………………………………………….11 CHAPTER II. LEXICAL LEVEL..............................................……………………………………….…14 Word and its Semantic Structure…………………………………………………………………………….14 Connotational Meanings of a Word………………………………………………………………………….14 The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning…………………………………………………….14 Stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary…………………………………………………………………..16 Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words…..…………………………………………………………..16 Lexical Stylistic Devices…………………………………………………………………………………….23 Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet…………………………………………23 Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron. ……………………………………………………………………23 CHAPTER III. SYNTACTICAL LEVEL..................................…………………………………………38 Main......

Words: 56594 - Pages: 227

Premium Essay

Marketing

...Review of Marketing Research Review of Marketing Research VOLUME 1 Naresh K. Malhotra Editor M.E.Sharpe Armonk, New York London, England 4 AUTHOR Copyright © 2005 by M.E.Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, New York 10504. Library of Congress ISSN: 1548-6435 ISBN 0-7656-1304-2 (hardcover) Printed in the United States of America The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z 39.48-1984. ~ MV (c) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CHAPTER TITLE 5 REVIEW OF MARKETING RESEARCH EDITOR: NARESH K. MALHOTRA, GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Editorial Board Rick P. Bagozzi, Rice University Ruth Bolton, Arizona State University George Day, University of Pennsylvania Morris B. Holbrook, Columbia University Michael Houston, University of Minnesota Shelby Hunt, Texas Tech University Dawn Iacobucci, Northwestern University Arun K. Jain, University at Buffalo, State University of New York Barbara Kahn, University of Pennsylvania Wagner Kamakura, Duke University Donald Lehmann, Columbia University Robert F. Lusch, University of Arizona Kent B. Monroe, University of Illinois, Urbana A. Parasuraman, University of Miami William Perreault, University of North Carolina Robert A. Peterson,......

Words: 167068 - Pages: 669

Free Essay

As, Ca, Pdf

...ISSUES FOR IIM INTERVIEW  PROCESS © EssaysforIIM.com......

Words: 128478 - Pages: 514

Free Essay

English Language

...i Вторая страница обложки ii Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS 1 Vanessa Jakeman Clare McDowell C AMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS iii PUBLISHED BY THF PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building Trumpington Street Cambridge CB2 1RP United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia © Cambridge University Press 1996 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1996 Third printing 1997 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge ISBN 0 521 49767 1 Self-Study Student`s Book ISBN 0 521 49766 3 Set of 2 cassettes Copyright The law allows a reader to make a single copy of part of a book for purposes of private study. It does not allow the copying of entire books or the making of multiple copies of extracts. Written permission for any such copying must always be obtained from the publisher in advance. iv Contents Acknowledgements iv Introduction 1 Practice Test 1 12 Practice Test 2 34 Practice Test 3 54 Practice Test 4 75 General Training Reading and Writing Modules Tapescripts Answer keys 94 107 130 ...

Words: 41994 - Pages: 168

Free Essay

Case Study

...i Вторая страница обложки ii Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS 1 Vanessa Jakeman Clare McDowell C AMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS iii PUBLISHED BY THF PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building Trumpington Street Cambridge CB2 1RP United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia © Cambridge University Press 1996 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1996 Third printing 1997 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge ISBN 0 521 49767 1 Self-Study Student`s Book ISBN 0 521 49766 3 Set of 2 cassettes Copyright The law allows a reader to make a single copy of part of a book for purposes of private study. It does not allow the copying of entire books or the making of multiple copies of extracts. Written permission for any such copying must always be obtained from the publisher in advance. iv Contents Acknowledgements iv Introduction 1 Practice Test 1 12 Practice Test 2 34 Practice Test 3 54 Practice Test 4 75 General Training Reading and Writing Modules Tapescripts Answer keys 94 107 130 ...

Words: 41994 - Pages: 168

Premium Essay

Business Performance Measurement

...This page intentionally left blank Business Performance Measurement Drawing together contributions from leading thinkers around the world, this book reviews recent developments in the theory and practice of performance measurement and management. Significantly updated and modified from the first edition, the book includes ten new chapters that provide a comprehensive review of performance measurement from the perspectives of accounting, marketing, operations, public services and supply chain management. In addition to these functional analyses the book explores performance measurement frameworks and methodologies, practicalities and challenges, and enduring questions and issues. Edited by one of the world’s leading experts on performance measurement and management, Business Performance Measurement will be of interest to graduate students, managers and researchers who wish to understand more about the latest developments in this rapidly changing field. Andy Neely is Deputy Director of the ESRC/EPSRC AIM Research initiative, Professor of Operations Strategy and Performance at Cranfield School of Management, and Visiting Professor of Operations Management at London Business School. Business Performance Measurement Unifying theories and integrating practice Second edition Edited by Andy Neely CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building,......

Words: 191452 - Pages: 766

Premium Essay

Marketing Research

...ANELINA YASENOVA BAEVA ONLINE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR WEB EXPERIENCE ELEMENTS IN ONLINE CLOTHING MARKET September 2011 MASTER THESIS IN MARKETING ONLINE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Web Experience Elements in Online Clothing Market Student: Anelina Yasenova Baeva Supervisor: Professor Doctor Arnaldo Fernandes Matos Coelho September, 2011 ONLINE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR – Web Experience Elements in Online Clothing Market Abstract Online shopping in EU has been shown to be a good potential market. Clothing represents a high percent of the individuals shopping. Buying clothes online gives customers the opportunity to find a great variety of products, customers can review a wide selection of products and find special offers with the best deals online. However, the tangible and intangible problems of clothing online shopping still exist and the online store retailers lack the customer knowledge in some extent. Therefore, the intention of the thesis is to explore customer behavior when purchasing clothing online through investigating the factors that can affect online consumer`s attitudes, intention and actual consumers` behavior. The study investigates the main web - experience factors that customer takes into consideration when purchasing clothes online. Yet, the most important online elements are categorized in two main groups: customer - oriented factors and technology - oriented factors. The autor used quantitave research in term of survey to analyze the consumer`s attitutes towards the......

Words: 30250 - Pages: 121

Premium Essay

The Study of Language

...This page intentionally left blank The Study of Language This best-selling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language. Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in short, bite-sized sections, introducing the major concepts in language study – from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fourth edition has been revised and updated with twenty new sections, covering new accounts of language origins, the key properties of language, text messaging, kinship terms and more than twenty new word etymologies. To increase student engagement with the text, Yule has also included more than fifty new tasks, including thirty involving data analysis, enabling students to apply what they have learned. The online study guide offers students further resources when working on the tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language. George Yule has taught Linguistics at the Universities of Edinburgh, Hawai’i, Louisiana State and Minnesota. He is the author of a number of books, including Discourse Analysis (with Gillian Brown, 1983) and Pragmatics (1996). “A genuinely introductory linguistics text, well suited for undergraduates who have little prior experience thinking descriptively about language. Yule’s crisp and thought-provoking presentation of key issues......

Words: 114096 - Pages: 457

Free Essay

The Power of Eye Contact

...The Power of Eye Contact Your Secret for Success in Business, Love, and Life Michael Ellsberg For Jena May I gaze into your eyes forever . . . los ojos . . . mudas lenguas de amorios. ( . . . the eyes, silent tongues of love.) —MIGUEL DE CERVANTES, from Don Quijote1 Contents Cover Title Page Epigraph A Note to Readers Introduction Chapter One - What Bill Clinton Knows About Eye Contact Chapter Two - How to Become a Master of Eye Chapter Three - Eye Flirting, Part I Chapter Four - Eye Flirting, Part II Chapter Five - The Eyes Are the Windows to the Sale Chapter Six - How to Wow a Crowd with Eye Contact Chapter Seven - If Looks Could Kill Chapter Eight - Truth and Eyes Chapter Nine - Eye Love You Chapter Ten - Gazing at the Divine Chapter Eleven - Going Deeper Epilogue Ralph Waldo Emerson on Eyes and Eye Contact Notes Works Cited Interviewees Free Bonus Material for Readers Acknowledgments About the Author Advance Praise for The Power of Eye Contact Copyright About the Publisher A Note to Readers I welcome your comments, questions, critiques, feedback, corrections, stories, experiences, and anecdotes. Please write to me at michael@powerofeyecontact.com. I won’t answer everything personally, but I will read it all and will answer the most interesting questions and queries. I may also post your questions, stories, or anecdotes on the book’s blog, www.powerofeyecontact.com/blog. So when you write, let me know if you’re OK with that, and if so, how......

Words: 72918 - Pages: 292

Premium Essay

Tets

...Comments on FUTURE SHOCK C. P. Snow: "Remarkable ... No one ought to have the nerve to pontificate on our present worries without reading it." R. Buckminster Fuller: "Cogent ... brilliant ... I hope vast numbers will read Toffler's book." Betty Friedan: "Brilliant and true ... Should be read by anyone with the responsibility of leading or participating in movements for change in America today." Marshall McLuhan: "FUTURE SHOCK ... is 'where it's at.'" Robert Rimmer, author of The Harrad Experiment: "A magnificent job ... Must reading." John Diebold: "For those who want to understand the social and psychological implications of the technological revolution, this is an incomparable book." WALL STREET JOURNAL: "Explosive ... Brilliantly formulated." LONDON DAILY EXPRESS: "Alvin Toffler has sent something of a shock-wave through Western society." LE FIGARO: "The best study of our times that I know ... Of all the books that I have read in the last 20 years, it is by far the one that has taught me the most." THE TIMES OF INDIA: "To the elite ... who often get committed to age-old institutions or material goals alone, let Toffler's FUTURE SHOCK be a lesson and a warning." MANCHESTER GUARDIAN: "An American book that will ... reshape our thinking even more radically than Galbraith's did in the 1950s ... The book is more than a book, and it will do more than send reviewers raving ... It is a spectacular outcrop of a formidable, organized intellectual effort ... For the first time in......

Words: 159732 - Pages: 639

Free Essay

Gre Vocabulary 3000

...Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization. List 1 GRE Verbal 750 Quantitative 800, AW 5.5 2008 10 Princeton, MIT, M. Fin Unit 1 ABANDON A B D I C AT E ABASE ABERRANT ABASH ABET A B AT E A B E YA N C E A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR abandon [ 1 n. ] carefree, freedom from constraint added spices to the stew with complete abandon unconstraint, uninhibitedness, unrestraint 2 v. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon herself to a life of complete idleness abandon oneself to emotion indulge, surrender, give up 3 v. to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment abandon the ship/homes salvage 4 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) NASA the bad weather forced NASA to abandon the launch abort, drop, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off keep, continue, maintain, carry on abase [ 1 v. ] to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem was unwilling to abase himself by pleading guilty to a crime that he did not commit debauch, degrade, profane, vitiate, discredit, foul, smirch, take down elevate, ennoble, uplift, aggrandize, canonize, deify, exalt abash [ 1 vt. ] to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of ,disconcert, embarrass Nothing could abash him. discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, nonplus, mortify embolden abate [ 1 v. ] to reduce in degree or intensity / abate his rage/pain taper off intensify 2......

Words: 139628 - Pages: 559