Free Essay

Body Art and Ornamentation Across Cultures


Submitted By sstrickland83
Words 2364
Pages 10
Body Art and Ornamentation across Cultures
Sheryl Strickland
ANT 101
Dr. Cynthia Livingston

Body Art and Ornamentation across Cultures
The skin has been a canvas for human expression for centuries. As a result, body art and ornamentation have been a source of interest among anthropologists beginning as early as the 1900’s, and gaining a strong foothold during the 1970’s. “Inscribed skin highlights an issue that has been central to anthropology since its inception: the question of boundaries between the individual and society, between societies, and between representations and experiences” (Schildkrout, 2004). Through anthropological research, we have learned that many cultures worldwide use forms of body art and ornamentation such as scarification, tattooing (permanent and nonpermanent), and piercings for a variety of reasons, ranging from ceremonial religious rituals to tribal identification purposes. The process of body art and ornamentation signifies a figurative death and rebirth that typically involves a painful experience as a means to encourage an individual’s self-discovery, as well as establishing his/her place in society. For the purpose of this paper, I will explore the various aspects of body art and ornamentation across three specific cultures- the Yoruba’s of West Africa, the Samoan’s of the Pacific Islands, and the Hindu’s of India.
Throughout the history of African culture, anthropologists have noted a wide variety of body markings among African peoples, with scarification being the most permanent form. Through intense study and research of African peoples, anthropologists have learned that many in the African culture use these types of body markings as identifiers among tribes, as well as a source of integration for outsiders into a specific community. For example, among the Yoruba tribes of West Africa, men, women and children were often subjected to scarification of the face in an effort to separate their culture from other cultures in Africa, as well as to denote hierarchy among its own people. This type of scarification serves as “a kind of insignia, a national badge, [or] uniform for all individuals of the same group and different from one people to another so as to give each one a distinctive characteristic” (Ojo, 2008). Starting shortly after birth, Yoruba infants are brought to see a specialist (an Olóólà or Akọmọlá) who, by using a scalpel, will carefully place one of a variety of desired facial stripes on the cheeks of the infant. In the Yoruba culture, parents may choose from three pattern types- a single vertical stripe on both cheeks, a three stripe pattern (vertical or horizontal) on both cheeks, or a four stripe horizontal pattern on each side (Orie, 2011). It is a customary practice that the patterns be symmetrical on each side, and never has it been seen a double stripe pattern. However, asymmetry does occur, but is typically reserved for the integration of royal or wealthy families through marriage.
In addition to using facial scarification as a tribal identifier, peoples of Yoruba culture will also use facial scarification as a form of protection from the spirit world for certain children deemed “mischievous.” In Yoruba culture the term “mischievous” differs from the traditionally accepted definition, as it is used to describe Yoruba children that pass on shortly after birth, or for the surviving child of a mother who has had a succession of failed pregnancies. The Yoruba’s believe that these children are being followed by an àbíkú, a spirit responsible for the death of infants by reclaiming them into the spirit world (2011). In an effort to thwart the spirits from carrying out their otherworldly duties, these Yoruba children will be marked with a single vertical or horizontal line on each cheek, or either multiple incisions placed throughout the body, other than on the face.
Moving on from the scarification practices of the Yoruba peoples, another culture using body art and ornamentation as a cultural identifier is the Samoan’s. Tattooing is the longest recorded and most traditional art form used by Samoan’s for cultural identification purposes. The art of the tatau (the Samoan word for tattoo) is speculated to have been founded by twin goddesses Taema and Tilafaiga around 1250 AD, and was usually reserved for the chiefs and their families (Va’a, 2006). However, as times passed, it became customary for all Samoan men to have these tribal tattoos, and serves as a symbol of the transition from boyhood to manhood. Samoan men that are tattooed rank higher in status than non-tattooed men. So much so that the Samoan’s have two distinct words to describe each- sogaimiti, meaning tattooed man, and apula u, meaning foul-tasting taro, for an non-tattooed man (Ryman, 2004).
Because tattooing for Samoan men is symbolic of the transition from boyhood to manhood, when a young man is ready he will seek permission from his parents to begin the process of his pe’a- the Samoan word for the male tattoo. The pe’a consists of a series of markings surrounding a representation of the flying fox, an indigenous species of bat found on the island of Samoa. The male tattoo begins at the knees and carries on to slightly above the waistline, in both the front and back of the individual, save for the skin surrounding the genitalia. The process of the pe’a is performed by a tufuga- a tattoo artist honored with respect similar to that of a chief. To be a true tufuga one has to be born with the blood of tufugas past (Miles, 2001). Various combs made of pig tusks and turtle shells are used to hammer an ink made of soot and water into the skin of the Samoan male, leaving behind the intricately designed markings of the tufuga. A traditional Samoan tattoo takes up to eight hours to complete, and is often very tedious for the one tattooing and painful for the tattoo recipient.
In Hindu culture, tattooing is also used widely, however, the method of tattooing used in India differs from that of Samoan peoples in that it is not permanent, nor does it serve as protection from the spiritual world, like the scarification process in Yoruba peoples. Hindu’s use a process of non-permanent tattooing called mehndi (henna), a mixture of henna leaves and botanical oils ground up and formed into a paste, to tattoo the hands of Hindu women. There is no clear consensus as to where mehndi originated, as centuries of cultural interaction and migration has made it hard to pinpoint, however this art form has been used for centuries in Hindu culture, primarily as part of the wedding process. Mehndi is a non-permanent way to tattoo women with many beautiful designs, and serves as a representation of love among Indian brides-to-be. It is thought that by applying mehndi to the hand of the bride-to-be, the love between the bride and her future groom will be strengthened. In the article Henna Tradition: A Symbol of Marital Bliss, it is stated that “the henna ceremony reflects the welfare and happiness a marriage provides” (Middle East News, 2001). Hindu women place a great significance on the mehndi process, and usually throw an elaborate party/ceremony before the wedding solely for this purpose. The application of mehndi during this ceremony allows older Hindu women to bestow blessings and wisdom upon Indian brides-to-be.
In addition to mehndi, nose-piercing is another form of body art and ornamentation with cultural value in Hindu culture. The purpose of nose piercing in Hindu culture varies from region to region. For example, in rural areas of India, certain castes use a septum piercing called the nathori in an effort to emulate the Hindu god Lord Krishna. For other castes within Hindu culture, elaborate pieces of jewelry are used to adorn the nostril of a Hindu bride-to-be during a wedding ceremony, and are worn thereafter as a signifier of marriage among other peoples. Furthermore, there are some castes in Hindu culture that use a left-sided nose-piercing called a mookkuthi, for medicinal purposes. The use of mookkuthi is derived from the ancient art of Ayurvedic medicine. Ayurvedic medicinal practices began when the Ayurveda (life knowledge) and it’s three doshas (vital forces working within the body) were revealed to the Hindu deity, Brahma (Carrier, 2011). It is believed in Ayurvedic medicine that piercing the nose of young Hindu women will result in easier menstruation and a less painful child-birthing experience.

Although each of the cultures mentioned in the above writing differ in the use of body art and ornamentation for self-expression, they all have a specific commonality- a lean toward modernization. With an increase in colonization throughout the lands of the aforementioned cultures many of the peoples in these cultures have long since disregarded the more painful aspects of body art and ornamentation and replaced it with less exotic ways of self-expression, such as clothing art and jewelry design. For example, in Nigeria, unmarked ex-slaves of the Yoruba diaspora began taking elite positions within the African government, thus making the traditional Yoruba facial scarification process a past-time (Ojo, 2004). Some Yoruba parents will still have their children’s faces scarified; however the design of choice, called a minus line, is more of a fashion statement than a method of cultural identification. Much of the traditional designs used in facial scarification can now be found in the artwork of the Yoruba peoples, with Yoruba women taken to inscribing their textiles and pottery with the once traditional Yoruba body art designs.
In addition to colonization, an influx of religious missionaries spreading the views of Christianity, have set about to change the way certain body art and ornamentation occurs within these cultures. When missionaries began visiting the Pacific Islands, they preached the Christian view that tattooing is of the devil. As a result many Pacific Islander’s began shying away from the traditional practices of tatau, choosing instead to use different forms of body paint as body art, and combinations of colored baby powder for ceremonial rituals (Schildkrout, 2004). Momentarily, these Christian ideologies stalled the practice of tribal tattooing in the island nation of Samoa; however it has begun to make a revival. Samoan tattooing has remained a sacred tradition, and is still practiced by proud Samoan’s. And, although there still remains the practice of the true tufuga, with the handmade tools and tedious application technique, many Samoan’s are leaning toward the more modern techniques of using tattoo guns, which achieve the same desired effect with much less pain and a faster completion time (Ryman, 2004).
Through westernization and modernization in India, Hindu culture has been directly affected. Although still used as a ceremonial religious ritual, mehndi is now evolving and can be seen worn among Indian women of all walks of life, regardless of marital status or significance. It is not uncommon to see young women sporting mehndi designs that serve as more of a fashion accessory rather than a ceremonial marking. Many of the designs are not limited to the lacy floral patterns historically used, but now include new wave forms of design, ranging from words to caricatures. Mehndi can be seen worn on not only the hands of young Hindu women, but on the face, arms, feet and legs. It is also being revered as a natural, safe, non-permanent way for women to color their hair. Furthermore, with the modernization of medicine in India, the once accepted Hindu method of Ayurvedic medicine is fading out, and along with it the reasons for nose piercings among Hindu women. Although many Hindu women still continue to pierce their noses, it is becoming an increasingly ambiguous practice, and seems to be more of a symbol of beauty than anything else. Body art and ornamentation across cultures has provided anthropologists with an interesting and telling insight into the histories and traditions of peoples throughout the world. Inscribing the skin provides peoples from all cultures with a way to convey an almost autobiographical story for anthropologists and outsiders alike. The role of body art and ornamentation in the cultures focused on in this paper hold various significances ranging from cultural identifiers, to tribal pride, to the celebration of love, etc. For example, by examining the facial scarifications of the Yoruba’s of West Africa, one can see a history of diaspora, where often times facial marks would be the only defining factor between slaves and warriors. Studying the meticulous and precisely placed designs of the traditional pe’a, we are able to learn the story of a young Samoan man’s transition from boyhood to manhood. Through the beautifully and delicately drawn out designs of mehndi, Hindu women are able to portray their acceptance of the newest stage of life (marriage), as well as show off the love they hold for their grooms. Regardless of an ever changing world- from colonization, to religious influences, to modernization- the traditions found among these cultures have been able to keep root and thrive, albeit slightly altered, continuing to tell the story of their people.

Henna tradition: A symbol of marital bliss. (2001, Sep 05). Middle East News Online. Retrieved July 20, 2013, from ProQuest database.
Carrier, M. (2011). Ayurvedic medicine. Skeptic, 16(2), 17-19. Retrieved August 5, 2013, from Academic Search Premier database.
Miles, P. (2001). Bodies to dye for. Geographical, 73(10), 32-36. Campion Interactive Publishing. Retrieved August 5, 2013, from MasterFILE Premier database.
Ojo, O. (2008). Beyond diversity: Women, scarification, and Yoruba identity. History in Africa 35(1), 347-374. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved July 20, 2013, from Project MUSE database.
Orie, I. (2011). The structure and function of Yoruba facial scarification. Anthropological Linguistics 53(1), 15-33. University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved July 27, 2013, from Project MUSE database.
Ryman, A. (2004). Peti’s malu: Traditions of Samoan tattooing. The World & I, 19(6), 160-167. Retrieved from
Schildkrout, E. (2004). Inscribing the body. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 319-344. Retrieved July 17, 2013 from ProQuest database.
Va’a, U.L.F. (2006). Five days with a master craftsman. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture. Retrieved August 3, 2013, from Academic Search Premier database.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Cultural Art of Body Art

...For a long time now body art and decoration has been a custom in many cultural groups. Through research we have learned about the different types of body art and ornamentation such as permanent and nonpermanent tattooing, scarification, and piercings. These forms of body art and ornamentation are done for a variety of reasons, ranging from identification purposes to religious rituals. “Skin, as a visible way of defining individual identity and cultural difference, is not only a highly elaborated preoccupation in many cultures; it is also the subject of wide-ranging and evolving scholarly discourse in the humanities and social sciences” (Schildkrout, 2004). The process of ornamentation and body art is usually a painful experience, but it is a way to signify a person’s self-discovery and their place in society. In this paper, I will explore the different aspects of body art and ornamentation in two different cultures; the Maori people of New Zealand and the Yoruba’s of West Africa and explain the cultural importance of their art. Throughout West Africa it is not uncommon to come across people that have scar stripe patterns on their cheeks. The facial stripes that they wear are not produced by paint or tattoos, like many other cultures, but only by scarification. However, in his article, Orie explains that not all of the Yoruba people have the facial stripes. Okola is a term used for describing someone whose face is scarred, it means ‘the one with facial stripes’. People that...

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Body Art Across the Globe

...Body Art across the Globe In this paper I will be discussing the differences in body art and ornamentation within three different cultures across the world. Each culture has a different way of defining their body art, whether it is with body paints, scarification, body piercing, body shaping, or tattooing. Each culture has different reasons and different ways of celebrating life, death, and aging within their tribe or group, each with a specific rite or traditional way of going about it. The cultures I will be going into are the culture of the Paduang women of Thailand, African tradition of scarification and the Polynesian style tattooing practiced among Samoan and Hawaiian cultures. In a small village just within the Thailand border, there is a group of women known as the Paduang celebrate their culture by wearing what modern western society would consider being bondage rings. Our society calls it neck-stretching but in reality what they are doing is placing brass rings around their neck from early ages such as 5 years old which push the collar bone and shoulders down to make their neck elongated looking. The custom involves adding an extra ring to their next every two years or so (Padaung Woman, 2013). Neck rings appeal to the men in their tribe and men in their tribes prefer to only marry women with neck rings. These neck rings often show status among their peers, however, it is estimated that in the next few generations that the practice will die out as more mothers choose...

Words: 898 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Magdalenian Culture

...innovative time period for humans across the world. Estimated lasting about 3.4 million years and ending between 6000 and 2000 BCE, there is loads about this ancient era that is widely theorized and mysterious. Since there is so much to cover within the Stone Age, it was reasoned by scholars in the 1800’s, that it be broken up chronologically, starting with the Paleolithic era and continuing with the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods. The Paleolithic era, meaning “old stone”, is the earliest division of the Stone Age and covers the greatest portion of humanity’s time. Separated into three stages, Lower, Middle and Upper, the Paleolithic period is still very much unaccounted for. Archaeological digs have been going on for centuries across Europe and other important parts of the world, supporting the knowledge and theories archaeologists now know to create an understanding of our prehistoric world. The Upper Paleolithic is the last subdivision of the Paleolithic era and is known for its sudden progression of intricate stone artifacts, artistic expression and personal ornamentation. Nine major cultures have been associated with the Upper Paleolithic time period and the modern human. These cultures were some of the first to see humans using art and tools as a way of expression. They engraved animals onto their tools and used ornamentation as a way of status and heritage. Early Upper Paleolithic art originated in the Aurignacian culture of Europe around 40,000 years ago...

Words: 1160 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Renaissance & Baroque Arts

...Renaissance & Baroque Arts The Renaissance, also known as the period of “rebirth”, directly followed the Middle Ages. Some considered the Renaissance period as a bridge from the “Dark Ages” to the modern era or the “light”. This period in history lasted about four centuries—late 13th century to the early 17th century— featuring “a revival of classical art, literature, philosophy, architecture, and learning” and introduced some of “the finest artists and intellectual achievements in the history of the Western humanities” such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo Buonarroti (MindEdge, 2013). Renaissance art is traced back to Italy where artists and scholars looked to the ancient Greco-Roman culture for inspiration by reviving the language, values, and traditions that were lost after “the fall of the Roman Empire in the sixth century” (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2013). Furthermore, Renaissance artists added individuality to their works through portraying “beauty and mystery of the natural world” (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2013). Most of the art produced during this time showcased religious imagery, completed mostly as Catholic Mass altarpieces. Artists around these times were sponsored by patrons of the arts such as The Catholic Church and affluent families such as the Medici family in Florence. Political permanence, growing wealth, and technological advancements are some of the social conditions that may have contributed to the arts of the Renaissance era...

Words: 1100 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ceramic Art

...Ceramic Pottery Ceramic pottery is one of the oldest and diverse forms of human art; and for good reason- its a very simple process. Ceramics are made from clay (or a mixture of clay and other materials) that is shaped into a desired form then heated. Almost all developed cultures have known this recipe for thousands of years and each has established a long history of ceramic arts. Through the millennia, these different cultures have taken the rather simple process and adapted it to their own taste while also assimilating foreign influences imported through intercontinental trade and migrations. The result is an art form that is universally popular, yet regionally unique. The oldest examples of ceramic pottery date back past 10,000 BC and come from southern China and Japan. These early pots were made through the “coiling” method, a technique that required the clay to be worked into a long string which was wound round onto itself to form walls that could then be molded smooth. This process was independently developed by cultures across the world but was eventually replaced by the potter’s wheel after its invention in Mesopotamia around 4,000 BC. Thanks to the potter’s wheel, from 900 to 500 B.C. ceramic pottery was widely implemented throughout Ancient Greece, most commonly in the form of decoratively painted vases. While Greek vases typically depicted a scene or story drawn on the exterior, their interior served a variety of purposes; from small jugs used to store and transport...

Words: 1111 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Fiddle Music In Irish Essay

...of Ireland, is a sovereign country member of the European Union that occupies most of the territory on the island that it is situated. While Northern Ireland decided to remain loyal to the English crown, the modern Irish State became independent from the United Kingdom in 1922, after signing the Anglo-Irish Treaty that concluded the Irish Independence War. The history of Ireland dates far back to 10,500 BC, with the first human evidence that has been found in the territory, but it wasn’t until the Iron Age that the Irish identity started developing, when the first Celtic language and culture emerged in the island, marking the beginning of a long history of cultural encounters and traditions. Regardless of...

Words: 1969 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...General info The history of music in Iceland has no parallel in other European countries, or, probably, anywhere else in the world. In Iceland the music of the "Middle Ages" predominated well into the nineteenth century. Due to Iceland's isolation, centuries of musical development on the European continent had gone by unnoticed. Even ordinary four-part choral singing was first heard in the fifth decade of the 19th century. Instrumental music, in the usual sense of that term, was non-existent. When the "new" music finally found its way to Iceland, the population, with certain exceptions, especially as regards church music, proved to be more receptive than might have been expected. Latent creative talent soon emerged, and musical development has been exceedingly rapid in the twentieth century. In the 1980’s Icelandic music was on the world music map with the emergence of artists such as the Sugarcubes. In more recent years Iceland has seen international success of many more artists, such as Sigur Rós. Classical music Jón Leifs (1899-1968) is one of Iceland’s best known classical composer writing many of his works about Icelandic nature which bore titles such as Hekla, Dettifoss and Geysir. The Iceland Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1950 and was nominated for a Grammy Award in 2009. Pianist Víkingur Ólafsson has garnered an international reputation as well as cellist Sæunn Þorsteinsdóttir and Daníel Bjarnason, a young classical composer and conductor. Opera The Icelandic...

Words: 3434 - Pages: 14

Free Essay


...Society - Values in Music in Eastern and Western Cultures David Eaton July, 2003 Throughout history the unspoken but highly evocative language of music has exerted powerful influences on individuals and societies alike. Felix Mendelssohn once remarked that music is more specific about what it expresses than words written about those expressions could ever be. That music has the power to express, convey and illicit powerful emotions is without question, however the issue of music's moral and ethical power, and how that power affects individuals and societies, is one that receives too little attention in our post-modern world. Ancient cultures held strong beliefs in the moral and ethical power of music and as such it was imperative for artists within those cultures to exercise a certain moral and ethical responsibility in their creative endeavors. As a professional musician for over thirty years I concur with that premise and it is primarily from the axiological, rather than a theoretical or aesthetic viewpoint that I approach this discourse. The responsibility of artists to the social environment in which they live and work is something that I have always had strong sentiments. As we now find ourselves beginning a new millennium, questions with regards to music's origins, its spiritual, religious and mystical properties, its moral and ethical power, its transcendent qualities, the role of the arts and artists and the importance of art in general, and music in particular, are questions...

Words: 8756 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Consumption and the Beat Generation

...[pic][pic] [pic]Copyright © 2005 West Chester University. All rights reserved. College Literature 32.2 (2005) 103-126 [pic] |  |[pic][pic][pic] |  | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Access provided by Northwestern University Library ...

Words: 36700 - Pages: 147

Premium Essay

Grade 9 Learner's Module- Music

...please edit it with the corresponding name and fill it the needed area with different colors. Please follow the example below. (Check the pictures of the composers and their hometowns in all the units.) Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque Music Page 1 MUSIC LEARNER’S MATERIAL GRADE 9 Unit 1 Time allotment: 8 hours LEARNING AREA STANDARD The learner demonstrates an understanding of basic concepts and processes in music and art through appreciation, analysis and performance for his/her self-development, celebration of his/her Filipino cultural identity and diversity, and expansion of his/her world vision. key - stage STANDARD The learner demonstrates understanding of salient features of music and art of the Philippines and the world, through appreciation, analysis, and performance, for self-development, the celebration of Filipino cultural identity and diversity, and the expansion of one’s world vision. grade level STANDARD The learner demonstrates understanding of salient features of Western music and the arts from different historical periods, through appreciation, analysis, and performance for self-development, the celebration of Filipino cultural identity and diversity, and the expansion of one’s world vision. CONTENT STANDARD The learner demonstrates...

Words: 24362 - Pages: 98

Premium Essay

Bahay Na Bato

...THE SPANISH COLONIAL TRADITION From 1565 to 1898 the Philippines was a colony of Spain. During this long period, Spanish-influenced architecture appeared, namely, the iglesia or simbahan (church) and its adjoining campanario (bell tower) and convento (residence of the parish priest), the escuela (school), the fuerza or fortaleza (fortification), the civic buildings like the casa real and tribunal, the farola (lighthouses), the bahay na bato (dwellings of wood and stone), and the puente (stone bridges). It is generally acknowledged that the Philippines is the bastion of Christianity in the Orient. Some scholars believe that, because of this, the country absorbed the greatest degree of influence from the west in the Asian region, losing much of its identity in the process. Other scholars believe, however, that all these influences were really assimilated by the older ethnic base, which actually indigenized them. It is pointed out, for example, that the Spanish word for church, iglesia, never became fully accepted among the Filipinos, who used their own terms to denote a place of worship. Thus the Tagalog and Cebuano use simbahan, the Ilocano, simbaan, and the Pampango, pisamban. This process of indigenization was to characterize much of Filipino construction during the more than three centuries of Spanish colonization. The Beginnings The history of Philippine architecture under the Spanish regime begins with the arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi’s expedition in 1565. In Cebu...

Words: 8547 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

It in Apparel Trade

...INTRODUCTION The rapidly changing culture, politics and economics of modern life deeply affect the industrial environment, especially consumer industries such as textiles and clothing (Lowson, King & Hunter 1999). One of the impacts is that the contemporary North American and European textile and apparel industries suffer immense competition from foreign producers (Yan & Fiorito 2002). As early as the mid-1980s, imports were estimated to account for close to 50% of consumption (Lowson, King & Hunter 1999). As most imported textiles are produced with very low labor expense, huge amounts of inexpensive products can be supplied in the domestic market. Considering this situation, competitiveness in cost and quality continue to be key issues for textile manufacturers. In order to significantly reduce time and cost in the supply chain, the industry needed to become more focused on consumers by developing a supply chain management process that would be demand driven and production that would be synchronized to replenish product at the consumer's pull rate (Lovejoy 2001). Today, consumers desire to personalize the style, fit and color of the clothes they buy, and require high-quality customized products at low prices with faster delivery (Lee & Chen 1999). New manufacturing technologies such as 3D body scanners, CAD/CAM systems, and digital textile printers have played a key role in increasing the effectiveness, flexibility, agility, and precision of production. ...

Words: 6653 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Fashion Designning

...This watermark does not appear in the registered version - 1 B.Sc. COSTUME DESIGN AND FASHION FASHION DESIGNING AND SEWING TECHNOLOGY UNITS UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5 CONTENTS UNIT NO. UNIT I LESSON NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 TITLE OF THE LESSON PRINCIPLES OF FASHION FASHION PRODUCERS FASHION DESIGNING & ACCESSORIES PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNING COLOUR COLOUR HORMONIES & APPLICATION DRESS DESIGNING SEWING MACHINES SPECIAL MACHINES SEWING MACHINE ATTACHMRNTS SEWING MACHINE CARE AND MAINTENANCE STITCHING MECHANISM FEEDING MECHANISM SPREADING CUTTING MARKING PRESSING SEWING FEDERAL STANDARDS FOR SEAM SEWING FEDERAL STANDARDS FOR STITCH SEWING THREAD PAGE NUMBERS 03 48 91 126 166 PAGE NO. 03 15 22 40 48 60 71 91 99 110 116 126 141 150 156 166 174 181 188 199 UNIT II UNIT III UNIT IV UNIT V This watermark does not appear in the registered version - 2 UNIT – I LESSON – 1: PRINCIPLES OF FASHION CONTENTS 1.0 1.1 1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION FASHION 1.2.1 Fashion design terms 1.2.2 Areas of fashion 1.2.3 Fashion flow chart 1.3. 1.2.4 Fashion in Cloths CLASSIFICATION OF FASHION 1.3.1 Style 1.3.2 Basic or classics 1.3.3 Fad 1.3.4 Fashion Forecasting 1.3.5 Trends 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 CHIC COSTUME MADE COLLECTION MANNEQUINS FASHION SHOWS: 1.8.1 Formal fashion shows 1.8.2 Designer trunk shows 1.8.3 Department fashion shows 1.8.4 Informal fashion shows 1.9 1.10...

Words: 30494 - Pages: 122

Premium Essay


...,Introduction * Anthropology -The study of the lives and cultures of human beings, alive or dead. -They also study the evolution of these cultures over time as well as significant changes. * Sociology -Sociology is the study of human social life, groups, and societies. -They also study the interactions among these groups and the individuals within them. * Psychology -The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. -Psychologists look at how the brain functions and what is the result on peoples personalities, behaviors, and attitudes. <Introduction to Sociology> * What is sociology? - The social science discipline that looks at the development and structure of human society (institutions) and how it works - Sociology is the study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior * Sociology subjects matter - Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organizations, and societies, and how people interact within these contexts * Hierarchy - Hierarchy is the ranking system used in any particular environment based on authority or power - Each position or role requires a certain type of expertise which is valued by society - In order to distinguish between these roles people are expected to dress and act in a certain way - On any given day we can play many different roles in society – eg. A parent can drive their kids to school and then go to work and teach their students * The roles...

Words: 8321 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Great Ethiopians

...Hogarth Blake Presents: Wonderful Ethiopians Of The Ancient Cushite Empire By Drusilla Dunjee Houston First published in 1926 This e-book was edited by Hogarth Blake Ltd Download this book and many more for FREE at: ‘Wonderful Ethiopians Of The Ancient Cushite Empire’ by Drusilla Dunjee Houston Reproduction & duplication of this work for FREE is permitted. Refer to the terms & conditions page for more details. Terms & Conditions Scanned at, October, 2004. John Bruno Hare, redactor. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was not renewed at the US Copyright Office in a timely fashion as required by law at the time. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of attribution is left intact in all copies and subject to the sacred texts Terms of Service at Hogarth Blake presents this e-book FREE of charge; it may be used for whatever purpose you see fit. The only limitations are that you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, modify, create derivative works based upon, sell, publish, license or sub-license the work or any part of it without the express written consent of Hogarth Blake Ltd. The work is provided as is. Hogarth Blake Ltd. makes no guarantees or warranties as to the accuracy, adequacy or completeness of or results to be obtained from using the work via hyperlink or otherwise, and expressly...

Words: 74797 - Pages: 300