Free Essay

Bohr Rutherford

In: Science

Submitted By airnessmo23
Words 1792
Pages 8
Development in the Study of Atomic Structure
Bohr’s and Rutherford’s Contributions
Mihret Gelan
17th September 2014
Word Count (title page & references excluded): 1459

Atomic Theory & Structure
"By convention sweet, by convention bitter, by convention hot, by convention cold, by convention color: but in reality atoms and void." Those are the words of Democritus, one of the founding fathers of the ancient atomic theory, on his philosophical viewpoint on the nature of matter. It began as a philosophical concept in ancient Greece and India, but today, the atomic theory is not mere philosophy, but a scientific concept or model of the fundamental nature of matter. How it went from a philosophical belief called atomism to an empirically-proven, well-studied, scientific concept is what I’m going to explain throughout this essay; focusing on two renowned scientists of the early 20th century, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, who made significant contributions to this growing theory of the atom and its structure (the composition of the atom).

The Atom before Bohr and Rutherford
The modern model of the atom was built upon the many vital discoveries of the major scientists throughout history since the birth of the theory in ancient Greece. Bohr and Rutherford were able to make the discoveries and scientific conclusions they made because they were “standing on the shoulders of giants.” To begin with, Democritus, although not entirely correct, laid a philosophical foundation for the scientists-to-come on the fundamental nature of matter.
Fast forward to two thousand years later, in 1803, John Dalton publishes the first evidence-based theory of the atom in a set of five principles about the atom, coining it as the atomic theory. Although having a few critical mistakes, he further developed Democritus’ plain philosophy by evidently stating that mass is conserved throughout a chemical reaction, as opposed to it being created or destroyed. Dalton’s principle of the discretion and indivisibility of an atom lasted less than a century. Towards the end of the 19th century, JJ Thompson, an English physicist discovers the corpuscle, an elementary particle which we today refer to as the electron. A few years later, in 1904, Thomson, based on his experiments with cathode ray tubes, proposes the Plum Pudding Model of the atom, which suggests that the atom is made up of a positively-charged sphere or diffuse with negatively-charged electrons scattered all around the diffuse, similar to the way raisins are scatted in a pudding. Around the same time, science partners and spouses, Pierre and Marie Curie discover the radioactivity phenomenon which, along with Thomson’s discoveries will play a significant role in the findings of both Rutherford and Bohr.

The father of Nuclear Physics and his contributions
Sir Ernest Rutherford, a New-Zealand born English physicist and one of the preeminent scientists of the early 20th century, once said, “Gentlemen, now you will see that now you see nothing. And why you see nothing you will see presently.” Although not confirmed, the quote may be regarding man’s poor understanding of the elementary and basic nature of the matter on which he lives upon, that is to say, the atom. That all changed once Rutherford and the scientists who followed his footsteps published their findings about the atom to the public world.
Classifying the various forms of Radiation
To begin with, Rutherford, after many experiments devised the names alpha (), beta (), and gamma () rays or particles in order to classify the various forms of radiation, a concept that was poorly understood at the time. He concluded that on the one hand, -particles were positively charged, and on the other hand, that -particles were in contrast negatively charged while the third ray, the -particle was a neutral particle.
The Gold Foil Experiment and the Nuclear Model
In his most famous experiment, Rutherford discharged -particles into a thin piece of gold foil surrounded by a zinc sulfide screen through a particle emitter in order to see the direction the particles will take after contacting the foil. The zinc sulfide screen was to be used as a detecting device for the radioactive particles. Given the high mass and momentum of -particles, the small mass of electrons and the low concentration of positive charges in the atom, in accordance to the Plum Pudding Model of Thomson, Rutherford assumed that all the particles would go straight through with no deflection. However, although many did, a small amount of the emitted particles went either off to the sides or backwards to the stream of alpha atoms being emitted. This was at odds with the principles of the Plum Pudding Model.
After a close analysis of his results, Rutherford proposed a revised model of the atom in 1911 which he dubbed as being the Nuclear Model. Specifically, the nuclear model states that all the positively-charged particles of the atom and a large part of its atomic mass are concentrated at the center of the atom, the nucleus, while the negatively-charged particles, the electrons, orbit the nucleus as planets orbit the sun at considerable distance. According to classical physics, such a system would be unstable due to the fact that any charged particle moving on a curved path emits electromagnetic radiation, thus the electrons would lose their energy and spiral into the nucleus. To give a more sophisticated and proper explanation of the atomic system, Rutherford would soon later require the help of another giant in the field of atomic structure.
The Problem with the Atomic Mass In 1918, Rutherford provided empirical evidence and identification of the positively-charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus to which he designated the name protons. Although he was able to explain the charge of the atomic nuclei with the idea of protons, positively-charged particles, being concentrated in the nuclei of atoms, the atomic mass always seemed to exceed the sum of its protons. In order to explain this, he postulated the existence of a neutral particle in the nucleus with a mass near to that of the proton which would together collectively give the atom its overall mass. He dubbed this hypothetical subatomic particle as the neutron. 12 years later, English physicist James Chadwick was able to prove the existence of Rutherford’s neutron through experimentation.
The other giant and his Quantum viewpoint
A year after the proposal of the nuclear model, Danish physicist, Niels Bohr began his postdoctoral research in England with Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester. Regarding Rutherford’s incomplete model and explanation of the atom and its system of remaining stable, Bohr felt compelled to postulate an explanation. Influenced by the emerging theory of quantum mechanics being developed by scientists such as Max Planck and Albert Einstein, Bohr incorporated this modern concept to the more classical and predating study of atomic structure. Bohr suggested that electrons inhabited orbits situated at a fixed distance away from the nucleus as opposed to randomly buzzing around the nucleus to explain how they remained stable. In this model, each orbit is associated with a particular energy level (shell), and the electron is able to change energy levels or orbits through the emission or absorption of energy in specified and discrete amounts (called quanta). Bohr referred to the energy of electrons as being quantized, meaning that electrons could have one energy level or another, but nothing in between. Normally, the shell which an electron occupies is called its ground state. But then again, it can move to a higher-energy, less-stable level through absorbing energy; this is called the electrons excited state. When it is done being excited, the electron is able to return to its ground state by releasing the energy it has absorbed.
Bohr made several conclusions concerning the energy of electrons, the different energy levels in an atom, and the distance at which an electron is found away from its nucleus. First, he discovered that the closer an electron was to its nucleus, the less energy it needed, but as the electron got farther away from the nucleus, the more energy that was required. Although Bohr’s theory was much more developed and sophisticated than that of his professors and although it paved the way for many scientific advances, it still had its flaws. The model was misleading in several ways. The maturing field of quantum physics revealed that knowing an electrons position and velocity was impossible. Thus, Bohr’s orbits were replaced with electron probability “clouds” as a way of predicting where an electron was likely to be.

The Impact of Bohr and Rutherford
The majority of the transition from mere philosophy to an empirically-proven scientific concept took place between a student and his teacher; respectively Bohr and Rutherford. All that came before laid a significant foundation with either mere philosophy such as Democritus or erroneous theories such as John Dalton. All that came after such as Werner Heisenberg built upon the vital knowledge and understanding of the atom and its structure gained through Rutherford and Bohr’s reseach.

100 years of Bohr Model. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Atomic structure | Define Atomic structure at (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from
Atomic Structure Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from
Atomic theory - Freebase. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from
Bohr Model for Dummies. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Britannica, E. (n.d.). Bohr Atomic Model. Retrieved from
Cathode-ray tube dictionary definition | cathode-ray tube defined. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2014, from
Daltons Atomic Theory - AD Class Period 5. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2014, from 4/Daltons Atomic Theory.pdf?sessionid=c58f3
Ernest Rutherford - history of the atomic theory. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from
Helmenstine, A. (n.d.). The Bohr Model. Retrieved from
Historical Models of Atoms. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from
Niels Bohr - Biographical. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from
Oesper, R. (n.d.). The Human Side of Scientists. Retrieved from
Quantum Theory: Max Planck. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Niels Bohr

...Niels Bohr Physicist Niels Bohr 1885 – 1962: Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark on October 7, 1885 and died November 18, 1962. Bohr was best known as the Danish physicist who won 1922’s Nobel Prize. His father was Christian Bohr, Professor of Physiology at Copenhagen University, and his mother was Ellen Bohr. For recreational activity, he was a passionate football player. Niels Bohr Education: In 1903, he entered Copenhagen University to study physics. He received his Master's degree in Physics in 1909 and his Doctor's degree in 1911. While still a student he was awarded a gold medal from the Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, for his "experimental and theoretical investigation of the surface tension by means of oscillating fluid jets." Professional Work & Awards: As a post-doctoral student, Niels Bohr worked under J. J. Thomson at Trinity College, Cambridge and studied under Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester, England. Inspired by Rutherford's theories of atomic structure, Bohr published his revolutionary model of atomic structure in 1913. In 1916, Niels Bohr became a professor of physics at the University of Copenhagen. In 1920, he was named director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University. In 1922, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for recognition of his work on the structure of atoms and quantum mechanics. In 1926, Bohr became a Fellow of the Royal Society of London and received the Royal Society Copley......

Words: 254 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...THOMPSON, RUTHERFORD, AND BOHR Three scientists of the late 1800’s and early 1900’s help us with discovering what we know today about the atom. These three scientists are JJ Thompson, Ernest Rutherford, and Niels Bohr. They used and created models of the atom and ideas we still use today. JJ Thompson used the cathode ray and its electric currents for his experiments. Above the tube, he placed one positively charged plate and one negatively charged one. He found that the ray bent in the direction of the positive plate instead of straight down the tube. He found that the particles in the cathode ray must be negative because opposite charges attract. He named the negative charges electrons. Using the cathode ray, Thompson also discovered the mass of an electron is smaller than the mass of an atom. Also that the atom is NOT indivisible, proving Dalton wrong. And he proposed since there is a negative charge in the atom, there must be a positive one to balance the neutral atom out. The previous model of the atom was a solid, neutral sphere with the same matter all throughout, but, with Thompson’s new findings he created a new model. His new model of the atom was a positively charged sphere with both positive and negative charges and electrons all mixed through. His findings created Thompson’s model of the atom. Ernest Rutherford, one of Thompson’s students, worked off Thompson’s model and idea to help understand the atom, and in the future teach his own students. Two of...

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Atomic Theory Research Paper

...Ernest Rutherford, James Chadwick, and Niels Bohr. Robinson, Bertsch, both Professors of Physics, and McGrayne, a science writer, wrote for Encyclopedia Britannica defining an atom as the “smallest unit into which matter can...

Words: 1675 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Reasearch Essay

...Niels Hedrik David Bohr Niels Hendrik David Bohr was one of the foremost scientists of the 20th century. The Nobel prizewinning physicist was known for his development of the theory of atomic fission that led to the development of the atomic bomb. He was born on Oct. 7, 1885, in Copenhagen, Denmark. His father, Christian, was a professor at the University of Copenhagen and his brother, Harold, was a great mathematician. Bohr and his family grew up in an atmosphere that helped the development of his knowledge. His father was largely responsible for awakening his interest in physics while, his mother came from a family well known in the field of education. After Gammelholm Grammar School in 1903, he entered Copenhagen University where He won a gold medal from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences for his theoretical analysis of vibrations of water jets as a means of determining surface tension. He received his Master's degree from the University of Copenhagen in 1909 and his doctorate in 1911 with a thesis Studies on the electron theory of metals. Bohr went to England to study with Sir J.J. Thomson at Cambridge. He had intended to spend his entire study period in Cambridge but he did not get on well with Thomson so, after a meeting with Ernest Rutherford in Cambridge in December 1911, Bohr moved to Manchester in 1912. There he worked with Rutherford's group on the structure of the atom. Rutherford became Bohr's role model both for his personal and scientific qualities. Using......

Words: 422 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Thomson's Gold Foil Experiment

...Democritus, John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, James Chadwick/Irene Curie, Niels Bohr, and ending with with the quantum model. Around 400 B.C. Democritus believed after hearing a guy named Leucippus he came to the conclusion that there had to be a basic building block for all matter. Democritus also believed that the atom is the smallest particle of matter. He states that is you keep on cutting a element in half and you can't cut it in half again without it becoming another substance that is a atom. Democritus did not have enough...

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Aprender a pensar Ernest Rutherford Instituto Internacional para el Desarrollo de la Innovación Académica Cambridge, 26 marzo – 3 abril de 2007 Sir Ernest Rutherford, presidente de la Sociedad Real Británica y Premio Nobel de Química en 1908, contaba la siguiente anécdota: Hace algún tiempo, recibí la llamada de un colega. Estaba a punto de poner un cero a un estudiante por la respuesta que había dado en un problema de física, pese a que éste afirmaba rotundamente que su respuesta era absolutamente acertada. Profesores y estudiantes acordaron pedir arbitraje de alguien imparcial y fui elegido yo. Leí la pregunta del examen y decía: “Demuestre cómo es posible determinar la altura de un edificio con la ayuda de un barómetro”. El estudiante había respondido: “Lleva el barómetro a la azotea del edificio y átale una cuerda muy larga. Descuélgalo hasta la base del edificio, marca y mide. La longitud de la cuerda es igual a la longitud del edificio”. Realmente, el estudiante había planteado un serio problema con la resolución del ejercicio, porque había respondido a la pregunta correcta y completamente. Por otro lado, si se le concedía la máxima puntuación, podría alterar el promedio de sus de estudios, obtener una nota más alta y así certificar su alto nivel en física; pero la respuesta no confirmaba que el estudiante tuviera ese nivel. Sugerí que se le diera al alumno otra oportunidad. Le concedí seis minutos para que me respondiera a la misma pregunta pero esta vez con la...

Words: 819 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Physics Question + Ans

...Physics pre-assessment research task 1. Describe de Broglie’s proposal that any kind of particle has both wave and particle properties De Broglie suggested that if light can behave as both a wave and as a photon, particles could also have dual character. He proposed that all particles had wave properties as well as particle properties. He proposed that the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum of the particle, now known as the de Broglie wavelength of a particle and given by, λ=hmv. λ= Wavelength of light (m) h= Planck’s constant 6.626 x 10^-34 (J) m= Mass of the particle (kg) V= Speed of the particle (light) mv= Momentum of particle (kg m/s) 2. Define wave diffraction and interference Diffraction-is the bending of waves as they pass around the corner of a barrier or as they move through obstacles such as a slit. Wave interference is the phenomenon that occurs when two waves meet while traveling along the same medium. The interference of waves causes the medium to take on a shape that results from the net effect of the two individual waves upon the particles of the medium. Destructive interference is a type of interference that occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the opposite direction. For instance, when a sine pulse with a maximum displacement of +1 unit meets a sine pulse with a maximum displacement of -1 unit, destructive interference occurs. This is depicted in the diagram......

Words: 1845 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...Jae Hyeon Park Mr. Tyc Calculus October 30, 2013 Faust in Copenhagen Faust in Copenhagen is story about seven physicists goes to small gathering of the group in Copenhagen and learn much more about themselves and their friends. In the group there were Lise Meitner, female, who is one of the high rank in field of experimentalist. Niels Bohr, Paul Dirac, Werner Heisenberg, and Wolfgang Pauli are the one of the top 10 in country’s physicists’ rank. While they may be the one of the top ten scientists they were also a professor mentored generations of future scientist. In Faust in Copenhagen they mention many of the famous physic equation such as relativity by Einstein, one of the most famous scientists in history. During the meeting in Copenhagen these talented scientist came up with Copenhagen interpretation where it was much more like relativity theory made by Einstein but it was ironed out with group of people struggling to complete the theory. On top of finishing Copenhagen interpretation Pauli, Heisenberg, Dirac, and other has created an inventions it led to implements that affect our life still to these day, activities and tools for future research. Ever since beginning of gathering all the physicists have different points of view and throughout the story the protagonists of the book will resolve around conflicts that would sometime contain love, respect, or theory that they have created. The story of Faust in Copenhagen mostly describes around six scientists who came...

Words: 802 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Scientists and Their Contributions

...10 Filipino and 10 foreign scientist and their contributions to science By : Meg Nina Carlyle Balamon Filipino Scientists and their contributions Magdalena C. Cantoria, Ph.D., Botany — With an extensive education in the fields of pharmacy and botany and degrees in these same fields gathered both here and in the United States, Cantoria focused her research efforts on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry of drug plants. She has done basic studies on the pharmacognosy (study of medicines derived from natural sources) of agar, rauwolfia, datura, mint and Piper species. For her research paper on the morphology and anatomy of rauwolfia vomitoria Afz., Cantoria received the Edwin Leigh Newcomb Award in pharmacognosy given by the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education in 1954. She again received this award in 1962 for her research work on the growth and development of Daturia strasmodium L. She is also the recipient of the Phi Sigma awards for marked distinction in biology in in 1951 and was proclaimed the Most Outstanding Phi Sigman in 1977. Paulo C. Campos, MD is noted for his work in nuclear medicine. As a health scientist, Campos authored and co-authored 75 scientific publications, some of which have won awards. Three of his works, titled Observation of Some Parameter of Insulin Action, Cr-51 Tagged Red Cell Studies and The Genetic Factor in Endemic......

Words: 2826 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Ernest Rutherford Research Paper

...Chemist and physicist Ernest Rutherford was born August 30, 1871. Ernest, a pioneer of nuclear physics and the first to split the atom was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his theory of atomic structure. He was named “Father of the Nuclear Age.” Ernest Rutherford was very intelligent and responsible for remarkable discoveries. Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30,1871 at Spring Grove in rural Nelson. He was the fourth of twelve children in his family; James and Martha were his parents. Martha believed that knowledge was power, and placed a strong emphasis on her children’s education. He grew up helping on the farm after school. Ernest’s parents and teachers had a major impact on his life. Mr. Ladley, one of Ernest’s teachers,...

Words: 392 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Max Planck

...Munich and studied theoretical physics. After he graduated, he taught math and physics briefly. Planck completed his habilitation thesis and began lecturing in Munich without getting paid becuase he was waiting to be offered a new postion. He also furthered his work on the field of heat theory. Planck then became a professor at Berlin University and joined the Physical Society. As far as Plancks home life goes, he married and had four children. He was friends with theologian Adolf con Harnack and his home soon because a social center. Famous scientists like Albert Einstein and Otto Hahn all frequently visited. His wife died and he remaired and had his third son. Planck's two sons and two daughters all died. By the end of the 1920s, Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli had worked out the interpretation of quantum mechanics, but Planck rejected it. He expected that wave mechanics would render the quantum theory, even though this can not be the case. Further work only cemented quantum theory, even against Einstein's revulsions. He originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Max Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, and is very famous for being the originator of quantum theory. He ended his life at Göttingen on October 4, 1947, but he has contributed so much for the...

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...systematic information on the region's plants and animals was one of that expedition's legacies. 3. Alexander Graham Bell developed and patented the telephone and related inventions. 4. Charles Steinmetz developed new alternating-current electrical systems at General Electric Company. 5. The Serb Nikola Tesla went to the United States in 1884, where he brilliantly adapted the principle of rotating magnetic field for the construction of alternating current induction motor and the polyphase system for the generation, transmission, distribution and use of electrical power. 6. Albert Einstein developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). 7. Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. 8. Wernher Von Braun had worked on the Aggregate rockets (the first rocket program to reach outer space), and chief designer of the V-2 rocket program. 9. Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815) was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat called Clermont. 10. Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an...

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Yo Yo Swag

... 23 | HW Due | Ch. 4a Homework 1. Reading notes on Chapter 4. 2. Practice Problems: 11-17, pp. 99-104. | Tests/Quizzes | Quiz: Dalton’s Atomic Theory (see page 89) | Topic in Class | Structure of the Atom | Lab | Very Small Particles, Part I (pp. 108-109) | Thursday, Sept. 24 & Friday, Sept. 25 | HW Due | Ch. 4b Hw 1. Problems 59-69, p. 113. | Tests/Quizzes | None | Topic in Class | Radioactive Decay, Light Particles and Waves | Lab | Very Small Particles, Part II (pp. 108-109) | Tuesday, Sept. 29 & Wednesday, Sept. 30 | HW Due | Ch. 5a Hw 1. Chapter 5 Notes. 2. Practice Problems: 1-6, pp. 121-124; 18-23, pp. 139-141. | Tests/Quizzes | Quiz: Atomic Structure | Topic in Class | The Bohr Model, Electron Configuration | Lab | None | Thursday, Oct. 1 & Friday, Oct. 2 | HW Due | Ch. 5b Hw 1. Problems 65-82, p. 147. | Tests/Quizzes | None | Topic in Class | Test Review | Lab | TBA | Tuesday, Oct. 6 & Wednesday, Oct. 7 | HW Due | Test Review 1. Complete Study Guide. | Tests/Quizzes | Test One | Topic in Class | None | Lab | None | Thursday, Oct. 8 & Friday, Oct. 9 | HW Due | Ch. 6a Hw 1. Chapter Six Notes. 2. Practice Problems: 6-9, p. 162; 16-18, p. 165. | Tests/Quizzes | None | Topic in Class | Periodic Table | Lab | TBA | Tuesday, Oct. 13 & Wednesday, Oct. 14 | HW Due | Ch. 7a Hw 1. Chapter Seven Notes. 2. Periodic Table Handout. | ......

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Teoria Atomica

...Pontificia Universidad Católica de Puerto Rico Extensión Coamo Teoría Atómica María Isabel Rodríguez Goncalves A00214885 CHEM 117 – Prof. Correa Introducción Cada sustancia del universo, están enteramente formada por pequeñas partículas llamadas átomos. Son tan pequeñas que no es posible tirarle una foto. Estas pequeñas partículas son estudiadas por la química, ciencia que surgió en la edad media y que estudia la materia. Para comprender estos átomos a lo largo de la historia diferentes científicos han enunciado una serie de teorías que nos ayudan a comprender la complejidad de estas partículas. Estas teorías significan el asentamiento de la química moderna. Ya se conocía el átomo pero no del todo. Posteriormente a fines del siglo XVIII se descubren un gran número de elementos, pero este no es el avance más notable. Ya en el siglo XIX se establecen diferentes leyes de la combinación y con la clasificación periódica de los elementos (1871). Actualmente su objetivo es cooperar a la interpretación de la composición, propiedades, estructura y transformaciones del universo, pero para hacer todo esto hemos de empezar de lo más simple y eso son los átomos, que hoy conocemos gracias a esas teorías enunciadas a lo largo de la historia. Estas teorías que tanto significan para la química es lo que vamos a estudiar en las próximas hojas de este trabajo. ¿Qué es una teoría? Es una explicación basada en las observaciones y experimentos. La misma no es final, no es única y puede......

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Chapt. 23 Outline

...Chapter 23 Outline Politics in the Gilded Age 1. 10 Important Facts a) Ulysses S. Grant - He was a great soldier but an inept politician. Republicans would wave “the bloody shirt” for Grant which was reviving gory memories of the civil war. Grant had won with 214 electoral votes to 80 votes for Seymour. b) James G. Blaine - He was from Maine and was a radiantly personable congressman with an elastic conscience. Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds". c) Burly “Boss” Tweed – He employed briery, graft, and fraudulent elections to milk the metropolis of as much 200 million dollars. Tweed’s luck ran out when the New York Times discovered evidence in 1871 and published. He then died behind bars. d) Democrats – They had a solid electoral base in the south and in the northern industrial cities, teeming with immigrants and controlled by well-oiled political machines. e) Republicans – Their strength laid largely in the Mid-West and the rural and small-town Northeast. Important blocs of republicans’ ballots came from the GAR- a politically potent organization with many Union veterans of the civil war. f) Grover Cleveland – He was a solid lawyer of 47 and was the first democrat to take the oath of presidential office in......

Words: 731 - Pages: 3