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Effects of feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and economic viability of rearing African catfish
(Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) fingerlings and juveniles A. Z. Aderolu*, B. M. Seriki, A. L. Apatira and C. U. Ajaegbo
Aquaculture Nutrition Unit, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Accepted 16 December, 2009
Feeding frequency effect on growth performance, feed utilization and economic viability of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings and juveniles were studied under natural photoperiods of 12/12 h light/dark cycle using a complete random design. Triplicate group of 10 fish with an initial mean weight of 8.5 ± 0.1 g and 34.3 ± 0.1 g respectively per tank (measuring 52 x 33.5 x 21 cm). A commercial feed (COPPENS) with crude protein of 42% and ether extract 12% was fed for 8 weeks over four feeding frequencies studied (once, twice, thrice and four times). Mean weight gain, relative growth rate and the specific growth rate were all significantly different (P < 0.05) across feeding levels except at thrice and four times feeding levels. The feed conversion ratio was lowest on three times a day feeding level both for the juvenile and fingerling (0.66 and 0.73, respectively). Although net profit value, in both juvenile and fingerling group are not significantly different, the investment cost analysis and the gross profit between fish fed thrice and four times are equally not significantly (P > 0.05) different. The results of this experiment, both at the juvenile and fingerling stages indicate that fish could be fed three times a day with maximum growth and profit.
Key words: Feeding frequency, feed utilization, growth, economic viability, Clarias gariepinus.
INTRODUCTION
One problem facing fish culturists is the need to obtain a balance between rapid fish growth and optimum use of the supplied feed (Gokcek et al., 2008). There is also the need to establish the effect of number of feeding times or frequency on feed management, nutrient utilization and growth rate of fish. Since the feed cost accounts approximately 40 - 60% of the operating costs in intensive culture systems (Agung, 2004), the economic viability of the culture operation depends on the feed and feeding frequency. It means that nutritionally well-balanced diets and their adequate feeding are the main requirements for successful culture operations.
Each species has its particular food preferences and feeding behaviours. Feeding and ingesting are the final result of a number of interacting factors between the fish
*Corresponding author. E-mail: dezaid@yahoo.com. Tel:
+2348033225139
(senses and hormonal systems) and its environment
(stock density, size range or variability, season, day length and time of the day). Time of feeding and feeding frequency have been reported to affect feed intake and growth performance in goldfish, Carassius auratus
(Noeske and Spieler, 1984), Indian catfish,
Heteropneustes fossilis (Sundararaj et al., 1982), channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Noeske et al., 1985) and black sea trout Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1811 (Bascinar et al., 2007).
Feeding frequency is one important consideration as it can affect growth, survival and fillet composition as well as water quality. Feeding also at the optimum frequency can result in tremendous savings in feed cost (Davies et al., 2006).
The amount of the daily feed intake, frequency and timing of the feedings and presentation of the predetermined ration are the key factors of feed management strategies, influencing the growth and feed conversion
(Jobling, 1995; Goddard, 1995). Optimal feeding frequencymay vary depending on species, age, size, environmental factors, husbandry and feed quality (Goddard, 1995).
The objectives of this study are:
(1) Establishing maximum number of feeding times in
Clarias gariepinus fingerlings and juveniles.
(2) Effect of feeding frequency on weight gain and nutrient utilization in both fingerlings and juveniles
(3) Establishing also the effect of feeding frequency on the economy of both juveniles and fingerlings productions of the C. gariepinus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental fish, diet and husbandry conditions
This experiment was carried out at the Aquaculture Research
Complex of Universityy of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria. African catfish C. gariepinus fingerlings and Juveniles (with average weight of 8.5 ± 0.1 g and 34.3 ± 0.1 g respectively) were obtained from a local hatchery in Alimosho Local Goverment Area, Lagos State,
Nigeria and transported to the experimental unit in aerated polyethylene bags. Fish were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for two weeks in 3,000 L capacity canvas tank fitted to a flowthrough system and fed a maintenance diet containing 42% crude protein and 12% lipid for 2 weeks. After this period, each size of fish
(fingerlings and juveniles) were randomly distributed into twentyfour plastic tanks (measuring 52 x 33.5 x 21 cm) containing 30 L of borehole water. Trial conditions included ten fish per tank and four feeding frequencies, with each feeding frequency being experimentally tested in triplicate. Fish were kept under natural photoperiod of approximately 12/12 h light/dark cycle and fed a popular commercial catfish feed (Coppens
®
, Holland) once (at 11.00
h), twice (09.00 and 16.00 h), thrice (09.00, 13.00 and 16.00 h and four times (09.00,11.00,13.00 and 16.00 h) daily respectively, to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. The treatments were designated F1,
F2, F3, F4, J1, J2, J3 and J4 respectively based on fish size
(fingerlings, F and juveniles, J) and feeding frequencies (1 - 4) accordingly. Fish tanks were cleaned daily by siphoning out residual feed and faecal matter, water in the tanks were changed twice weekly and feed consumption was monitored weekly. Water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH) were monitored twice weekly; temperature with Mercury-in-glass thermometer calibrated in degree centigrade (°C), dissolved oxygen
(DO) was determined by using the Winkler’s solution and pH was determined with a pH meter, to ensure they were within tolerant limits expected for the studied species. During the experiment, water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were within 26 -
29°C, 5.4 - 8.0 and 4.5 - 4.8 mg l
-1
respectively controlled through the source of water supplied and regular water change.
All fish were weighed individually at the beginning and end of the experiment while batch weighing per tank was performed weekly to monitor growth performance.
Economic analysis
The economic analysis was performed to estimate the cost of feed required to raise a kilogram of fish (for both fingerling and juvenile) fed the popular commercial feed while being cultured under controlled conditions. The cost of feed and fish were the only economic criteria under consideration in this case and were based on the current market cost of the commercial feed and market value of a kilogram of fresh fish in Nigeria at the time of the experiment.
Aderolu et al. 287
The economic evaluations were calculated based on the method of
New (1989) as follows:
Estimated Investment cost analysis = Cost of feeding (N) + Cost of fingerling (or juvenile) stocked (N).
Profit index = Value of fish (N)/ Cost of feed (N).
Net profit = Sales – Expenditure.
Calculations and statistical analysis
The following formulae were applied to the data:
Specific growth rate (SGR %/day) = [(ln Wf – ln Wi)/T] x 100.
Feed conversion ratio (FCR) = total feed intake (g)/total wet weight gain (g).
Where Wf refers to the mean final weight, Wi is the mean initial weight of fish and T is the feeding trial period in days.
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) = wet weight gain (g)/total protein intake. The costs were based on the current cost of feed ingredients in
Nigeria at the time of the experiment.
Statistical analysis
The data collected was analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was used to compare the mean differences, which were deemed significant at P
< 0.05.
RESULTS
The initial mean weight of both the fingerlings and juveniles used were not significantly different for each respective group. No mortality nor external clinical symptoms occurred in any treatment in this study. Mean live weights gain of the fingerlings in groups F1, F2, F3 and F4 reached 33.39, 51.33, 69.33 and 69.47 g at the end of the trial, while mean weight gain for the juvenile group are 48.93, 62.07, 72.67 and 77.73 g respectively.
This translates into an average relative growth rate of between 400.56 and 815.25% for fingerling and 134.79 and 288.04%/fish for the juveniles over the study period
(Tables 1 and 2, respectively).
Specific growth rates (SGR%/day) exhibited clear fluctuations ranging from 1.11 - 1.52 for fingerlings and
0.59 - 0.93 for juveniles respectively. No significant difference was found in the SGR between three and four times feeding frequency in both groups. The growth data clearly indicated that the final live weight, relative growth rate and SGR values of fish fed three times were not significantly different from those fed four times in both the fingerlings and juveniles groups respectively.
Feed intake and weight gain performances for both fingerlings and juveniles over the experimental period is presented in Figure 1. With increase in number of feeding times, weight gain and feed intake per week increased.
Economic parameters like investment cost analysisAfr. J. Food Sci. 288
Table 1. Variation in growth, food and economic factors of fingerling C. gariepinus.
Parameters 1 2 3 4
Initial weight (g) 8.47 8.53 8.53 8.53
Final weight (g) 42.40 c 59.87b 77.87 a 78.00 a Mean weight (g/fish) 33.93 c 51.33 b 69.33 a 69.47 a Relative growth rate (% fish) 400.55 c 601.88 b 812.72 a 815.25 a Specific growth rate (% fish) 1.11 c 1.34 b 1.52 a 1.52 a Voluntary food intake (g/fish) 7.84 c 6.92 a 7.15 a 7.27 a Feed conversion ratio 0.90 a 0.74 a 0.73 a 0.75a
Protein intake 12.82 b 15.88 b 21.36 a 21.20 a Protein efficiency ratio 2.65 a 3.30 a 3.27 a 3.33 a Net profit vale (N/Kg) 19.05 b 19.20 a 19.20 a 19.20 a Investment cost analysis (N) 84.16 b 86.34 b 90.26 a 90.14 a Gross profit (N) 65.11 b 67.14 b 71.06 a 70.94 a Table 2. Variation in growth, food and economic factors of juvenile C. gariepinus.
Parameters 1 2 3 4
Initial weight (g) 34.33 c 34.27 34.4 34.33
Final weight (g) 80.53 c 114.67 b 114.47 a 133.20 a Mean weight (g/fish) 48.93 c 62.07 b 72.67 a 77.73 a Relative growth rate (% fish) 134.79 c 234.61 b 319.96 a 288.04 a Specific growth rate (% fish) 0.59 c 0.83 b 0.99 a 0.93 a Voluntary food intake (g/fish) 6.47 a 5.84 a 5.46 a 6.36 a Feed conversion ratio 1.07 a 0.78 b 0.66 b 0. 80 b Protein intake 20.55 c 26.07 b 30.52 a 32.65 b Protein efficiency ratio 2.25 b 3.14 a b
3.61
a
3.05
a b
Net profit value (N/Kg) 77.25 a 77.10 a 77.40 a 77.25 a Investment cost analysis (N) 139.68 c 143.62 b 146.80 a 148.32 a Gross profit (N) 62.43 c 66.52 b 69.40 a b
71.07
a and gross profit varies significantly with frequency of feeding in both fingerlings and juveniles, the only exception is between the tree and four times feeding level. DISCUSSION
Studies conducted on other fish species have shown that feed consumption and growth generally increased with feeding frequency up to a given limit (Wang et al., 1998;
Baçınar et al., 2007). This is in agreement with our findings in this study that feeding frequency had a significant effect on feed consumption and growth in the
African catfish. Both feed consumption and growth rates appeared to increase with the number of meals per day up to three meals; further increases in feeding frequency did not result in significant growth both at the fingerlings and juveniles stages.
Feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate are at best at three times feeding in both the fingerlings and juveniles. It shows that this feeding frequency is optimal for the condition of this trial suggesting that both growth and feed utilization are most efficient at this frequency of feeding. However, the inter-individual size variation of fish in the treatment group fed four times daily was much lower than in the other treatment groups. This supports the hypothesis that more frequent feeding yields fish of more uniform sizes (Baçınar et al., 2001); this could arise because dominant individuals are less aggressive under such circumstances, or because more food is distributed to locations occupied by subordinates. The same author equally stress the need to determine different feeding rates and frequencies for each species and different sizes of the same species, under varying culture condition.
The lack of difference in feed conversion rate among the treatments in the fingerlings group was consistent with the argument that the effect of feeding frequency on feed conversion is usually small (Hepher, 1988). This indicated that fish which were fed more frequently and consumed more food, utilized that food as efficiently asAderolu et al. 289
Figure 1. Average feed intake and growth rate of fingerlings and juveniles placed on different feeding frequency over a time period. F1 =
Fingerling fed once daily, F2 = Fingerling fed twice daily, F3 = Fingerling fed thrice daily, F4 = Fingerling fed four times daily, J1 = Juvenile fed once daily, J2 = Juvenile fed twice daily, J3 = Juvenile fed thrice daily, J4= Juvenile fed four times daily. the fish that were fed less frequently and that food consumption and not food conversion efficiency was the growth-limiting factor (Wang et al., 1998).
The ability of an organism to utilize nutrients especially protein will positively influence its growth rate (Sogbesan and Ugwumba, 2008). This is justified by the highest PER and low FCR in the treatments fed thrice daily. This suggested that fish must have efficiently converted feed consumed to growth.
C. gariepinus is commonly produced in Nigeria because of its fast growth rate and profitability. Efficient production and growth of fish depend on feeding the best possible diets at levels not exceeding the dietary needs
(Charles et al., 1984). In fish culture practices, studies on the amount and frequency of feeding are aimed at identifying the optimum levels of both. Increased feed digestibility and increased water quality are the benefits of using the correct feeding frequency. Two or three feeding a day have been found to be sufficient for maximum growth of a number of different fish species
(Ruohonen et al., 1998). This generally agrees with the result of this study as depicted by the net and gross profit value obtained along side other parameters already mentioned. The success of catfish culture both the fingerlings and the juveniles depends on effective feeding frequency, a feeding frequency of three times compare to once, twice or four times is sufficient for effective growth and nutrient utilization under the experimental condition carried out in this study.
REFERENCES
Agung S (2004). Comparism of Lupin meal based diets cost efficiency for juvenile Penaeus monodon tested under pond conditions. J.
Coastal Dev., 8(1): 47–51.
Baçınar N, Okumu , Baçınar NS, Salam EH (2001). The influence of daily feeding frequency and feed consumption of rainbow troutAfr. J. Food Sci. 290 fingerlings (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at 18.5 - 22.5°C. The Israeli
J. Aquacult. –Bamidgeh., 53 (2): 80-83.
Baçınar Nadir, Çakmak Eyüp, Çavdar Yahya, Aksungur Nilgün (2007).
The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and feed conversion rate of Black sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1811).
Tur. J. Fisheries. Aqua. Sci., 7: 13-17.
Charles PM, Sebastian SM, Raj MCV, Marian MP (1984). Effect of feeding frequency on growth and food conversion, Cyprinus carpio
Fry. Aquacult., 40: 293-300.
Davies OA, Inko-Tariah MB, Amachree D (2006). Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings fed at different feeding frequencies. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5: 778-787.
Gokcek CK, Mazlum Y, Akyurt I (2008). Effects of feeding frequency on the growth and survival of Himri barbell and Barbus luteus fry under laboratory conditions. Pak. J. Nutr., 7(1): 66-69.
Goddard S (1995). Feed Management in Intensive Aquaculture.
Chapman and Hall, New York. p. 194.
Hepher B (1988). Nutrition of Pond Fishes. Cambridge Univ. Press,
Cambridge.
Jobling M (1995). Fish Bioenergetics, Chapman and Hall, London. p.
309.
New MB (1989). Formulated Aquaculture Feeds in Asia: Some
Thoughts on Comparative Economics, Industrial Potential, Problems and Research Need in Relation to Small-Scale Farmer. In report of the Workshop on Shrimps and Fin Fish Feed Developm

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...Raymond Raymundo 9/10/11 1CSE B. For the Mrs. Doubtfire viewers 1. What is your stand in the topic of divorce in the Philippines? Should it be implemented or not? Is it more of a solution, or a problem? * I think that approving divorcement here in the Philippines is a violation directly to God and is a very heavy sin should I say. Second, it’s the next stage if the “RH Bill” is to be approved which is another violation to God that I think those involved already know that. I don’t know why they are blind for I think they’re “CORRECTING A BAD THING WITH A BAD THING ALSO”. It should not be implemented for it shows only that couples can play and just quit and give up on a relationship which for me is immoral. It is very immoral to divorce for all those years, it only shows that people are okay to be willing to violate God’s law just so they can be followed. I’m sad because I might turn that sometime in the future; they should think of the effects to younger people who look up to them (People Involved) and might turn to them in the future. For me, its more of a problem and never a solution, nuff said. 2. Site the positive and negative effects of divorce to the couple and their children. *I don’t want to site positive effects because I’m against it and my brain won’t allow me to......

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...History Revision Peace-making and the League of Nations The French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau wanted Germany punished for all the humiliation France had suffered in the past. Clemenceau wanted Germany to pay for the cost of the War, the damage and also wanted guarantees that it would never happen again. He wanted the Rhineland to be handed over to France and Alsace-Lorraine to be returned. Large areas of France had been destroyed and everyone blamed it on Germany. Some French Politicians wanted Germany totally destroyed. However Great Britain had not suffered to the same degree as France had during the war, but Britain had to pay an enormous cost for victory. The British people expected Germany to pay for the effects of the war. When it came to the Treaty of Versailles, the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George didn’t want Germany to be punished too hard, but be allowed to recover. The USA had not suffered any damage during the war. The President of the USA Woodrow Wilson arrived in Europe in 1918. His aim was to keep World Peace and to ensure that war could never break out again. So he decided to come up with his ‘Fourteen points’, one which suggested to set up the League of Nations. The Treaty of Versailles was set up on the 28th of June 1919. The Germans were horrified with the Treaty as they considered it too harsh. They wanted to start another war, but it was impossible. The Germans expected that the Treaty would be based upon Woodrow Wilson’s ‘Fourteen......

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...INTRODUCTION The Family is the basic social institution and primary group in a society. Ordinarily, the family is conceived of as composed of parents and children, with or without relatives , united by bonds of love and affection and who share common social activities. It is defined as a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood or adoption, constituting a single household, interacting and communicating with each other in their perspective social roles of Husband and wife, mother and father , son and daughter , brother and sister , and creating and maintaining a common culture. (Burgess and Locke , 1963) When everything seems to be wrong, the family should be the one who makes it right. Nevertheless, families should be intact. Bonds are strongly held together and there is no sign of separation. Unfortunately, there are instances that a family becomes incomplete or Broken. Broken Family is a family where the parents ( mother and father) of a child or children have split up and no longer share a single family relationship or live. Separately due to divorce, remarriage, death or unavoidable circumstances. It is visible that in a parent separation, the children are the ones who are affected the most. Watching parents take a home from a traditional family lifestyle to a “broken” home by getting separated is very devastating for a child's mental well-being. The objectives of this research will be to identify the effects of having broken family on the social and......

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...Black women take issue with new Army rule on hair By The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, adapted by Newsela staff May. 09, 2014 4:00 AM Jasmine Jacobs poses for a portrait at her home in Atlanta, April 2, 2014. Jacobs, six years into what she thought was a promising and long military career, said she was finally done in by the one thing that was always natural to her; her hair. Jacobs railed against a new policy that places heavy restrictions on how women can and cannot wear their hair in the military. ATLANTA—Jasmine Jacobs, a soldier in the Army National Guard, knew that however she decided to wear her hair, it had to be neat. So, four years ago, when she decided to stop straightening her hair and wear a more natural look, she figured it would make her a better soldier. It would require less care, especially on maneuvers and drills. “I never had anyone say anything to me about my hair,” Jacobs, 25, said. “It’s never been out of regulation or interfered with my headgear.” That changed in April when the Army issued rules about how women in uniform can wear their hair, along with regulations about tattoos. The rules ban certain hairstyles, including twists, large cornrow braids and dreadlocks, that are popular among black women. That hit a nerve already made sensitive by generations of debate within the black community over what is “good” or “bad” hair. 1 Petitioning The White House Jacobs, who wears two-strand twists, launched a White House petition to cancel the......

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