Free Essay

Bp vs Enron - an Ethical Approach

In: Social Issues

Submitted By aidsmaster
Words 559
Pages 3
BP Vs. Enron - An ethical Approach
There are several different ways that unethical practices can be carried out. I will be highlighting the Enron failure, with the more recent BP Oil Spill, and comparing the practices of each one to one another.
The BP oil spill was caused when methane gas rose into the drilling machine of the oil rig, and caused an explosion, which burned the entire platform (Bureau, 2011). Soon after, large patches of oil appeared on the surface of the water, and soon reached nearby beaches. Even though BP publically estimated about 5,000 barrels of oil spilled each day, the actual figure ended up being over 50,000 barrels a day, according to a government investigation. It was later revealed that BP initially arrived at similar numbers as the government, but downplayed them to make it appear that less damage was being caused (Bureau, 2011).
It was later revealed that one of the reasons for the explosion in the first place, was due to the contractor who built the oil rig wanting to cut costs. As a result of this, substandard concrete and other materials were used in construction of the rig. Additionally, due to cost cutting, many safety precautions were ignored, or severely reduced. Included in these, was the defect that allowed gas to rise up in the well and ignite, causing the explosion in the first place (Bureau, 2011).
One of the main reasons for Enron’s bankruptcy was the use of special purpose entities to keep the debt underreported. They kept profits made by these entities and reported it as revenue. However, they failed to report the debt incurred by the acquisition of these entities (Collins, 2006). The main motivation behind this scandal was to keep stock prices up, and to keep investors putting their money into the company. However, stock prices only rise if net profit is positive, meaning it only rises if actual profits are higher than debts. So even though the company had taken on massive debt, it wasn’t reported, so it seemed that the net profit was much higher than it was in reality (Bryce, 2008).
One of these special purposes entities was called Chewco, which was then used to acquire JEDI, a California state pensions program (Collins, 2006). Since the debt was incurred by this special purpose entity, $383 million went unrecorded in Enron’s reports. Since debt incurred by these special purpose entities could have gone unreported, massive amount of debt went unnoticed by auditors of the time (Bryce, 2008). This pattern continued with many other special entities created by Enron.
Both Enron and BP have had a history of unethical practice, which has come back around to haunt them. They were both due to unethical practices in running each company; Enron for falsifying profits, and BP for cost cutting on safety precautions and regulations. These practices cost each company vast amounts of money, and bankrupted Enron, losing millions of people money, and many, their jobs.

References
Bryce, Robert (December 17, 2008). Pipe Dreams: Greed, Ego, and the Death of Enron.
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE)/U.S. Coast Guard Joint Investigation Team (14 September 2011)."Deepwater Horizon Joint Investigation Team Releases Final Report" (Press release). U.S. Government. Retrieved 7-25-2013.
Collins, Denis (May 24, 2006). Behaving Badly: Ethical Lessons from Enron

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility

...business operation means addressing the needs of present stakeholders while seeking to protect, support and enhance the human and natural resources that will be needed by future stakeholders. CSR describes the principle that companies can and should make a positive contribution to society. CSR is the practice of managing the social, environmental and economic impacts of the company, being responsive to 'stakeholders' (those who are affected by a business operation) and behaving according to a set of values which are not codified in law. In practice the term can refer to a wide range of actions that companies may take, from donating to charity to reducing carbon emissions. By CSR here we refer to the practice of major companies, rather than 'ethical pioneers': smaller companies which are set up with social and environmental concerns as their primary motivation in doing business. Companies engage in CSR because, for a number of reasons, they think it will be good for their profit margins. The business case for CSR emphasises the benefits to reputation, staff and consumer loyalty plus maintaining public goodwill. CSR is supposed to be win-win. The...

Words: 2032 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Corperate Governance Report Caltex

...Table of Contents Section 1 1 1.1 Company Profile: 2 1.2 Corporate Governance Disclosures, and are they sufficient? 2 1.3 Key issues that may have impacted on the company’s corporate governance performance 3 1.3.1 Glass Ceiling 3 1.3.2 Climate Change 3 1.3.3 Petroleum Accidents 4 1.4 Potential ethical considerations impacting on the company and the industry in which it operates 4 1.4.1 Petroleum Industry 4 1.4.2 Price Fixing 4 1.5 Theoretical Frameworks supporting Caltex CSR disclosures: 5 1.5.1 Stakeholder/Legitimacy Theory 5 1.5.2 Agency Theory 5 2.1 Part a 6 2.1 Part b 7 Recommendations: 8 References 9 Section 1 1.1 Company Profile: Caltex is regarded as the leading transport fuel supplier and convenience retailer in the Australia and are the only integrated oil refining and marketing company that are listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Caltex sources and refines over 75 million barrels of crude oil a year and supplies a third of Australia’s transport fuel (Caltex 2013). As a percentage of crude oil is sourced overseas Caltex operates in a sensitive industry for a number of different reasons, the risks of transporting oil alone is not to be taken lightly given the corporate governance issues that arose from the infamous Exxon Vladex spill that cost the company not only financially but also significantly damaged the environment and their reputation (Miranda, Ferrara & Michele 2012). According to (Davison 1963) the......

Words: 3832 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Enron

...Enron and World Finance A Case Study in Ethics Edited by Paul H. Dembinski, Carole Lager, Andrew Cornford and Jean-Michel Bonvin Enron and World Finance Also by Observatoire de la Finance From Bretton Woods to Basel Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, no. 21, Spring 2005 Ethics of Taxation and Banking Secrecy Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, no. 12, Autumn 2002 Will the Euro Shape Europe? Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, no. 9, Winter 2001–2 Dommen, E. (ed.) Debt Beyond Contract Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, Supplement no. 2, 2001 Bonvin, J.-M. Debt and the Jubilee: Pacing the Economy Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, Supplement no. 1, 1999 Dembinski, P. H. (leading contributor) Economic and Financial Globalization: What the Numbers Say United Nations, Geneva, 2003 Enron and World Finance A Case Study in Ethics Edited by Paul H. Dembinski Carole Lager Andrew Cornford and Jean-Michel Bonvin in association with the Observatoire de la Finance Selection, editorial matter and Chapters 1, 2 and 16 © Observatoire de la Finance Remaining chapters © contributors 2006 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any......

Words: 118357 - Pages: 474

Premium Essay

Money, Attitude, and Unethical Behavior

...see a lack of morals, values, and ethics incorporated into the business. Many businesses feel as if there is no room for ethics in the business world and that the relationships built should focus solely on the generation of revenue. According to Merriam Webster dictionary, we can define ethics as, “the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation.” Every company has a code of ethics in order to determine the company’s culture and values. It also acts a driving force behind any decisions made by top executives. In market where there are so many profit-based businesses, often times we see the many difficulties in balancing the pursuit of profits while staying true to their code of ethics. The balance of ethical practice and profit maximization causes companies to face difficult decisions and many times businesses choose profit maximization. Business-to-Business and Business-to-Consumer transactions require frequent interaction. In every type of business transaction, whether it is B2B or B2C, there is going to be different motivation behind it, which will determine the nature of their interaction. Is it possible to find statistical data that can determine a relationship between the love of money and unethical behavior? And if so, is this relationship affected by gender or college major? We will be answering these questions by the usage statistical...

Words: 6528 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Enron

...Enron and World Finance A Case Study in Ethics Edited by Paul H. Dembinski, Carole Lager, Andrew Cornford and Jean-Michel Bonvin Enron and World Finance Also by Observatoire de la Finance From Bretton Woods to Basel Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, no. 21, Spring 2005 Ethics of Taxation and Banking Secrecy Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, no. 12, Autumn 2002 Will the Euro Shape Europe? Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, no. 9, Winter 2001–2 Dommen, E. (ed.) Debt Beyond Contract Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, Supplement no. 2, 2001 Bonvin, J.-M. Debt and the Jubilee: Pacing the Economy Finance & the Common Good/Bien Commun, Supplement no. 1, 1999 Dembinski, P. H. (leading contributor) Economic and Financial Globalization: What the Numbers Say United Nations, Geneva, 2003 Enron and World Finance A Case Study in Ethics Edited by Paul H. Dembinski Carole Lager Andrew Cornford and Jean-Michel Bonvin in association with the Observatoire de la Finance Selection, editorial matter and Chapters 1, 2 and 16 © Observatoire de la Finance Remaining chapters © contributors 2006 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited......

Words: 118358 - Pages: 474

Premium Essay

Asahi Case Study

...STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TEXAS EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM FALL 2011 Professor David B. Jemison CBA 3.232 Telephone 471-8757 David.Jemison@mccombs.utexas.edu Texts: Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy. (New York: Free Press, l998). Course Description Perspective and Themes This course is about the creation and maintenance of a long-term vision for the organization. This means that it is concerned with both the determination of strategic direction and the management of the strategic process. As such, it deals with the analytical, behavioral, and creative aspects of business simultaneously. The course is organized around six themes in strategic management: the role of the general manager, the components of business strategy, corporate strategy development, divisional-level strategy development, managing strategic change, and the development of general managers. Our perspective in this course is that of the leader whose responsibility is the long-term health of the entire firm or a major division. The key tasks involved in general management include the detection of and adaptation to environmental change; the procurement and allocation of resources; the integration of activities across subparts of the organizations; and, at the most senior levels, the determination of purpose and the setting of corporate direction. General managers, from our perspective, are managers who are in the position to make strategic decisions for the firm. Note that such...

Words: 11018 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Business Ethics

...Licensed to: CengageBrain User Licensed to: CengageBrain User This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User Business Ethics, Ninth Edition O.C. Ferrell, John Fraedrich, and Linda Ferrell Vice President of Editorial/Business: Jack W. Calhoun Publisher: Erin Joyner Senior Acquisition Editor: Michele Rhoades Managing Developmental Editor: Joanne Dauksewicz Editorial Assistant: Tamara Grega Marketing Manager: Jon Monahan Senior...

Words: 16800 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

Finance Book

...Licensed to: iChapters User Eugene F. Brigham UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Joel F. Houston UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Eugene F. Brigham UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Joel F. Houston UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: iChapters User This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any......

Words: 16711 - Pages: 67

Premium Essay

Robins & Robins Sues Casings, Inc.,

...This week's graded topics relate to the following Terminal Course Objectives (TCOs): A | Given an organizational requirement to conform business practices to both the law and best ethical practices, apply appropriate ethical theories to shape a business decision. | I | Given specified circumstances of a business decision to expand to international markets, determine what international legal requirements or regulatory controls apply. | Topics for This Week's Discussion * Introduce yourself to your professor and the rest of the class. (not graded) * Thread over TCO A/I (graded) * Ethics and Patent Rights Post 9/11 (graded) * Q & A Forum for your questions and comments (not graded) | | There is a drop down arrow next to the "Select a Topic" box.  Click on this arrow to select topics for discussion. | ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Select a Topic:       Bottom of Form The World Bank Situation (graded) | Class, please read Chapter 2, problem 5 from the Jennings text, p. 72. This week, we will discuss the Wolfowitz situation at the World Bank. Consider the questions at the end of the problem as you make comments in the threads this week. What are the ethics here? Was Wolfowitz trying to do the right thing? Does that make a difference ethically? Throughout the week, I will bring in further questions. Be sure to read the lecture and the international ethics article stated in your reading for the week as well.......

Words: 201281 - Pages: 806

Premium Essay

Student

...This page intentionally left blank Lut12575_fm_i-xxvi.indd Page i 2/10/11 2:28 PM user-f494 /203/MHBR222/Lut12575_disk1of1/0078112575/Lut12575_pagefiles International Management Culture, Strategy, and Behavior Eighth Edition Fred Luthans University of Nebraska–Lincoln Jonathan P. Doh Villanova University Lut12575_fm_i-xxvi.indd Page ii 2/11/11 2:35 PM user-f494 /203/MHBR222/Lut12575_disk1of1/0078112575/Lut12575_pagefiles INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT: CULTURE, STRATEGY, AND BEHAVIOR, EIGHTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009, 2006, and 2003. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on recycled, acid-free paper containing 10% postconsumer waste. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 QDB/QDB 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-07-811257-7 MHID 0-07-811257-5 Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Brent Gordon Vice President, EDP/Central......

Words: 69321 - Pages: 278

Free Essay

Ib Notes

...IBUS%3100%–%TEXTBOOK%NOTES% CHAPTER%1%–%GLOBALIZATION% WHAT%IS%GLOBALIZATION?% • Globalization:+ shift% towards% a% more% integrated% and% independent% world% economy% –% away% from% distinct% national% economic%units,%towards%one%huge%global%market% Merging%of%historically%distinct%and%separate%national%markets%into%one%huge%global%marketplace% Argument%–%tastes/preferences%of%consumers%in%different%nations%beginning%to%converge%to%some%global%norm%% Standardized%products%such%as%CocaTCola,%McDonald’s%and%iPods%help%create%a%global%market%% Significant%differences%still%exist%between%national%markets%along%many%dimensions,%i.e.%tastes/preferences,%distribution% channels,%value%and%business%systems,%and%legal%regulation% Most%global%markets%–%markets%for%industrial%goods%and%materials%that%serve%universal%need% Sourcing%of%goods/services%from%locations%around%the%globe%to%take%advantage%of%national%differences%in%cost%and%quality% of%factors%of%production%+ Aim%is%to%lower%overall%cost%structure%of%an%entity%and/or%improve%quality/functionality%of%product%offering%+ Impediments% to% global% production% include% –% formal/informal% barriers% to% trade,% barriers% to% foreign% direct% investment,% transportation%costs,%and%issues%associated%with%economic%+%political%risk+ Regulation,%management,%and%policing%of%global%marketplace%necessary%as%markets%globalize%further%......

Words: 25065 - Pages: 101

Premium Essay

Timberland - an Economic Study Paper

...entering India 10 Case 2: Timberland in China and Vietnam 11 3 TIMBERLAND’S INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGY 11 3.1 Timberland’s internationalization process: an overview 11 3.2 Historical context fostering or hampering Timberland’s internationalization 13 3.3 An internationalization theory applied: The Uppsala model 14 4 ROLE OF CSR IN TIMBERLAND’S INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGY 15 4.1 Boosting company efficiency by educating workforce 16 4.2 Improving local performances by assessing Code of Conduct compliance 16 4.3 Strengthening international relationships by supporting local development 17 4.4 Spreading global image by involving communities 17 4.5 Financing international expansion by boosting shareholders’ endorsement 18 5 TIMBERLAND VS. COMPETITORS: CSR NURTURING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 19 5.1 OLI theory: an application of Timberland’s CSR 19 5.1.1 CSR fostering Timberland’s ownership advantage 19 5.1.2 CSR enhancing Timberland’s location advantage 20 5.1.3 CSR neutralizing Timberland’s internalization advantage 22 5.2 Timberland and competitors: a comparison on CSR activities 23 5.2.1 Methodology of the Analysis 23 5.2.2 Results of the Analysis 24 6 MEASUREMENT ISSUES: IMPACT OF SOCIAL VALUE ON COMMERCIAL VALUE 25 7...

Words: 11919 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Mba- Iibm

...provides the structure through which corporations set and pursue their objectives, while reflecting the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. Governance is a mechanism for monitoring the actions, policies and decisions of corporations. Governance involves the alignment of interests among the stakeholders. There has been renewed interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, since the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations during 2001–2002, most of which involved accounting fraud. Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In the U.S., these include Enron Corporation and MCI Inc. (formerly WorldCom). Their demise is associated with the U.S. federal government passing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, intending to restore public confidence in corporate governance. Comparable failures in Australia are associated with the eventual passage of the CLERP 9 reforms. Similar corporate failures in other countries stimulated increased regulatory interest (e.g., Parmalat in Italy). Other definitions Corporate governance has also been defined as "a system of law and sound approaches by which corporations are directed and controlled focusing...

Words: 33828 - Pages: 136

Premium Essay

Fundamental of Strategy

...gerry JoHnson KeVan sCHoles rICHard WHIttIngton Fundamentals oF strategy ACCESS CODE INSIDE unlock valuable online learning resources Once opened this pack cannot be returned for a refund Welcome to FUNDAMENTALS OF STRATEGY Strategy is a fascinating subject. It’s about the overall direction of all kinds of organisations, from multinationals to entrepreneurial start-ups, from charities to government agencies, and many more. Strategy raises the big questions about these organisations – how they grow, how they innovate and how they change. As a manager of today or of tomorrow, you will be involved in influencing, implementing or communicating these strategies. Our aim in writing Fundamentals of Strategy is to give you a clear understanding of the fundamental issues and techniques of strategy, and to help you get a great final result in your course. Here’s how you might make the most of the text: ● Focus your time and attention on the fundamental areas of strategy in just 10 carefully selected chapters. Read the illustrations and the case examples to clarify your understanding of how the concepts of strategy translate into an easily recognisable, real-world context. Follow up on the recommended readings at the end of each chapter. They’re specially selected as accessible and valuable sources that will enhance your learning and give you an extra edge in your course work. KEY CONCEPT AUDIO SUMMARY ● ● Also, look out for the Key Concepts and Audio Summary......

Words: 129967 - Pages: 520

Premium Essay

Something

...Innovative Business Practices Innovative Business Practices: Prevailing a Turbulent Era Edited by Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou Innovative Business Practices: Prevailing a Turbulent Era, Edited by Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou This book first published 2013 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2XX, UK British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Copyright © 2013 by Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou and contributors All rights for this book reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN (10): 1-4438-4604-X, ISBN (13): 978-1-4438-4604-2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter One ................................................................................................. 1 Knowledge Hybridization: An Innovative Business Practices to Overcome the Limits of the Top-Down Transfers within a Multinational Corporation Hela Chebbi, Dorra Yahiaoui, Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou Chapter Two .............................................................................................. 17 Rethinking Talent Management in Organizations: Towards a Boundary-less Model Carrie Foster, Neil Moore and Peter Stokes Chapter Three .......

Words: 128975 - Pages: 516