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Brain Development

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Submitted By amandaamarie333
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By the third day of development, the human egg or zygote it is now a small mass called the blastocyst. By 1-2 weeks the blastocyst’s inner cell mass separates into three layers. The Mesoderm is responsible for developing muscles, bones, blood, circulatory system, teeth, connective tissues and kidneys. The endoderm is responsible for the internal organs such as the stomach and intestine. And the ectoderm is responsible for things such as our skin, hair, sweat glands, salivary glands, brain, spinal cord, and PNS. By week 2 of development the ectoderm will also start to thicken and fold in on itself to form the neural groove and by 2-8 weeks it will come together and form the neural tube. The interior of the neural tube will become the five ventricles, the central canal of the spinal cord. The anterior part of the neural groove will become the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. The inner surface of the neural tube is lined with cells that will produce neurons through the process called neurogenesis. These cells in the neural tube divide and become the ventricular zone. As the nervous system grows the cells move to fill out the brain through cell migration. These cells go through cell differentiation which allows them to take the characteristics of the neurons that exist in that particular region. Once they do this they are able to make synaptic connection with other neurons in that region through synaptogenesis. Neurons fight for synaptic sites and a chemical the target site releases. Neurons that make adequate connections and receive enough of that chemical will live, and those that don’t will die. This is called cell death or apoptosis. After cell death many synapse are lost or many more are formed, this process is called reorganization. One type of cell in the brain is stem cells that can develop into any cell type. Another type of cell is the radial or glial...

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