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Brain Drain

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The term ‘Brain Drain’ was first coined by the British Royal Society and they used it to explain the transfer or outflow of scientists and technologists from one’s homeland to countries like The United States of America and Canada in the 1950s and early 1960s. This is normally used as another word to describe the movement of Human Capital (HC hereafter) – where the net flow of expertise was more heavily focused in one direction as compared to the other.
Phase-1 (1950s to 1960s)
Grubel and Scott identified that developed and developing countries are advanced in the fields of science and technology while Pierpaolo Giannocolo concluded that a lesser developed country which sends its qualified and skilled workers to these countries will not only benefit from this socially but also economically. Initially, the outflow of scientists and technologists was focused from Europe (and primarily the UK) to The United States and Canada.
On the other hand, Kannappan stated that the heavy outflow of skilled labor from poor countries resulted in the nations losing their economic and productivity potentials. Similarly, according to Portes, the concept of ‘brain drain’ was mainly harmful for the native countries as it resulted in the development of the North and backwardness of the Southern countries.

Phase-2 (1970s-1990s)
The reviews from a majority of the scholars concluded that the concept of ‘brain drain’ is in fact not beneficial for the native country as it usually results in the host country gaining benefits from the inflow of qualified skilled workers and depriving the sending country of this human capital and potential. The solutions suggested to reduce this include the implementation of migration policies and to create and fortify the role of the International Organizations and Institutions to manage these migration flows.
During 1970s, brain drain was often referred to as the ‘North/South’ issue or ‘developing/developed’ issue. Literature findings show that this is a deteriorating factor to the welfare of the countries. Due to this, Bhagwati proposed a ’Brain Drain Tax’ which was planned to reduce the high outflow from the poorer countries while charging the more developed host countries a sum in compensation for the transfer of human capital which was occurring. This proposal was then discussed and heavily debated upon at the ‘Bellagion Conference on the Brain Drain and Income Taxation’ which was held in Italy in February,1975.

Phase-3(1990-till date)
In the mid-1990s - a new trend termed as ‘new economics of Brain Drain’ emerged as a result of the rapid advancement in globalization and growth in Information and communications sectors. It argued that under such circumstances, migration of professionals from developing countries may be blessing and the potential gains could be higher than the costs involved. In short Brain Drain may have both positive and negative effects on the sending countries.
The economists who created harmonized databases of skilled migration rates and the positive effects of brain drain were to some extent verified. The scholars who presented theories which talked about the detrimental effects if this phenomena were also taken into consideration. Several new studies were introduced in this period with the view that migration perspective generally increases the attractiveness of educational investments in the sending economy, thus contributing to increased accumulation of human capital and faster growth. Stark at al, identified that the workers may return to their homelands while bringing social, physical and human capital that they accumulated abroad, thus contributing to the economic development that is brain migration. Ghosh concluded that the migrants transfer part of their income back which then constitutes a large part of the country’s national income. If this is properly utilized, it may help to boost the economic growth.
Kugler and Rapoport acknowledged the diasporas effects- which explains that even staying if the overseas workers stay abroad, they are still able to contribute in the development and progress of a country by offering expertise, skills, advice or simply investing their money. This effect may be observed directly-as the FDIs and their companies or indirectly when the Diaspora members encourage other entities to do so.

Terminologies of Brain Drain
As the years have passed, a lot of terminologies related to brain mobility have been conjured up. Lowell and Findlay mention these terms in the following studies: * Causes and Solutions to Intellectual Brain Drain in Pakistan Nadia Sajjad * The Dialogue Volume 35 VI Number
The following are the various terms that have been formed: 1. Optimal Brain Drain
Optimal brain drain theory is based on the hypothesis that some developing countries can benefit from the “right” amount of skilled emigration. 2. Brain Waste
The term brain waste is used in the case when the highly skilled is underemployed due to one reason or another. An example of this can be of physicians working as taxi drivers. This situation occurs both in the sending and receiving countries. 3. Brain Circulation
Brain circulation refers to lively return migration of the native born. Returnee’s re-supply the highly educated population in the sending country and boosts source country productivity. 4. Brain Exchange
Brain exchange occurs when the loss of native-born workers is offset by an equivalent Inflow of highly skilled foreign workers. A given source country may exchange highly skilled migrants with one or many foreign countries. 5. Brain Globalization
Some level of skilled mobility is needed to participate in the global economy. Multinational corporations and the forces of globalization necessarily require international mobility. 6. Brain Export
Brain export is defined as a strategy to educate and export highly skilled workers in order to gain economic feedbacks. In a few cases, developing countries choose to educate and export their highly skilled workers, either in bilateral contract programs or in free- agent emigration. The strategy is to improve the national balance sheet through return of earnings and the return of more-experienced workers, or through remittances, technology educated from a given country who emigrated.

Pakistan Brain Drain
Literature is reviewed to develop and understand the magnitude of Pakistan Brain Drain. Causes (Push and pull), factors and various measures at national and international level were reviewed to tackle this issue. The reviewed studies were divided into three parts; 1. Magnitude of Pakistan Brain Drain 2. The Causes of brain drain 3. Attempts to stop this issue domestically (in Pakistan context) and internationally.

1. The Magnitude of the Pakistan Brain Drain
Several studies have documented the loss of skilled Pakistani qualified through emigration. Although precise numbers of overseas skilled Pakistanis in terms is not identified, it was still concluded at the UNESCO 127th Executive that the highly skilled migration rate of Pakistan increased by more than 50% from 6.1 in 1990 to 9.2 in 2000. During the period 1961-1976 the highest number of migrating skilled personnel to the US and UK, Canada came from Asia.
Trends of migration (2002-2008), show the ratio of skilled and unskilled migrants. Since 1971 the qualified migrants comprising of engineers, doctors, IT specialists and other professionals are trained by government financial resources. A very small percentage of the age group is enrolled in institutions of higher learning also there is shortage of institutions providing quality education. With the migration of doctors, engineers, and teachers – the sectors concerning health, education, industrial and construction are negatively affected. Migration trends show the failure of the government to provide sufficient opportunities and incentives to retain its qualified workers.

Causes and Solutions to Intellectual Brain Drain in Pakistan Nadia Sajjad
The Dialogue Volume 37 VI Number 1
World Bank study of 2007 identified that Pakistan Infrastructure Capacity Assessment shows 1971-2000 skilled manpower was 1.236. This number is soared to 1.641 million during 2000-2005. Out of these 23078 were engineers. In 2007 1800 engineers emigrated overseas which is almost the 70% of the numbers trained in 2006.
Habibullah Khan & M.Shahaidul Islam discussed on the total number of Pakistani skilled workers to OECD countries (age of 25 or more or older), 85668 were immigrated with 6022 Primary level, 22458 Secondary level, and 57188 with tertiary education which shows that majority of the migrants possess tertiary qualifications.
Dr. S. M. Ali stated that according to Bureau of emigration and overseas employment Pakistan the outflow of highly-qualified migrants increased from 1,292 in 1995 to 3,291 in 2004.20 However, the share of highly-qualified migrants remains low at around 1.9 percent in 2004. Migrants in this category include those with either minimum tertiary education (a bachelor degree) or very high level of tertiary education, such as Master / Ph. D. holders and very specialized education similarly, from 1995 to 2004.The outflow of highly-skilled Pakistanis has been on the rise from 7,681 to 15,557. In 2004, the share of highly-skilled migrants was around 8.9 percent of total migration outflows. These people have tertiary education but may or may not hold very advanced tertiary education. Migrants in this category include secretaries, mechanics, nurses, etc.

2. Causes of Brain Drain
Normally causes of outflow of talented emigrants for developed market economies are covered in general by means of the push-pull model. Push and pull factors regarding brain drain appear to be rooted in the unequal economic development of the emigration and immigration countries.
Push Factors
Agha Khan Medical University conducted study about the brain drain of doctors from Pakistan. As per research 95% of the students of AKU and 65% students of BU want to emigrate due to poor salary in Pakistan, along with poor quality of training and work environment.
Syed Jafar Askari viewed terrorism and economic crises are the main factors which forced the highly qualified and brilliant people to leave the country.

Raheem stated the following reasons for moving abroad: * For better jobs. * Lack of opportunities offered to the highly skilled labour. * Unemployment ratio among qualified workers is very high and salary levels for skilled workers are often kept low by governments to maintain an egalitarian income policy. * Lack of respect of the professionals and usually qualified people are answerable to the bosses that have no knowledge about their respective fields.

Mohsin Ali comments on reasons of brain drain as:
(i) Economic reasons * Job satisfaction. * Academically progressive environment. * Better pay and service condition.
(ii) Lack of financial and academic reasons * Better life and higher education. * Lack of institutions for research along with doctorate and post doctorate level studies opportunities. * Political Instability.
(iii) Lack of Higher Education Institutions
Science and technology is the area not fully exploited by the Pakistani resources. Fewer budgets in education sector are the reason in leaking the higher studies contributing to brain drain. * Natural problems. * Political and social problems. * Lack of scientific based study. * Lack of competition and challenging culture. * Non-availability of facilities for research and development. * No merit system.
Annie Gulrukh, views economic survey and statistics have shown that the unemployment ratio is increasing every year.24 Irum Sarfaraz said that nearly 3,000 (annually) graduates of Pakistan’s medical colleges are jobless; most go abroad. The educated see their future not in their home country but in any country but their own”.
Nasir Nadeem and Dr Muhammad Ashfaq, found that brain drain occur due to poor economic conditions, slow promotion process and the unavailability of opportunities for the youth.
Syed Jafar Askari, stated that thousands of MBBS graduates are produced annually from different medical colleges and universities in the country, while 50 to 60 per cent of the fresh graduates leave the countryto pursue for better professional careers in foreign lands.
Rehmatulah, found terrorism and insecurity compel skilled workers to move, as per Act (8) of Pakistani Constitution every person is free for migration in any areas of world for life security.
Qamar Habib observed lack of secure and respectable environment is a sole reason for their move.
Shah claimed that general political climate in a given society or country strongly influences the situation of highly qualified personnel. Discrimination in appointments, promotion on the basis of political affiliation or loyalty rather than merit based on political allegiance, can have deep social roots which are hard to pull up, which leads toward outflow of talented workers from the source country. Rest of the factors include: * Training abroad does not comply with the environment of the source country. * Causes and Solutions to Intellectual Brain Drain in Pakistan Nadia Sajjad * The Dialogue Volume 40 VI Number 1 * The student having high grade degree with high competencies did not get job as per qualification due to lack of power, which leads towards working of talented people in irrelevant fields.

Pull Factors
Nasir Nadeem and Dr. Muhammad Ashfaq, observed the following pull factors regarding emigration of talented Pakistani workers. * Availability of resources in foreign countries to conduct research. * Higher salary levels for researchers in recipient countries. * Life-changing and academic enhancement bright career, economical social, intercultural, personal benefits. * Better living facilities that is education, housing, etc to their family. * The differential in salaries and living conditions between the home and recipient countries.

Rehmatullah, showed the following pull factors regarding Pakistan Brain Drain: * To acquire better knowledge, skills and research based work. * Employment in well-paid jobs in good career opportunity. * High standards of living, scientific excellence, social democracy and possibility of upward mobility. * Suitable opportunities and environments for education of children. * Developed legislation with respect to human rights, social justice, intellectual property and professions. * High level of skills associated with their specific degrees. * Opportunities for advancement in careers and in specialization. * Fair, well-governed environments for HR management attract and retain many skilled professionals. * Basic comforts during their working life. * Security after retirement and Pension benefits are important motivation factors. * Face fewer bureaucratic controls as compared to our home bureaucratic system. * Better employment opportunities which suit their qualification. * Good professional working environment, skills utilization at professional and technical proficiency that allows for international recognition. * Availability of experience/supporting staff. * Frequent chances of a lucky break in life. * Intellectual freedom, modern educational system and better opportunity for higher qualifications & prestige of foreign training. * Availability, latest information and contact with men of experience and expertise are some of the psychological determinants of brain drain. * One of the most important pull factors is the demand of highly qualified personnel in the receiving countries.

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