Premium Essay

Brief History of Accounting

In: Business and Management

Submitted By valendor
Words 65244
Pages 261
More Than a Numbers Game
A Brief Histor y of Accounting

Thomas A. King

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

More Than a Numbers Game

More Than a Numbers Game
A Brief Histor y of Accounting

Thomas A. King

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Copyright © 2006 by Thomas A. King. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Accounting and Standards Board Paper

...Accounting Standards Board Renee’ Livious ACC/541 March 11, 2012 Thomas Gruber Accounting Standards Boards For a business to be successful, anything for that matter, guidelines and policies have to be put in place. This also involves internationally run businesses as well. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) have worked diligently through the years to ensure these guidelines are followed. The following discussion will be about the convergence project of boards, their relationship and the relations between their original pronouncements. Discussion will also reflect how the Master’s of Science in Accountancy program prepares the student for a professional life within the accounting vocation. International Accounting Standards Board The IASB, which was once the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC), is the first international standard-setting body (International Convergence of Accounting Standards—A Brief History) organization based in the United Kingdom that formed in 2001 to advocate harmonization. They strove to make the standards uniformed for national and international companies and have one set of financial statement to accommodate both parties. Their purpose is also to maintain and ensure the standards for accounting are followed and......

Words: 1228 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Beaformativegroup

...legal form as that of the main company (e.g. both companies should be Public Limited Company). It is essential that a financial analyst should write out a well-organised and structured financial statements analysis report in an appropriate format and style to an identified user of accounting information, using headings and sub-headings to indicate topics discussed. This report should include the key groups of ratios, and identify the key issues, explanations, and main findings obtained from the calculated ratios, horizontal and vertical analyses, and other sources of information. Then, the analyst should come to appropriate conclusions, implications, limitations, and recommendations. A suggested approach to write a good report is demonstrated below. I. Abstract * Report Objective; * Main Findings. II. Summary of the Basic Company Information Before looking at any of the different analysis techniques, it is good to spend some time doing a little bit of background research into the company you are investigating. This will help to put the technical analysis into an appropriate context and allow a greater level of insight into any anomalies the analysis throws up. * Brief History; * Description of Industry Membership, Main Business and Principal Locations; * Any Exceptional Recent Events that Could Impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements;...

Words: 652 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Government Regulation in the Accounting Industry

...Running Head: GOVERNMENT REGULATION IN THE ACCOUNTING INDUSTRY Government Regulation in the Accounting Industry Rebecca Gregory Kaplan University Outline Introduction Securities Acts of 1933 and 1934 • Brief History of the Securities Act of 1933 • Objectives of the Securities Act of 1933 • Summary of the Securities Act of 1933 • Necessity of the Securities Act of 1934 • Summary of the Securities Act of 1934 • Peat Marwick Fraud/Scandal The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 • Brief History of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 • Summary of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 • Kellogg Brown & Root LLC Fraud/Scandal Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX) • The Purpose of SOX • Summary of SOX • US Bank of Seattle Fraud/Scandal Conclusion Government Regulation in the Accounting Industry The Great Depression and the Crash of 1929 led the United States into the beginning of new regulations. The first of these regulations was the Securities Act of 1933, which had a goal of prohibiting deceit, misrepresentation, and fraud in the sale of securities. The abusive practices of many banks and Wall Street firms resulted in the creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1934. It was established by The Securities Act of 1934 and gave the SEC power to monitor the sale of securities in the U.S. As a result of SEC investigations in the 1970's, it was discovered that many businesses were making payments to foreign officials for the......

Words: 2860 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Accounting Standards Paper

...Accounting Standards Boards Cherish Malbrue Accounting 541 July 2, 2012 Bethany Kessel Accounting Standards Boards The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) began their joint commitment in 2002 to improve both generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and International Financial Accounting Standards (IFAS). The mission of these two boards is to try to make both methods of accounting standards as compatible as possible. The two boards are trying to come to a common denominator that will allow use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The FASB and IASB are also working on a number of individual standard issues to help make FASB and IASB standards more compatible (Schroeder, Clark, & Cathy, pp. 79, 2011). The two boards were sure to have these projects completed by the end of 2011. Brief History of the Two Boards The concept of international convergence first arose in the late 1950s in response to post World War II economic integration and related increases in cross-border capital flows (“International Convergence Of Accounting Standards-Brief History”, n.d.). Convergence replaced harmonization in the 1990s, which is a high set of standards to be use in almost all the major capital markets. More than one hundred countries require or permit the use of IFAS. Since 1973, FASB has been the designated organization in the private......

Words: 1723 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Accounting Standard Board Paper

...Accounting Standard Board Paper ACC/541 June 18, 2012 Accounting Standard Board Paper In the world of accounting there needs to be standards for all of the countries, whether they are in the United States of Overseas. The accounting boards will help with making sure that all of the information is done correctly and are reported in a consistent way so that investors can determine what company is better to invest in. The two types of accounting standards board that are being discussed is the International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) and Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB). The first thing that needs to be discussed is the history of the two boards. The history will explain the relationship between the IASB and FASB. There will also be a discussion on how the University of Phoenix Master in Science of Accounting program is related to the IASB and FASB. The Accounting Principles Board (APB) was removed and replaced with the FASB in 1972. They determined that all of the members of the FASB were to be full-time paid employees which the APB were only part-time and were not paid. After 1973, the FASB was given the official approval of being in charge of issuing accounting standards (Schroeder, Clark, & Cathey, 2011). The FASB consists of the American Accounting Association, AICPA, Financial Executives Institute, National Association of Accountants, and the Financial Analysts Federation (Schroeder, Clark, & Cathey, 2011). In 1997, the FASB board of......

Words: 1306 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Accounting Standard Board Paper

...Accounting Standard Board Paper ACC/541 June 18, 2012 Accounting Standard Board Paper In the world of accounting there needs to be standards for all of the countries, whether they are in the United States of Overseas. The accounting boards will help with making sure that all of the information is done correctly and are reported in a consistent way so that investors can determine what company is better to invest in. The two types of accounting standards board that are being discussed is the International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) and Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB). The first thing that needs to be discussed is the history of the two boards. The history will explain the relationship between the IASB and FASB. There will also be a discussion on how the University of Phoenix Master in Science of Accounting program is related to the IASB and FASB. The Accounting Principles Board (APB) was removed and replaced with the FASB in 1972. They determined that all of the members of the FASB were to be full-time paid employees which the APB were only part-time and were not paid. After 1973, the FASB was given the official approval of being in charge of issuing accounting standards (Schroeder, Clark, & Cathey, 2011). The FASB consists of the American Accounting Association, AICPA, Financial Executives Institute, National Association of Accountants, and the Financial Analysts Federation (Schroeder, Clark, & Cathey, 2011). In 1997, the FASB board of......

Words: 1306 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Accounting Standard Board Paper

...Accounting Standard Board Paper ACC/541 June 18, 2012 Accounting Standard Board Paper In the world of accounting there needs to be standards for all of the countries, whether they are in the United States of Overseas. The accounting boards will help with making sure that all of the information is done correctly and are reported in a consistent way so that investors can determine what company is better to invest in. The two types of accounting standards board that are being discussed is the International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) and Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB). The first thing that needs to be discussed is the history of the two boards. The history will explain the relationship between the IASB and FASB. There will also be a discussion on how the University of Phoenix Master in Science of Accounting program is related to the IASB and FASB. The Accounting Principles Board (APB) was removed and replaced with the FASB in 1972. They determined that all of the members of the FASB were to be full-time paid employees which the APB were only part-time and were not paid. After 1973, the FASB was given the official approval of being in charge of issuing accounting standards (Schroeder, Clark, & Cathey, 2011). The FASB consists of the American Accounting Association, AICPA, Financial Executives Institute, National Association of Accountants, and the Financial Analysts Federation (Schroeder, Clark, & Cathey, 2011). In 1997, the FASB board of......

Words: 1306 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Taxes

...dollars. It has been the main source of funding for several wars and government-funded programs. Taxes affect every person, business, and property. This environment of constant change is a challenge for most accountants or anyone for that matter. This paper seeks to explore the history of the Federal Income Tax System, the Internal Revenue Code, the Internal Revenue Service, and guidelines and improvement of the tax system. History of Taxation in the United States The history of taxation in the United States commenced when the British, French and Spanish Empires ruled the individual colonies established in the US. This was back in the 1790’s after World War I. After their independence from Europe, the taxation system continued by collection of poll taxes, tariffs, and excise taxes. There were various acts passed by parliament which imposed taxation of various items such as lead, paper, paint, glass, stamps, sugar, and tea as a means of tax collection. From these come the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, and the Townshend Revenue Act. The Boston Tea Party was the insurgency against the British colonists by the American colonists to not pay the tea tax levied upon them. Federal Government Income Tax History The taxation system in the United States is governed by different levels of government. There are different methods of taxation as well. The tariffs imposed were the largest source of federal revenue from 1790 to the eve of World War I. This was the largest......

Words: 3469 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Lesson Plan Far600

...ACCOUNTING THEORY AND PRACTICE (FAR 600) Teaching and Learning Arrangements (SEMESTER: JAN 2007 – APRIL 2007) COURSE CODE : FAR 600 PROGRAM : BACHELOR OF ACCOUNTING (HONS) CREDIT HOURS : 4 CONTACT HOURS : 4 STATUS : CORE SYNOPSIS This financial accounting course exposes students to accounting theory, corporate accounting policies and financial reporting practices. The importance of history is introduced through a brief discussion on accounting history from both experiences of both western and Muslim Civilization. In understanding the theoretical framework of accounting, the various perspectives on financial accounting theory are examined with particular emphasis on their rationale and implications on accounting practice. General concepts of theory formulation are discussed and types of accounting perspectives and research are also introduced in this course. Corporate Accounting Policies are explained by the development of the Conceptual Framework and the Importance of a Regulatory Environment. The Standard Setting process in Malaysia is discussed. An analytical approach of the accounting standards is adopted by examining the recognition, measurement, disclosure and presentation of accounting information is discussed. Significant emphasis is placed on Asset Measurement, Nature of Liabilities, Types of Equity, Recognition of Revenue and Income Finally contemporary accounting practices and...

Words: 1820 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Accounting Standards Boards

...Accounting Standards Boards ACC/541 Accounting Standards Boards Whether it be international or here at home in America is it of the upmost importance to have an agreed upon set of standards in which people agree upon. Accounting is no different in dealing with people who need to have a set of standards in order to make sure everything is uniform. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) are two sets of standards boards that have an interesting relationship between them. Some of the topics I will cover is a brief break down of the two boards, a brief history of their relationship, and the ways the two are similar. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) was established in 2001 when it took over for its predecessor (IASC) International Accounting Standards Committee. Its job is to create and establish a set of accounting procedures and standards to be used universal around the world. Created by the Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF), Financial Accounting Standards Boards (FASB) was established back in 1973 and essentially is in charge of governing and setting forth accounting procedures and principles in which nongovernmental businesses must follow. These two boards have begun working together on projects in order to help improve the US (GAAP) Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) so that they are fully compatible in the future......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

History of Accounting

...(Tom) ROWLES B.Ec (Hons), Dip.Ed (Monash) A THESIS SUBMITED FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE SCHOOL OF ACCOUNTING AND LAW OF RMIT UNIVERSITY, MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA ii DECLARATION I certify that: Except where due acknowledgement has been made, this thesis is mine alone; and The work has not been submitted previously, in whole or part, to qualify for any other academic award; and The content of the thesis is the result of work that has been carried out since the official commencement date of the approved research programme. THOMAS R. ROWLES iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Introduction Purpose of the Study Sombart’s Hypothesis An Alternative Model; Entrepreneurial Decision-making Context: The Industrial Revolution and ‘Profit’ The Changing Nature of ‘Investment’ The Great Depression of 1873-96 Intellectual Introspection Irving Fisher and the Conception of Capital and Income 17 17 17 23 25 26 30 32 34 34 35 36 38 38 38 39 43 46 49 50 51 54 55 1.10 Research Issues Identified 1.11 Summary Derivation of Research Issues 2.1 2.2 Introduction Evidence from Extant Accounts 2.2.1 Fixed Assets in Mercantile Accounting 2.2.2 The East India Company 2.2.3 Fixed Assets and Early Industrial Accounting 2.2.4 Capital Asset Accounting After 1870 2.2.4.i Renewal Accounting 2.2.4.ii Double-Account System 2.2.4.iii A Rejected Hypothesis 2.3 Steam and Iron: the ‘Railway Age’ iv 2.3.1......

Words: 130630 - Pages: 523

Free Essay

Computer Information Systems Brief

...Computer Information System Brief Tina Monteverdi Accounting Information Systems ACC/542 July 15, 2013 Milan Havel Computer Information System Brief Kudler Fine Foods prides their selves on providing an upscale environment with all of the very best domestic and imported foods and wines. They have an experienced and knowledgeable staff that is able to assist customers. The founder, Kathy Kudler developed a business plan and obtained a financing and was able to open a store all within a six month time a turn that business into a profitable business in the first year. Over the next five years 2 more stores were opened and continuing to thrive. In order to continue growing Kudler’s is evaluating their accounting information system needs and determine if there are changes that can be made to improve their systems with either system changes or technology upgrades, as well as identify an potential technology threats that may need to be addressed. Identify Kudler’s Key business and Accounting Information Needs Kathy Kudler and her management team understand the benefits of a system that would meet the needs of this business and help to continue to thrive. Kudler’s computer system will be used to integrate their point of sale (POS) systems along with their asset management and accounting, accounts payable modules, general ledger, bank reconciliations, and lastly one of the most important systems the security systems. “The initial business plan for Kudler’s included...

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Lotteryticketi

...Five-Step Approach to Unstructured Problems 1. Succinct Statement of the Financial Reporting Issue(s) Provide a brief statement of the accounting issue that includes the characteristics of the transaction that introduce uncertainty about how to record it. How should an expenditure, in this instance to purchase a lottery ticket, which has a high risk of providing no future cash flows be reported? 2. Brief Summary of the Economic Purpose of the Transaction State the reason corporate management has entered into the transaction, or, alternatively, summarize the event that has led to the reporting controversy. (This can be difficult in some practice cases but is usually obvious in the FASB concepts cases.) Phil N. Tropic bought a lottery ticket to participate in a drawing by a local charity. His motive for the purchase is not clear since the purchase may have been made for a chance to win $1 million or to support a local charity. 3. List of Alternative Ways to Report the Transaction List all approaches that have reasonable merit. The objective is to be complete without listing alternatives that are obviously without merit. In developing alternatives, you will often find it helpful to think in terms of i) alternative times when the transaction could be recorded (recognition) and ii) alternative ways to measure the amounts at each time (measurement). (Do not provide journal entries, although you may find it helps you to develop them on scrap paper.) a. Expense...

Words: 1016 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Lottery Ticket Case Ii Solution

...Five-Step Approach to Unstructured Problems 1. Succinct Statement of the Financial Reporting Issue(s) Provide a brief statement of the accounting issue that includes the characteristics of the transaction that introduce uncertainty about how to record it. How should an expenditure, in this instance to purchase a lottery ticket, which has a risk of providing no future cash flows be reported? 2. Brief Summary of the Economic Purpose of the Transaction State the reason corporate management has entered into the transaction, or, alternatively, summarize the event that has led to the reporting controversy. (This can be difficult in some practice cases but is usually obvious in the FASB concepts cases.) Phil N. Tropic bought a lottery ticket to participate in a drawing by a local charity. His motive for the purchase is not clear since the purchase may have been made for a chance to win $100-$100,000 or to support a local charity. 3. List of Alternative Ways to Report the Transaction List all approaches that have reasonable merit. The objective is to be complete without listing alternatives that are obviously without merit. In developing alternatives, you will often find it helpful to think in terms of i) alternative times when the transaction could be recorded (recognition) and ii) alternative ways to measure the amounts at each time (measurement). (Do not provide journal entries, although you may find it helps you to develop them on scrap paper.) ...

Words: 1047 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Final Report

...COMPANY DATA BRIEF HISTORY/BACKGROUND OF THE COMPANY/COMPANY PROFILE It was a fairy tale story for the creative woman Florencia Guanzon-Coronel from a little girl wearing pretty dresses which made her look like a little princess began to attract attention by the fine wardrobe she wore, all made by her mother. Together with her husband, businessman Eduardo Coronel, had a genius idea to establish Cinderella Dresses Incorporated when the news Florencia’s talent rouse high demands. Cinderella, the country’s premium specialty store started with children’s clothes as its main line when it was established in 1948. Soon after, its marketing arm, Cinderella Marketing Corporation was also founded. As it pushed deeper into the fashion scene since its establishment, Cinderella has evolved to become one of the top clothing retailers in the Philippines with 251 stores and affiliate stores nationwide, presently offering not only children’s wear but men’s and ladies. Cinderella has proven itself as one of the best among merchants; being included in the hall of fame of outstanding Filipino traders by the Philippine retailers Association and the Department of Trade and Industry in 1998 and 1999. Cinderella remains to play a major role in the evolution of the Philippine’s fashion history as it continues not only to adapt but also set local fashion trends. INCLUSIVE DATES OF TRAINING The training was started on November 9, 2015 and ended on January 22, 2016. The training days were......

Words: 540 - Pages: 3