Premium Essay

Britain Drives the European Bus

In: Historical Events

Submitted By begs
Words 2292
Pages 10
By the end of World War Two, Britain as the European victor of the war was looking towards not only rebuilding their own economy and society but also to taking a larger role in leading the rebuilding of a powerful Western Europe. Britain wanted to be treated as an equal by their victorious partners after WWII, the US and USSR, and the British leaders believed this could be accomplished by the creation of a unified Western bloc in Europe. From 1945 until 1957 with the signing of the Treaty of Rome, Britain was successful in leading Western Europe through leadership in post war reconstruction, economic arrangements, security, and atomic weapons. Britain’s commitment to being a world power as well as their widespread influence overseas also helped the British to maintain a leadership role in Western Europe despite French ideas of British Americanization. Overall, despite occasional moments of weakness, Britain was essentially the driver of the “European bus” from 1945 until 1957 when the British decided they no longer wanted to be on board the European bus. World War II devastated Western Europe both physically and economically but provided an opportunity for Britain to take a leading role in the reconstruction process. Reconstruction became the immediate concern for Britain and their Western European neighbors. Britain’s leading role in Western Europe was sparked by their success in post war reconstruction beginning with their role in the Marshall Plan funding by the United States. The British recognized the need to rebuild Western Europe in order to prevent Soviet Union communist influence. Lord Inverchapel sent a note to the United States stating the inability of Britain to fund Greece and Turkey who were facing threats of Communism takeover. This note helped to form the containment policy in the United States through the creation of the Truman...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Driving in Great Britain

...INF38 Driving in Great Britain (GB) as a visitor or a new resident For more information go to www.direct.gov.uk/driving 19656 8/12 Contents 1 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA licences) 2 Northern Ireland driving licences 3 Countries we have agreements with for exchanging licences (designated countries) 4 Licences from Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man 5 All other countries 6 Driving in Great Britain as a student 7 How to exchange your non-GB licence for a GB licence 8 How to apply for a provisional GB driving licence 9 How to get our forms and leaflets 10 Further information 11 Quick summary table 3 6 6 8 8 10 10 12 12 12 14 This leaflet explains the current rules affecting people who have non-GB driving licences and are visiting, or have come to live in, Great Britain. All drivers must meet the minimum age requirements for driving in Great Britain. Generally, you must be: n 17 to drive a car or a motorcycle n 18 to drive a medium-sized vehicle (for example, a vehicle between 3500kg and 7500kg with a trailer up to 750kg), and n 21 to drive a large lorry or a bus. Booklet INS57P, ‘Information on driving licences’, gives more information on minimum ages. The information in this booklet applies to both ‘ordinary’ and ‘vocational’ licences (see below). Vocational licences A vocational licence is one that entitles you to drive minibuses and buses, and medium-sized or large vehicles weighing over 3500kg and able to tow a trailer......

Words: 3457 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Aboriginal Resistance

...The European invasion of Australia in 1770 was the beginning of a series of events and imposed policies that would change the way of life for Aboriginal people forever. When settlers first arrived on the shores of what is now called Botany Bay, they failed to see a people of rich culture, with an intricate kinship system and highly developed system of customary law. Instead they set out to degrade Aboriginal cultures and deny the existence of custodial ownership of the land (Newbury, 1999, p. 25). Over the next two hundred years, the government would introduce a number of policies that would continue this destructive ideal and aim to control Indigenous people, including their culture, beliefs and movements across the country. Although these policies had a major effect on Indigenous people there are many stories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people resisting the European invasion. Captain James Cook landed on the east coast of Australia, specifically in Botany Bay, home of the Eora people and claimed possession under the doctrine of ‘terra nullius’. British law at the time stated that Britain could only take possession of another country if it was not inhabited or through negotiation or war. The British ignored these laws, invading and settling on Aboriginal land (NSW Education and Communities, 2013, para. 1). British settlers went about removing trees, reducing availability of food and other resources, brought in livestock which contaminated the waterways......

Words: 1662 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

French Affair with London

...The French love affair with London Will the British and the French ever understand each other? “Rosbifs” are well known as the discoverer of binge drinking, they are awful cook and hypocritical. On the other side of the Channel, the “Froggies” are uppity, unclean and always on strike. Both keep clichés going and issues of dispute are not lacking as the debate between Sarkozy and Cameron at one of the last European convention demonstrated. Jean Guiffan has supported in Histoire de l’anglophonie en France (2004) that almost 15% of the French people declared not to trust their neighbours across the Channel. On the other hand, they demonstrate respect for each other when they walked hand-in-hand through les Champs-Elysées to celebrate the centenary of the Entente Cordiale in 2004. Part of our common history would make us think that French and English people do not get along but the French community in London is one of the most extensive and well established around Great Britain. At first sight, some cultural differences may simply be too wide to bridge. It is not easy to ignore the ancient rivalry when the station of the Eurostar in London is called Waterloo. William the Conqueror, Jean of Arc, the Hundred Years’ War, the Napoleonic Wars, and the race for colonies: from the cradle, French and English people feed their hard feelings. For example, “Son of British” was a common insult in Middle Ages in France (Zeldin, 2002). Anglophobia was an heirloom handed down from......

Words: 2505 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

M&S Case Study

...Quality for Money, Fashionable. Parents used to shop there - historical. Value proposition: Traditional department store. Value achieved by technologists, selectrs to design y dedicatd suppliers. all sold under same brand. network of well located stores. powerfull functional group - food clothes. fabric with japanese houses to try o work towards easy care fabrics with customers in mind. Fashion drove mns in 90s. industry influences customer choice. Rsetless - ho can we improve, how can we move forward, what can we do better, how can we innovate. Brand recognition. M&S 1. Value proposition and how was it provided? 2. What went wrong? Not tackling fundamental issues which were building up. Didnt lose many customers but lost touch with them. Over stock problem which led to heavy discounting, and didnt learn lesson as same thing happened again. Firm was pretending that everything was ok and short term issue for too long which later came as a suprise when dividends were cut. Competitors moved off shore, cheaper products of same quality and later even better quality. MNS had to take detail out of their product. Had to get Buying right as otherwise company couldnt recover. Suppliers tried to help as they were moving offshore but MNS didnt react fast enough. Didndt have fantastic product anymore. Ignored innovation in food. Lost direct command over the supply chain. 3. What is your assessment of Luc's approach? Took advantage of people feeling...

Words: 2613 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Research Paper

...Transport policy in 2011: a new direction? RESEARCH PAPER 11/22 2 March 2011 This paper outlines the changes made to transport policy by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government and looks at some of the long term transport challenges the government is likely to face over the course of this Parliament. It complements and updates House of Commons research paper 10/28, Transport policy in 2010: a rough guide. Louise Butcher Matthew Keep Recent Research Papers 11/05 Social Indicators 18.01.11 11/06 Scotland Bill [Bill 115 of 2010-11] 19.01.11 11/07 Estates of Deceased Persons (Forfeiture Rule and Law of 19.01.11 Succession) Bill [Bill 8 of 2010-11] 11/08 Unemployment by Constituency, January 2011 19.01.11 11/09 Fixed-term Parliaments Bill: Commons Stages 21.01.11 11/10 UK Defence and Security Policy: A New Approach? 21.01.11 11/11 Health and Social Care Bill [Bill 132 of 2010-11] 27.01.11 11/12 Economic Indicators, February 2011 01.02.11 11/13 Anonymity (Arrested Persons) Bill [Bill 9 of 2010-11] 02.02.11 11/14 Education Bill [Bill 137 of 2010-11] 03.02.11 11/15 Budget Responsibility and National Audit Bill [HL] 08.02.11 [Bill 143 of 2010-11] 11/16 The Local Government Finance Settlement 2011-13 08.02.11 11/17 Legislation (Territorial Extent) Bill [Bill 10 of 2010-11] 08.02.11 11/18 Wash-up......

Words: 27685 - Pages: 111

Premium Essay

Lexicology. Different Dialects and Accents of English.Doc

...Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial variants of a national language and local dialects. Variants of a language are regional varieties of a standard literary language characterized by some minor peculiarities in the sound system, vocabulary and grammar and by their own literary norms. Standard English – the official language of Great Britain taught at schools and universities, used by the press, the radio and the television and spoken by educated people may be defined as that form of English which is current and literary, substantially uniform and recognized as acceptable wherever English is spoken or understood. Its vocabulary is contrasted to dialect words or dialectisms belonging to various local dialects. Local dialects are varieties of the English language peculiar to some districts and having no normalized literary form. Regional varieties possessing a literary form are called variants. Dialects are said to undergo rapid changes under the pressure of Standard English taught at schools and the speech habits cultivated by radio, television and cinema. The differences between the English language as spoken in Britain. The USA, Australia and Canada are immediately noticeable in the field of phonetics. However these distinctions are confined to the articulatory-acoustic characteristics of some phonemes, to some differences in the use of others and to the differences in the rhythm and intonation of speech. The few phonemes...

Words: 3803 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Marketing Strategies and Segmentation Sunway Lagoon

...Air Pollution Air pollution is caused by many things * the increasing number of cars on our roads * growing cities * the fast development of our economy * industrialisation Air pollution, as we know it today, started with the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 19th century. In the last few decades, it has become the major problem for our environment. Clean air is normally made up of nitrogen (76 %) , oxygen (22%) , carbon dioxide and a few other gases. When harmful elements get into the air they may cause health problems and can also damage the environment, buildings and soil. They make the ozone layer thinner and thinner and lead to the warming of the earth’s atmosphere and climate changes. Our modern life style has led to dirtier air over the years. Factories, vehicles of all kinds, the growing number of people are some things that are responsible for air pollution today. But not all pollution in the air is caused by people. Forest fires, dust storms and volcanoeruptions can lead to the pollution of the atmosphere.   Major pollutants and where they come from Carbon monoxide is a colourless gas that is set free when wood, petrol or coal are not completely burned. It is also in products like cigarettes. Because of it , less oxygen enters our blood and it makes us confused and sleepy. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that gets into the atmosphere when we burn coal , oil or wood. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are gases that come......

Words: 1563 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Xiaomi

...African Journal of Business Management Vol.6 (22), pp. 6456-6464, 6 June, 2012 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM DOI: 10.5897/AJBM11.2673 ISSN 1993-8233 ©2012 Academic Journals Review Key issues in cross-cultural business communication: Anthropological approaches to international business Tian Guang* and Dan Trotter Shantou University, Shantou City, Guangdong Province, Southern China. Accepted 8 March, 2012 Cultural factors have long been known to influence the communication and success potential of competition. Cultural awareness shapes how business firms behave in cross-culturally reflected international markets. It is broadly recognized that cultural factors act as invisible barriers in international business communications. Understanding cultural differences is one of the most significant skills for firms to develop in order to have a competitive advantage in international business. This paper probes some key elements of cross-cultural issues in international business communication and provides a framework for creating competitive advantage for firms engaged in international business. Culture affects many aspects of international business communication. It impacts free trade policies, localization and standardization strategy decisions, advertising, brand effectiveness, business relationships, international business management, international marketing, international negotiation, and consumer behavior. Seven themes are suggested as......

Words: 6912 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality

...Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality By the same author Britain – Workshop or Service Centre to the World? The British Hotel and Catering Industry The Business of Hotels (with H. Ingram) Europeans on Holiday Higher Education and Research in Tourism in Western Europe Historical Development of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart) Holiday Surveys Examined The Management of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart eds) Managing Tourism (ed.) A Manual of Hotel Reception (with J.R.S. Beavis) Paying Guests Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (with D.W. Airey) Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century (with A. Lockwood eds) Tourism and Productivity Tourism Council of the South Pacific Corporate Plan Tourism Employment in Wales Tourism: Past, Present and Future (with A.J. Burkart) Trends in Tourism: World Experience and England’s Prospects Trends in World Tourism Understanding Tourism Your Manpower (with J. Denton) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality S. Medlik Third edition OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803 First published 1993 Reprinted (with amendments) 1994 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2003 Copyright © 1993, 1996, 2003, S. Medlik. All rights reserved The right of S. Medlik to be identified as the author of this work has been......

Words: 133754 - Pages: 536

Free Essay

Transit Price Elasticities and Cross-Elasticities

...www.vtpi.org Info@vtpi.org 250-360-1560 Transit Price Elasticities and Cross-Elasticities 25 May 2012 Todd Litman Victoria Transport Policy Institute Abstract This paper summarizes price elasticities and cross elasticities for use in public transit planning. It describes how elasticities are used, and summarizes previous research on transit elasticities. Commonly used transit elasticity values are largely based on studies of short- and medium-run impacts performed decades ago when real incomes where lower and a larger portion of the population was transit dependent. As a result, they tend to be lower than appropriate to model long-run impacts. Analysis based on these elasticity values tends to understate the potential of transit fare reductions and service improvements to reduce problems such as traffic congestion and vehicle pollution, and understate the long-term negative impacts that fare increases and service cuts will have on transit ridership, transit revenue, traffic congestion and pollution emissions. Originally published as “Transit Price Elasticities and Cross-Elasticities,” Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 7, No. 2, (www.nctr.usf.edu/jpt/pdf/JPT 7-2 Litman.pdf), 2004, pp. 37-58. Todd Litman  2004-2011 You are welcome and encouraged to copy, distribute, share and excerpt this document and its ideas, provided the author is given attribution. Please send your corrections, comments and suggestions for improvement. Transit Elasticities and......

Words: 10334 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Stonehenge

...The Stonehenge is located in the county Wilshire, which is about an hour and forty minutes drive, east of London. Long before the first construction of the monument was built, the Stonehenge landscape already used to contain long barrows, communal burial mounds of people from the Early Neolithic Period, around 4000 BC. The Stonehenge cursus, a 3 kilometer long and 100 meters wide strip of land outlined by two earthern banks found near Stonehenge also comes from about the same time (Ruggles et al). It is important to note that the Stonehenge is built in stages. The circular earthen ditch and bank is the earliest known development in Stonehenge, probably built using the antler of a red deer. It was developed during the Middle Neolithic period, around 2950 BC (Ruggles et al). The monument originally comprised of a ring made of 56 pits, known as the Aubrey holes, named after the antiquarian and scholar, John Aubrey who first discovered and recorded the holes in 1666 (Jack). These holes erected Bluestones that came from the Preseli Mountain in South wales, about 250 kilometers away (Pearson). These Bluestones were around 2 meters long and weigh several tons each (Ruggles et al). It took a lot of effort for prehistoric people to transport the heavy Bluestones from Whales to England; this suggests that the people who first created the monument placed significant importance on the Bluestones. The Station Stones and Heelstone (with a missing companion) were also put at about the same......

Words: 3526 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Politics

...’ * ‘The historic homeland of the Jews was in the land of Israel.’ * ‘Since its establishment, Zionists continue to support it.’ * ‘It encourages the migration of Jews to Israel.’ * ’40% of Jews live in Israel and this % is rising.’ * ‘Zionism wants to strengthen and protect Jews and the State o What problems faced Palestine in 1945 Civil disruption.‘ * Large numbers of Jews wanted to go to Palestine.’ * ‘The US was supporting a state of Israel.’ * ‘Should immigration be allowed?’ * ‘Campaigns of violence by the Irgun.’ Why did Britain decide to hand Palestine over to the United Nations * ‘It did not want to stay.’ * ‘Because of the cost.’ * ‘There was violence.’ * ‘Because of its view of Zionism.’ * ‘The pressure from the Irgun.’ * ‘Because of the guerrilla campaign. Explains why * ‘At the end of the war Britain was under great pressure to change its policy and allow in survivors of the holocaust. They refused and this brought about violent protest.’ * ‘The Irgun deliberately attacked and killed British soldiers including the explosion at the King David Hotel. The violence from the Irgun was intended to persuade the British to leave.’ * ‘Because the Arabs continued to block any proposals regarding partition.’ * ‘The British were finding it too expensive to keep large numbers of troops there, especially having just fought a costly war.’ How far was the war of 1948-49 a......

Words: 87832 - Pages: 352

Premium Essay

Toyota in Europe

...Toyota’s History Global Toyota Toyota in Europe The Toyota Production System 30 5. Customer First 34 6. Sustainability: Economic, Environmental and Social Stewardship 38 7. The Vehicle Line-Up 46 8. Motorsport & Formula One 58 9. The Toyota Work Experience 60 4 | Toyota’s European Network March 2008 edition | 3 Foreword Dear Reader, Since the early 1960’s, Toyota’s presence in Europe has grown and changed, keeping pace with the changing vehicle tastes and requirements of the European public. Since 1992, when the first of our European production facilities was opened in the UK, Toyota has invested almost €7 billion throughout Europe. We now employ approximately 80,000 people and have nine European manufacturing facilities. But the construction of vehicle and engine assembly plants is only part of the story. In 2007, we also expanded our technical centre in Belgium, investing an additional €75 million to ensure that Toyota and Lexus vehicles continue to meet the high engineering and design standards of European customers. Another major investment was the new European Global Production Centre in the UK, established for the training of production staff and supervisors from all over Europe. Toyota also continues to invest heavily in the training of our engineering and management staff, as well as our retail and marketing teams. Programmes such as Toyota’s Graduate Development Programme, the School for......

Words: 15028 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay

Quality

...Management Quality and Competitiveness Christoph H. Loch Stephen E. Chick Arnd Huchzermeier ● Management Quality and Competitiveness Lessons from the Industrial Excellence Award Prof. Dr. Christoph H. Loch INSEAD Boulevard de Constance 77305 Fontainebleau Cedex France christoph.loch@insead.edu Prof. Dr. Arnd Huchzermeier WHU-Otto Beisheim School of Management Burgplatz 2 56179 Vallendar Germany ah@whu.edu Prof. Stephen E. Chick INSEAD Boulevard de Constance 77305 Fontainebleau Cedex France stephen.chick@insead.edu ISBN 978-3-540-79183-6 e-ISBN 978-3-540-79184-3 Library of Congress Control Number: 2008925414 © 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and...

Words: 62386 - Pages: 250

Free Essay

Ramhisjhhsgjhgkajhg, Hskjhdkjhsvkajs,.Gsjhgdjahsgda, Gsjghsgdasjhd, Hsgdlahsdglshd

...March 2013 HIGHLIGHTS There were 6.2 million visitor arrivals for year ending March 2013, an increase of 4.9 per cent relative to the previous year. There were 1.7 million visitor arrivals to Australia during the three months to March 2013, an increase of 5.4 per cent relative to the same period of the previous year. There were 588,500 visitor arrivals during March 2013, an increase of 8.1 per cent relative to the same period of the previous year. Key trends by market are outlined below Download the visitors by market chart[->0]. New Zealand · There were 99,100 visitors from New Zealand during March 2013, bringing the total for the three months to March to 255,000 an increase of 2.9 per cent relative to the same period of the previous year. Europe · There were 71,300 visitors from the United Kingdom during March 2013, bringing the total for the three months to March to 193,300, a decrease of 0.6 per cent relative to the same period previous year. · There were 16,000 visitors from Germany during March 2013, bringing the total for the three months to March to 47,300, an increase of 4.2 per cent relative to the same period previous year. · There were 8,300 visitors from France during March 2013, bringing the total for the three months to March to 27,200 an increase of 5.8 per cent relative to the same period previous year. The Americas · There were 50,000 visitors from the United States of America during March 2013, bringing the total for the three months......

Words: 4250 - Pages: 17