Free Essay

Bruce Tuckman

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Berbatovka
Words 837
Pages 4
University of Westminster
Westminster Business School

Module code and title: BKEY401 Perspective in organisations

Teamwork Theory: Bruce Tuckman

Student name: Rumyana Karaisenova
Student ID number: w1548746

Seminar leader name: Xanthy Kallis

Word Count: 718

Date: 04/11/15

Bruce Tuckman is American psychologist best know for his theory called “Tuckman’s stages of group development". Tuckman’s theory is one of the most famous group development theories. His theory has been use for a lot further developments group theories including Belbin’s group theory, Fishers theory and Tubbs small group theory. Tuckman’s model is significant because it recognizes the fact that groups do not start such as a fully-formed and functioning group and finish like one whole. He suggests, that teams improve their performance through clearly defined stages, from their creation as groups of different people, to good organized, focused, task solving group.

First developed in 1965, Tuckman’s model is worldly known as a basis for effective group building. The value of Tuckman’s model is, that it helps us to understand that the teams are development and improve themselves in different part of their work. According to Tuckman groups go through five stages, they are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. The first stage is the forming: this is where the group see each other for the first time and the task is given to them. The next phase is storming. This is the stage where the group is more open mind, give new ideas and searching for right decision to solve the task. The next stage is norming, it is occurring when the group begin what Tuckman calls ‘a”patching-up”phase’ (Tuckman 1965: 392). Next one is performing. This is the stage when the group is working together, they accepted each other and the group is concentrated to solve the problem. The final stage is adjourning- this is the most important stage because team is complete the task in best way for performing. According to Tuckman, "All the phases are necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, to face challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work and to deliver results”. (Tuckman 1965).

Tuckman’s model has a lot of advantages in understanding and completing group tasks. For young generation knowing of Tuckman theory is helpful for their development such as leader or working as a part of team, as well it helps you to develop like a person. This model has a huge rank of use around the students these days. Its can be really useful for all students to finish their task at the university or help them to give the best performing at their workplace.
There are two main benefits of using Tuckman’s theory of group working. First, motivating each person in the group and achieve the greater result with solving problem. Secondly, it can help you to understand the behavior of other people in the group in better way, so you can avoid fights.

Tuckman’s five process model is a standard framework for understanding team development (Kazmierski et al, 2001) and clearly illustrates the thought process of teams, starting from the moment that the group is created until the end when the group finish their task, and has the capability to show in which areas they need to focus to finish their task in best way and function like one person. Nevertheless, it can also be argued that the model is just too linear and theoretical (Clegg, 2011). However, it seems too unrealistic and have a few disadvantages for modern days’ teams to follow this kind of group structure due to the increase of new technologies and different organizational cultures which would have dramatically changed since Tuckman’s five stages were development. One of this disadvantages is working with the other people in a group, now days have completely different understanding. In this century of technologies sometimes is not necessary to be at the same room, neither at the same county people can use web cameras, conferencing conservation and much more technologies that can be useful to finish their group task. This argument can go as far as to say that, Tuckman’s development theory is simply outdated for modern organizations (Clegg, 2011).

Tuckman’s teamwork theory has his own advantages and disadvantages. The two most important insights that this brings are the understanding the behavior of the people in the group and solving the problem in best way. Now days Tuckman’s model is improved from the other teamwork theorists, but it is still left the most famous and easy for understanding team work model.

Reference list

King, D., Lawley, S. (2013) Organizational behavior, Oxford University Press. Pp 177-183

Tuckman, B. 1965. Developmental sequence in small groups. Psyhological Bulletin 63(6): 384-399

Tuckman, Bruce W., & Jensen, Mary Ann C. (1977). ‘Stages of small group development revisited’, Group and Organizational Studies, 2, 419- 427.

Kazmierski, S., Lilly, C. (2001) The Group Organics Model, Vol.33, No.2

Clegg, S. (2011) Managing and Organisations: An introduction to Theory and Practice, SAGE

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Forgot

...their designated sections, however, with the exception of Mike, the only member who is deeply troubled by his course, job, and lovelife problems. Now, `Christine is being troubled on how the group overall mark could be raised without having the group’s contribution as a whole considering the fact that Mike could help a lot, and that the activity is accounted for as a group and not individually. 1 . How could an understanding of the stages of group development assist Christine in leadership situations such as this one ? Christine’s knowledge of the stages of group development would aid her in dealing with group conflicts entailing leadership. On her case, she has no problem on the first stage of mutual acceptance( or forming stage in Bruce Tuckman) because she knows how to adapt to different kind of persons, as well as with the other members, as evidenced by the first impressions of each personality. Christine is now having trouble with the latter stages-decision-making process, motivation and commitment,control and sanctions stage (norming, storming, performing,adjourning stage). Since she already knew the weak stages, she could focus better on the...

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Development Stages of Community Groups

...Describe The Main Development Stages of Community Groups. In relation to the main development stages of community groups, we looked at the ‘Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing-Adjourning’ model devised by Bruce Tuckman, in 1965 (‘Adjourning Stage’ was added in 1977). “Tuckman maintained that these phases are necessary and inevitable for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results”. Forming (Formation Stage) – In which the group is just coming together, often characterised by uncertainty. At this stage, individuals are gathering information and impressions – about each other, and about the scope of the task and how to approach it. There is great reliance on the leader (Community Development Practitioner) for guidance and direction. Storming (Dissatisfaction Stage) – In which differences between members surface and minor confrontations take place. Cliques and factions form and there may be power struggles – an uncomfortable stage! A challenging phase for the Community Development Worker who must help the group focus on its goals and resolve conflict and any trust issues effectively – compromise may be required to enable progress. Norming (Resolution Stage) – In which the tasks of the group are clear and agreed – all members feel part of a team, take responsibility and have ambition to help achieve perceived goals. There is better understanding between group members and mutual respect for one......

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Group Process

...member must respect each other and follow through with assigned tasks to strengthen trust within the group. If communication and trust break down within a team, the team will not progress and will cease to function. Having strong communication will help ensure that a team is successful. Trust between team members is essential to keep communication lines open. Each team member has a responsibility to respect and be honest with the entire group. Having a contract in place that defines responsibilities and goals will help clarify goals and expectations which the team has collaborated on together. By so doing, the team as a whole will be able to communicate clearly, productivity will be high, and their ability to reach their end goals is strong. Bruce Wayne Tuckerman, born in 1938, has carried out research into the theory of group dynamics. In 1965, he published one of his theories called “Tuckermans’ Stages.” The stages are forming, storming, norming, and performing. Within the business setting, the shift from yesterday’s “singular” culture to today’s “team” culture has brought about a new era of learning, development, and innovation. However, this shift has also brought with it a certain...

Words: 2143 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Personnel Issues

...started showing up late on a continuous basis, we should have addressed the conflict head-on instead of holding it in and allowing it to fester (Lencioni, 2002). Now that most of us have attempted to do the same thing and were written up for it, it has changed the temperament of the team. I’m pissed off because I was late once and was made to believe that I was the one responsible for the team’s demise. All the good work that I’ve done went out the window in comparison to taking my time getting to work. The work in the group is mediocre. No has any faith in anyone’s opinion and we’re barely meeting deadlines without management having to intervene to resolve major conflicts. I just want out and re-assigned to another section. The Bruce Tuckman model depicted groups in two dimensions, interpersonal relationships and task activity. He created a four-stage model that each group had positively surpass each phase in order to be able to function efficiently as a...

Words: 605 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Dr Bruce Tuckman

...Dr Bruce Tuckman first published his theory in 1965 this theory included the Forming Storming Norming and Performing. In the 1970s he decided to also add a fifth stage to his theory this was the Adjourning stage. The Forming Storming Norming Performing theory is a useful description of team development and behaviour. , G. (2015). The first stage of the Tuckman’s theory is the forming stage. During this period of time the group are getting to know each of their team members. The team leader guides the group through this first stage. The Storming stage, during this stage the group start the disagree and lack unity, as they find it challenging to work together as a team this could be due to the fact all team members have different working styles....

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Forming, Storming, and Norming

...Group Counseling COU 6350 Faulkner University In my research on Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing, I discovered that the phrase of Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing was coined in 1965 by psychologist Bruce Tuckman. He described that most teams follow a consistent path from the point when they are first assembled to the time when they become a highly proficient highly effective group. This path leads them through four stages; Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing. The Forming stage begins when new group members are brought together. You might have some members that are apprehensive, talkative, some are very positive and polite some might be a little anxious, and excited. Whatever each group member possesses they bring to the table. The group members are unaware of what lies ahead. This stage is usually short compared to the other stages. The Storming stages are when each group member is explained what is expected, and what the goals are. Processes and structures are put in effect. Now the group may be filling frustrated and overwhelmed by the participation they must have. They realities and challenges that are ahead are setting in. The may become stressed with how much they must accomplish and they are unsure about their participation that is required with an unfamiliar leader and new group members. They realize that they don’t know each other and they began to form opinions of one another. The may be seeking the approval of the group leader or...

Words: 515 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Problem Based Learning

...Group Dynamics The purpose of this assignment is to reflect upon an event that occurred within the Problem Based Learning (PBL) group. I will therefore, aim to discuss theories on group work as well as whether any of these theories actually applied to my own personal experience. By doing this will enable me to identify how effective my role may possibly have been within the group, furthermore, how I may be able to improve my individual skills for the future. In order to be able to do this successfully I am required to use the Gibbs Reflective Cycle (1988). The group that I was a part of consisted of six people, all of whom were from a mix of three different pathways, these included nursing, social workers and occupational therapists. The aim of which, was that we should learn to interact inter-professionally as part of a team. Therefore, the scenario that I plan to focus my assignment around was an incident that occurred at the end of the first five weeks, when we were deemed able to present our findings as a group on our first trigger. Consequently, it was decided that we would each present our respective areas of research in relation to the trigger, showing that all aspects had been covered. Therefore, each member of the group had a chosen topic to find out information on, and to prepare it ready for presentation. When we first started as a group for this module, a leader was chosen, as a result we as a group had decided that if anyone were unable to make it in...

Words: 1524 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Group Dynamics Apollo 13

...GE347 Group dynamics are important to achieving a set of goals set forth by a group of individuals. Groups follow a course of cohesion and function. Research has been done to understand group dynamics. One of the most accepted models is that of Bruce Tuckman. His research shows groups follow a set path of Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. The movie Apollo 13 gives several examples of Tuckman’s model. In this essay we will follow Jim Lovell and his steps in group dynamics through out the movie. When the movie begins you can see that there is a barbeque going on at Jim Lovell’s house. You could draw the conclusion that Jim has worked with the others before at some point. This is where the forming begins Jim invites other astronauts over to watch the first landing on the moon. All of these men have a common goal, which is going to the moon. This is also Jim’s interpersonal need to be around others who want to go to the moon as well. The next phase is the storming phase. We know that people don’t always get along in groups. One great example of this is when Jim, Fred and Ken are in the simulator running case scenarios. They are done with the last case scenario in the simulator Jim and Fred are ready to go home. Ken tells them that he wants to run it again. Jim and Fred think that they should go home and rest that they will have time another day to practice to get it perfect. Because of Jims individual goal, getting to the moon he gives into Ken’s request to do......

Words: 796 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Best Practices for Teamwork

...working together and the benefits that it brings to the company, they are more likely to embrace group efforts and collaborative approaches to problem solving. This paper will examine the best practices and behaviors that support effective team interactions. Health care leaders are tasked with gathering and uniting individuals into a cohesive, high functioning unit able to solve complex problems. Great teams do not happen by chance, they are developed through training and time invested. However, each team is unique, and vary in size, scope and objectives. Regardless of their specific tasks, or settings, effective teams are guided by basic principles that can be not only measured, but also analyzed, learned and replicated. In 1965, Bruce Tuckman introduced Tuckman’s model for group process. This model outlines the six steps necessary for developing an effective team. The steps that comprise this model are informing, forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The informing stage the teams views each other as stranger. In many groups, “forming” is the stage when some members express their desire not to stay in the group as members. Others may express their ambivalence about becoming part of the group and, if given the opportunity to dropout, may leave. (Seck, 2014) The norming stage is where...

Words: 896 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Tuckman's Model Summary

...Tuckman’s model: states team formation take time and often go through recognisable stages as they change from being collections of strangers to becoming united groups with common goals. Tuckman’s forming, norming, storming and performing model described these stages. Forming: a. Members are positive and polite. b. Some are anxious as they have not fully understood what work to do. c. Others are simply excited about the task ahead. Storming: a. People start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. b. Many people fail here. Norming: a. People resolve their differences here. b. Socialize together and ask each other for help and provide constructive feedback. Performing: a. Goals are achieved without friction. Team workers: are those who provide support and make sure that people within the team are working. Resources investigators: explore available options, develop contacts and negotiate for resources on behalf of the teams. Plant: are the creative innovators who come up with new ideas and approaches. Specialist: are the experts. They have the specialised knowledge which is needed to get the job done. Implementer: get things done. Completers: see that projects are thoroughly completed. Belbin’s theory identified nine team roles and he categorised those roles into three groups: 1. Action oriented 2. People orientated 3. Thought orientated, each team role is associated with typical behavioural and interpersonal strength. Action orientated......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Unit 6 Discussion Of Chaining

...ABA 1 Unit 6 Discussion Chaining is a specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition. Each discrete response and the associated stimulus condition serve as an individual component of the chain (Cooper). A completion of one specific behavior in the chain leads to the next specific action in the chain. All steps have to be completed correctly in order to move forward and gain mastery of the behavior. • Define target behavior • Reinforce successive elements of the chain • Monitor the results Shaping is the process of systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior (Cooper). Shaping helps the person get closer to mastery by providing reinforcements along...

Words: 558 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Leadership Analysis

...A transformational leader is defined as “a leader who influences, inspired, mobilizes, and transforms followers to achieve organizational goals beyond their self-interests” (Weiss 2011). Effective transformational leadership consists of four factors known as the “four I’s”. They are: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation. The first female Prime Minister of Jamaica, Portia Simpson Miller, is using these traits to transform Jamaica from rule under the British monarchy to a republic and is using charisma, the “four I’s”, and ethical leadership to bring about the change that Jamaican citizens are asking for. Charisma played an important role in PM Simpson Miller’s bid for reelection. Successfully campaigning for a second term in office despite being removed from that very office after little more than a year, truly takes charisma and political fortitude indeed. After a recount in the 2007 elections, Simpson Miller conceded defeat but three years later, she successfully campaigned for and won the seat of PM again despite “a relentless negative advertising campaign that ‘demonised’ her, mocked her intellectual capacity, managerial competence and unsuitability” (Robinson 2012) for the position of Prime Minister. Another hurdle the new PM had to overcome was discontent over US$400 million that was mishandled during her short term in office. In the true style of charismatic leaders, Simpson Miller created and......

Words: 1255 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Popcorn in Hk

...1.0 Executive Summary We are preparing to open a popcorn specialty shop in Hong Kong, the Pop Popcorn Shop. Hong Kong is a famous international tourism city and it successfully received more than 42 million tourists in the past year. Hong Kong has its unique culture and the Hong Kong film culture is one of the most remarkable one. Therefore, our Pop Popcorn Shop will closely integrated with the Hong Kong film culture, and create a well-known local brand image, which can attractive to local residents who like to eat popcorn or like to see movies, and the tourists who interest in the Hong Kong culture or movies. We can effectively compete with other popcorn store because we offer a high quality, various tasty flavors, as well as healthy popcorn with value price to consumers. More importantly, we provide customize service, which customers can make their own flavor popcorn and even the packages according to their preference. The particular customize service as well as the film culture brand image is our two brightest spots, which can make us distinguish with other competitors and become our distinct competencies. The marketing objective in the first year is to build up our brand awareness through our various marketing communication methods and we will continue to focus on increasing our brand equity in the next two years. The primary financial objectives are to achieve first-year sales revenue of HKD1,580,000 (USD 203,820) and reach profitability. The revenue will be expected...

Words: 4996 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Lifecycle and Weapons Training Essay

...Bruce Dawe has effectively used language to help retell some aspects of human experience. This is especially evident in his two poems ‘Weapons Training’ and ‘Life cycle’ . Dawe has used language in many interesting ways to capture human experience and has successfully drawn the attention of the reader through this use of vivid imagery and realistic tone. He has used a variety of language techniques to help bring his poetry to life and as a result, has helped the reader feel involved in what is happening. This causes the reader to sympathise with the human experiences that Dawe is describing. The language techniques in Dawes poetry are very imaginative and creative . The purpose of ‘weapons training ’ is to show the dehumanisation of the training for war in the 1970s on the other hand in the poem ‘Life Cycle’ the purpose is to portray that VFL is more than sport, it is a religion to the persona. The tone of ‘Weapons Training’ is very aggressive and abusive whereas ‘Life Cycle’ is very proud of being a fan and follower of VFL and his team. In ‘Weapons Training’ Bruce Dawe has used language to capture human experience through the use of the rhetorical question used in line 4, ‘are you queer?’. The use of this rhetorical question sets the tone of this human experience/ poem, the tone of brutalisation, of turning a man into a machine, a machine with no feelings or emotions. Questioning a mans sexuality is a great insult to a man, as it portrays to the man that they are...

Words: 931 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Rock and Roll Final

...Final Mixtape Songs: 1. Bob Dylan- Like a Rolling Stone 2. The Beatles- Hey Jude 3. Bruce Springsteen- Born to Run 4. Rolling Stones- Gimme Shelter 5. John Lennon- Imagine 6. Bob Dylan/Jimmy Hendricks- All Along The Watchtower 7. Led Zeppelin- Stairway to Heaven 8. The Beastie Boys- Fight For Your Right 9. Radiohead- Paranoid Android 10. Nirvana- Where Did You Sleep Last Night? Bob Dylan – “Like A Rolling Stone” Written in 1965, Bob Dylan’s most popular song is often cited as one of the most influential songs of the twentieth century with its accusing lyrical content delivered through Dylan’s nasally warble. While the ‘60’s are often remembered as a decade of free love and liberation, Dylan’s question of “How does it feel/To be on your own/With no direction home/A complete unknown/Like a rolling stone,” seems more menacing and sneering, as if implying that these places that this generation has idealized might have been a little harsher than many people are willing to admit. The layered composition of the song was an important stepping-stone of Dylan’s transition of acoustic folkie to world famous bandleader. The Beatles – “Hey Jude” The most popular song by the most popular band to ever exist is a slow-burning ballad written by Paul McCartney that was released in 1968 and stayed at Number One for nine weeks. The verses, which were supposedly written by McCartney to comfort John Lennon’s son Julian during his parents’......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6