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Btec Sports

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Musculoskeletal response:

The short term effects on your muscles include an increase in temperature and metabolic activity. This is the speed at which chemical reactions take place in the body. As a result of this, there is a much greater demand for oxygen because there is an increase of blood supply through the capillary dilation. Once you start to exercise your muscle begin to demand for more oxygen there is also a higher demand of other nutrient like carbohydrates and fats which are need to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Your body uses red blood cells to transport oxygen around your body; your blood vessels expand to allow more blood into your muscles more efficiently and quicker. When there is an increase in blood supply blood is being pumped to the working muscle therefore less oxygen is delivered to the organs that do not require it as much. Heat is produced when doing exercise this comes from friction from muscles contractions, when this happens your body carries the heat in the blood to the surface of your skin which is then removed through sweat. The reason why this occurs is because when your body start to heat up enzymes stop working and cells start to cook this can have a massive affecting the body, so heat is then removed using vasodilation.
Another musculoskeletal response is an increase in muscle pliability this means your muscles adjusts and are more flexible. The reason why your muscle adjust whilst doing exercise is because your muscles contain lactic acid and by doing this the lactic acid present in your muscle clears up due to your muscle adjusting you become more pliable to different movements. The good thing about having pliable muscles you decrease the chances of getting muscle strains this is because your muscles warm up producing heat, form our muscles contracting and creating friction ,this means you’re more likely to pull than to completely tear.
Increased range of movement is another musculoskeletal response. While doing exercise the production of synovial fluids increase in your joints, this causes an increased range of movement. The role of Synovial fluids is to reduce friction between the articular cartilages of synovial joints during movement. The synovial fluid helps to provide a larger range of movement during acute exercises. When the synovial fluid is secreted it becomes less viscous making it easier for a large range of movement to take place.
The last muscular response is muscle fibre micro tears, the stress placed on your muscles during exercise leads to tiny tears in your muscle fibres, your muscles are made up of thousands of fibres. While doing exercise you muscle fibres pull against each other, during or after your exercise you may feel aching in your muscles depending on how intense and the duration of the exercise you are doing. For example when playing a football match you are working your muscles for a long period of time resulting to more pressure being put in your muscles, this results in “microscopic tearing of the fibres”. When you rest after an exercise your body starts to heal which results in your muscles getting strong also it could result in an increase in your muscle. To repair these tears protein is needed.

Energy system:
All movement requires energy. The way in which the body generates energy depends on the intensity and duration of the activity. For example activities like sprinting requires short bursts of energy this requires your body to produce large amounts of energy over a short period, on the other hand when doing a marathon your body requires continued energy product over a long period and at a slower rate. The energy systems in your body facilitate these processes.
Energy is needed to make muscle fibres contract. This energy is gained from the oxidation of foods in the diet, particularly carbohydrate and fat.ATP is formed (which is rich in energy) when these substances are burned in the muscle cell. When ATP is broken down it provides energy for muscle contraction.ATP can be made in three ways: the creatine phosphate system which is also called phosphocreatine, the lactic acid and aerobic energy system.
Phosphocreatine
ATP and phosphocreatine make up the ATP-PCr system. It’s the immediate energy system. Phosphocreatine is a high energy compound. When the intensity of your exercise is high or energy needs are instantaneous, creatine phosphate stored in the muscle is broken down to provide energy to make ATP, when the high energy bond in the PCr is broken, the energy it releases is used to resynthesise ATP. During this process, ATP is normally made without the presence of oxygen, therefore explosive work can be achieved, but only for short periods (up to about 10 seconds) at maximum intensity, as the supply for PCr is very limited.
Creatine phosphate system:
ADP+ creatine phosphate ATP+creatine
Lactic acid energy system
This is the short term energy system. ATP can be used to meet energy requirements for high intensity over a long period, such as during a 400 meter race by the partial breakdown of glucose and glycogen. This is an anaerobic process (it doesn’t include oxygen); around 60 to 90 seconds maximal work is possible using this system. When the ATP-PCr system begins to fade at around 10 seconds, the process of anaerobic glycolysis starts to occur. This system breaks down liver and muscle glycogen stores without the presence of oxygen, this produces lactic acid as a by product. Lactic acid is the limited factor of the anaerobic system. It accumulates and diffuses into the tissue fluid and blood. If this substabce is not removed by the circulatory system , is builds up to impede muscle contraction and causes fatigue,this may have happened to you during intense exercise when you start to feel an uncomfortable burning sensation in your muscles.
Lactic Acid Energy System:
Glucose 2ATP + 2 lactic acid + heat
Glycogen 3ATP + 2 lactic acid + heat
Aerobic energy system:
This is the long term energy system. When oxygen is available. As it is during every day movement and light exercise, glycogen and fatty acids break down to yield large amounts of ATP. This produces co2 (carbon dioxide and H2O (water). This doesn’t affect the muscles ability to contract. The production of Aerobic energy occurs in the mitochondria. Food energy is converted into ATP by your muscle cells through a very complex series of reactions. The difference, relative to the lactic anaerobic energy system, however, is that since oxygen is now available to your muscles no lactic acid will be produced as a by-product. The generation of ATP energy by the aerobic energy system can be continued as long as oxygen is available to your muscles and your food energy supplies don't run out.
Aerobic energy system:
Glucose + oxygen 38 ATP + carbon dioxide + water + heat
Fatty acids + oxygen 129 ATP + carbon dioxide + water + heat
Energy continuum:
The body maintains a continuous supply of energy through the use of adenosine triphophate (ATP), which is often referred to as the energy currency of the body. The body’s ability to take energy from food and transfer it to the contractile proteins in the muscle determines the amount of exercise for different durations at different intensity
ATP consists of a base (adenine) and three phosphate groups. It’s formed by a reaction between an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule and a phosphate. ATP is a versatile molecule which can be used for many things.in the molecules within the chemical bonds energy is stored. Energy is realised when bonds are broken. When a bond is made, energy is stored. When ADP binds with another phosphate, energy is stored that can be used later. Energy requirements for different activities
All three energy systems are active at any given time, different energy systems will be the predominant energy provider depending on the intensity and duration of activity undertaken, here’s what happens when you start running.
• 100m- the dominant system for a 100m sprint is the Phosphocreatine system which lasts for 3-10sec. It produces high amounts of energy through anaerobic glycolysis which produces 1atp per 1pc, the energy required is high as you are working at a high intensity. The fatiguing product in a 100m race is creatine phosphate. Once creatine phosphate becomes unavailable the lactic acid system becomes the pre dominate system
• 400m- the lactic acid is the short energy system. During of a 400m race, the duration is 1-3minutes, the amount of energy needed is 2ATP pre glucose this uses a moderate amount of energy as a 400m running is working at a moderate intensity, the fatigue product in this situation is lactic acid as it builds up.
• 1500m- this is the long term energy system (aerobic energy system) the duration of a 1500m runner is 5 minutes + the amount of energy needed is 38ATP , the energy needed is low as the intensity they are working at is low the fatigue product in this situation is oxygen as it runs out anticipatory response:
The anticipatory response is when your heart rate increases at the start of an exercise. Your heart rate can be charged by chemicals through neurotransmitters, called adrenaline and noradrenaline which are released and found in the brain. These neurotransmitters are the chemicals found and released from the brain which allow an impulse from one nerve cell to pass to another nerve cell. This chemicals tell the heart to get ready for exercise this causes an increase in beats per minute (heart rate increases).
Active response:
Activity response is similar to that of the heart rate anticipatory response. At the start of exercise, cardiovascular activity is detected by the nerves in the brain (in the medulla). The nerves then send out chemical signals to increase the heart rate, as well as the strength at which the heart is pumping. This means more blood, which carries oxygen, is delivered to the working muscle at a faster rate. Some areas in your body will have a higher blood flow if they are exercising.
Increased blood pressure
This is the pressure of the blood in the heart and arteries. This system is responsible for transporting oxygenated blood towards all organs of the body. The level of blood pressure is basically determined by blood volume, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance in blood vessels. Blood pressure is usually shown by two numbers for example 120/80.the former is the systolic pressure that is build up during cardiac contraction whereas the latter relates to the pressure during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. At rest, a typical systolic blood pressure in a healthy individual ranges from 110-140mmHg and 60-90mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure rises progressively while diastolic blood pressure stays the same or decreases slightly. Pulse rates rise and flow to your muscles increases. The body controls blood pressure by expanding and constricting blood vessels all around the body. By expanding/dilating blood vessels, this decreases blood pressure as there is more space for the blood to pass through. When blood vessels contract/constrict, this increases blood pressure as there is a tighter space for all the blood to pass through the blood vessels putting more pressure on the walls of the blood vessels. These techniques can be used to control the amount of blood that goes a specific tissue. Blood vessels are lined with smooth muscle cells. The muscle cells on a blood vessel cannot be controlled voluntarily, they only respond to chemical signals around the body. The signals they respond to give them orders to either contract or expand.
Vasoconstriction
This is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, mostly the larger arteries and small arterioles. There are two ways in which vasoconstriction can be controlled by you. One of the ways to control the vasoconstriction is through the nervous system. The nervous system is in charge of involuntary actions. The nervous system has many neurons all over the body connected with the smooth muscle cells in blood vessels. The neurons release a hormone called adrenaline which causes the smooth muscle cells in blood vessels to contract/constrict another way in which your body can control vasodilatation is also by a hormone but a different one to adrenaline, this one is called vasopressin, which also causes the blood vessels to contract. This happens so that blood is restricted from going places that does not require as much blood as the muscles during exercise such as the kidneys and organs part of the digestive system. When blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted. This involves a decrease in the diameter of the blood vessel, resulting in reduced blood flow to the muscle. This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. Vasodilatation, when exercising, active muscles consume and demand oxygen rapidly. To make up for the used oxygen, muscles produce by-products for example adenosine and carbon dioxide, this makes blood vessels in that area expand/dilate so that this vasodilatation allows a greater amount of oxygenated blood to be delivered to the muscles that are using up the oxygen.
Respiratory
Increased breathing rate:
A short time effect of exercise on the respiratory system is an increase in breathing rate, this happens due to the fact your muscles are demanding more oxygen and also there is an increase in carbon dioxide levels which stimulates faster and deeper breathing. Similar to your heart rate there is an anticipatory rise in breathing rate before exercise, receptors in the muscles and joints send signals to the brain to increase breathing rate.
When carrying out aerobic exersice breathing rate continues to rise, exercise intensity determines whether breathing rate remains constant. Breathing rate continues to rise till the person is exhausted, once the individual has stopped exercising breathing rate will rapidly drop and then slow drop to resting breathing rate.
Our brain is responsible for the control of the breathing rate in the human body. The breathing process involves two different actions;
Expiration which refers to the passive process and the inspiration which refers to the active process.
Chemical factors and neural control breathing in the human body, stretch receptors in the lungs detect the increase in the rate and depth of breathing. The respiratory centres in the brain, the medulla and Pons send nerve impulses to the respiratory muscles which control breathing (diaphragm and intercostals, muscles). Increased tidal volume:
Tidal volume is the column of air you breathe in a single breath. Exercise causes an increase in tidal volume because your requirements for oxygen go up. This increase in measured in different ways depending on when it occurs during your exercise. An increase in tidal volume in necessary to effectively meet your body’s increased oxygen requirements, as an increase in your rate of respiration alone is not sufficient.
Tidal volume is approximately 500ml of air pre breath. However, changes in air requirements, such as those that occur during exercise and changes in your lunges ability to expand and contract.
Our lungs are made up of tissues that can exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen, and also of tissues that cannot. The tidal volume is exchanging carbon dioxide for oxygen. Only the rate will increase the amount of air that we breathe that belongs to the dead space volume, hence, and increase in tidal volume in necessary to help effective gas exchange…...

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