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Internship Report

Submitted By: Poulami Dey MBA/June-July/2010 Semester 4th
Roll no.: 50
Enrolment No: EIILMU/09/ F0741



My summer internship or training with Bajaj Electricals Ltd is a life time experience that I will cherish throughout my carrier .This project has provided a great opportunity to experience the excellent and modern work culture and work process of Bajaj Electrical Ltd.
I wish to thank my respective project guide at the organisation Mr. Kalyan Bhattacharya. His guidance was extremely useful throughout my project work in giving me the detailed understanding of the entire product portfolio and the overall industry overview. I would also wish to thank all the distributers and group of dealers who shared their extremely important time to equip me with the important and valuable organizational insights and helping me to prepare the project.
Along with the corresponding people at the organisation, I am sincerely thankful to our internal guide Prof, Anirban Dutta, who has helped me with the adequate academic insight whenever it was required. I wish to give my warm regards to all the persons involved in the timely completion of my project, directly or indirectly.
I would like to thank to Mr. Sudipto Mitra (campus head) who was always there when ever I sought for his expert opinion.
I am also thankful to all others who helped me directly or indirectly towards the completion of my project work.

Poulami Dey
International Business School Kolkata

Contents | PAGE NO. | * Acknowledgement. | 2 | * Objectives. | 4 | * Company Profile. | 5-7 | * Swot Analysis | 7 | * Vision &Mission | 9-10 | * Work Culture | 11 | * Retail partners Of Bajaj Electricals LTD | 12 | * Industry Overview of Solar Lamps. | 13-20 | * Industrial Growth of Solar Lamps | 21-22 | * Industry Overview of Led products. | 23-37 | * Growth of Led products. | 38 | * Time Schedule. | 39-40 | * Research methodology. | 41 | * Data Analysis | 42-44 | * Conclusion | 45 | * Annexure | 46-47 |

Project objective

As per the project title (Current market scenario & future prospect for solar lamps and LED products at Bajaj Electricals Ltd.), I have derived the following set of objectives of my project which will not give me a detailed understanding of the entire project but also help me to progress through my entire study of the total project. The following set of objectives may also be referred as the way by which I seek to achieve the entire work schedule. These underlined objectives have not only made the project work easies to me but also clarified and showed the means by which I can summarize the project in a more professional manner.
Here are the set of objectives for the given project-

* A thorough understanding of the general lighting industry.

* Complete and detailed data collection of the present market condition and scenarios in the following two industries- Solar Lamps & LED Lamps.

* Analysis of the entire current market situation of both the respective industries.

* Providing a future prospective for the given set of products.


The ' Bajaj ' group of India owes immense gratitude to their founding fathers whose vision and dedication over the years has greatly helped to build a business house that can set standards in Indian Industry.

Jamnalal Bajaj was the founding father of the Bajaj Group. The adopted ‘fifth’ son of Mahatma Gandhi, and the 'merchant prince' who held the wealth he created in trust for the people of his country. Trust - a simple word that contains a whole philosophy handed down by Jamnalal Bajaj to his successors. He valued honesty over profit, actions over words and common good over individual gain.

Kamalnayan Bajaj, elder son of Jamnalal Bajaj, followed footsteps of his illustrious father and consolidated the bajaj foundation. With characteristic foresight and pragmatic vision, he launched a steady diversification programme which gave the current name "Bajaj" both its shape and size. His unique management style created a work culture that matched well with the national spirit he had inherited.

Ramkrishna Bajaj took over the reins of the "Bajaj group" in 1972 after Kamalnayan Bajaj and steered the Group from strength to strength for over 22 years. He had also actively participated in the freedom struggle of the country. In post independent India, he had led the youth movement. All along, he actively strengthened the foundations of business through ethics and practices both within the group and amongst the business community as well.

Shekhar Bajaj, Chairman & Managing Director of Bajaj Electricals Ltd., started his career with Bajaj Sevashram after which he worked at Bajaj International, the group's export company. Mr. Shekhar Bajaj joined Bajaj Electricals in 1980, became the Managing Director in 1987 and took over as the Chairman and Managing Director in 1994.
Mr. Bajaj is the Chairman of Bajaj Group companies Bajaj International and Hercules Hoist Pvt. Ltd. and on the Board of Directors of Bajaj Auto and IDBI Bank. He was the President of ASSOCHAM, former President of Indian Merchant Chambers (IMC) and Council for Fair Business Practices (CFBP).

Brief history of our Company
Our Company was incorporated as Radio Lamp Works Limited under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 as a public company limited by shares, pursuant to a certificate of incorporation dated July 14, 1938. Subsequently the name of our Company was changed to Bajaj Electricals Limited, pursuant to a fresh certificate of incorporation dated October 1, 1960.

In 1964, Matchwell Electricals (India) Limited, ("Matchwell"), a manufacturer of electric fans became a subsidiary of our Company and subsequently, with effect from July 1, 1984, the business and undertaking of Matchwell was amalgamated with our Company.

In the financial year 1993-1994, our Company entered into a joint venture with Black & Decker Corporation, United States, for the manufacture and marketing of power tools, household appliances, and related accessories, through a separate company named Black & Decker Bajaj Private Limited, ("Black & Decker Bajaj"). During the financial year 1999-2000 Black & Decker Bajaj became a 100% subsidiary of our Company upon our Company acquiring a further 50% of the shareholding thereof from Black & Decker Corporation, pursuant to which Black & Decker Bajaj was renamed as Bajaj Ventures Limited. However, the financial year 2002-2003, our Company divested 50% of its shareholding in Bajaj Ventures Limited and Bajaj Ventures Limited ceased to be a subsidiary of our Company.

In January 1998, our Company established a new manufacturing unit at Chakan near Pune and commenced operations of manufacturing of fans and die-cast components. The production of fans at our manufacturing activities of the Matchwell unit also was gradually shifted to our Chakan unit.

In September 1999, our Company established and commissioned a wind energy generation unit with an installed capacity of 2.8 mega watts at Village Vankusawade, Tal. Patan, District Satara, Maharashtra.

In the year 2000-2001 our Company set-up our manufacturing facilities including a fabrication unit and a galvanizing plant at Ranjangaon, near Pune for the manufacture of high masts, lattice towers, and related products, and the said manufacturing facilities commenced commercial production with effect from April 1, 2001.

In November 2002, our Company entered into a technical collaboration and brand licensing agreement with Morphy Richards, United Kingdom, for the sales and marketing of electrical appliances under the brand name of "Morphy Richards" in India.

In the financial year 2002-2003 our Company discontinued manufacturing die-cast components.

In the year 2005 our company entered into a Distribution agreement with Trilux Lenze of Germany for high end technical lighting.

In the year 2007, we acquired 32% of the share capital of Starlite Lighting Limited, a company engaged in the manufacture of Compact Fluorescent Lamps ("CFLs").

SWOT Analysis of the company:-

This comprehensive SWOT profile of Bajaj Electricals Ltd. provides you an in-depth strategic analysis of the company’s businesses and operations. The profile has been compiled by Global Data to bring to you a clear and an unbiased view of the company’s key strengths and weaknesses and the potential opportunities and threats. The profile helps you formulate strategies that augment your business by enabling you to understand your partners, customers and competitors better.
Bajaj Electricals Limited (BEL) is a diversified electrical company and is a subsidiary of Bajaj Group. The company manufactures, erects and commissions telecom towers, wind energy towers, transmission line towers and mobile telecom towers. Products offered by the company include microwave ovens, juicers & mixer grinders, lamps, tubes, fans, torches, water filters, oven toaster grillers, personal coolers, sandwich toasters, steam & dry irons, desert coolers, room heaters and toasters. BEL received Mera Brand awards for both water heaters and fans in Consumer World Awards 2008 held by FMCG Federation of India. The company operates through five strategic business units, namely, Home Appliances, Fans, Lighting, Luminaries and Engineering & Projects. The company is headquartered at Mumbai, India. The company reported revenues of (Rupee) INR 17,705.40 million during the fiscal year ended March 2009, an increase of 28.35% over 2008. The operating profit of the company was INR 1,400.20 million during the fiscal year 2009, an increase of 25.65% over 2008. The net profit of the company was INR 891.30 million during the fiscal year 2009, an increase of 21.88% over 2008.

Vision, Philosophy and Values | | | We aim to bring greater happiness to our customers, through our products and services, while continuously enhancing stakeholder value. Trust builds Quality
Quality builds Satisfaction
Satisfaction builds Relationship
Relationship builds Trust
We believe in “Inspiring Trust” | Build Trust : We will conduct all our business dealings with fair and ethical business practices and strive to build trust in the minds of all our stakeholders. Belief in Excellence: We believe in setting higher levels of Excellence in all our actions and will recognize and reward the excellence achieved by our team members. Delighting Customers : We will delight our customers by providing them world-class products and services and thereby enhance their quality of life. Ensuring Accountability : We will work in a transparent, performance oriented environment and define clear accountability for our employees, while empowering them to achieve their performance goals with speed and efficiency. Encouraging Teamwork : We will ensure dignity and respect for the individual while encouraging Teamwork. Personal Growth : Every employee will be enabled to learn at the work place with significant opportunities for Personal Growth and Contribution to the organization. | | | |

Work Culture
"Every individual has the potential to perform if he or she gets proper motivation, the right opportunity and the freedom to work. In the long run success is achieved when ordinary people perform extraordinarily. It is important to keep an open mind rather than drawing preconceived impressions about people. More often than not, such impressions will be proven wrong." This quote is reproduced from 'Leading the Way' – an article by Mr. Shekhar Bajaj in the Corporate Dossier of Economic Times on January 14th, 2005. In this article Mr. Bajaj speaks out his mind on people processes, and shares some employee motivation initiatives that we practice in Bajaj Electricals Limited. We at Bajaj have a strong belief that given the right kind of inspiration, excitement and motivation that reaches the hearts and souls of people, ordinary people can perform extraordinarily. This is the core of our work culture. The culture that we have nurtured in our organization, provides excellent motivation to every individual to put in his best performance in an enthusiastic and charged up environment that sans any fear of failure. While the best performers find their names and achievements prominently displayed on our intranet, those who lag behind are counseled, encouraged, trained and appropriately motivated to do better. Constant communication on individual performance, business units’ performance and company’s overall performance keeps employees updated and motivated.


Bajaj Electricals launches Bajaj Platina range; ties-up with international manufacturers
10 Jan 2009

Bajaj Group’s consumer electrical products manufacturing company Bajaj Electricals and Appliances unveiled its range of home appliances under the brand name Bajaj Platina. Further, it has tied-up with UK-based Strix for heating element controls and Galanz of China for microwave ovens and Italian company Nardi for hobs, chimney and modular products, reports Business Line.

Commenting on the same, R Ramakrishnan, executive director, Bajaj Electricals said, “We may enter the microwave and room heating devices as it is a fast growing category. Further, we are looking at more such tie-ups.”

Bajaj Electricals had posted a turnover of Rs 14.04 billion in 2007-08. “We are eyeing a turnover of Rs 17 billion by the end of this fiscal,” added Ramakrishnan.

Bajaj Electricals has a chain of 600 distributors, 3,000 authorised dealers, over 2,50,000 retail outlets and over 230 service franchises spread across the country. Presently, it has five major strategic business units comprising of home appliances, fans, lighting, luminaries and engineering.

— India Retailing Bureau

An industry overview of solar lamps

Section1 the basic concepts of solar photovoltaic
First, the basic concept
Solar photovoltaic system is the use of solar photovoltaic effect of semiconductor materials, the solar radiation directly into a new electricity generating system. Photovoltaic power generation system is to convert solar energy into electrical energy generation system, the use of the photovoltaic effect. The main components of PV systems are solar cells, batteries, controller and inverter.
Second, the classification of photovoltaic power generation system
Solar photovoltaic power generation system is divided into separate grid photovoltaic systems and solar photovoltaic systems.
Independent solar photovoltaic solar lighting generation is not connected with the grid power generation, typical night in need of batteries to store electricity for energy. Independent of solar photovoltaic power generation is mainly used within the civilian remote villages, such as home systems, village-level solar photovoltaic power plant; mainly used within the industry of telecommunications, satellite broadcasting TV, solar water pumps, the availability of wind power and small hydropower The region also could form hybrid power systems, such as wind power / solar power complementary systems.
Grid solar PV solar PV power is connected to the national power grid in the way of a supplementary network, is not typical of the battery. Section 2 Composition of photovoltaic power generation system
Solar power system consists of solar batteries, solar controller, battery (group). If the output power AC 220V or 110V, also need to configure inverter. The role of each part as follows:
(A) of solar panels: solar panel solar lighting system is a core part of the solar system is part of the highest value. Its role is to convert the sun's radiation to electrical energy, stored in batteries or sent to, or promotes the work load. Solar panels will directly determine the quality and cost of quality and cost of the entire system.
(B) Solar Controller: Solar controller's role is to control the entire system state, and played a battery charge protection, over discharge protection. In the large temperature difference, the controller should have qualified temperature compensation function. Other additional features such as light-control switch, control switch when the controller should be optional.
(C) Battery: lead-acid batteries generally, small micro-systems, can also be used nickel metal hydride batteries, nickel cadmium batteries or lithium batteries. Its role is when there is light emitted by solar energy stored up, and then released when needed.
(D) Inverter: In many occasions, will need to provide 220VAC, 110VAC AC power source. As a direct output of solar lighting energy are generally 12VDC, 24VDC, 48VDC. In order to provide the 220VAC electrical power, solar power system needs to be issued by the DC energy into AC power, so need to use the DC-AC inverter. In some cases, you need to use a variety of voltage, load, also used DC-DC inverter, such as the electrical energy will be converted to 5VDC 24VDC of power (note, not a simple step-down).
Section III key technology of PV systems and industrial chain
First, the key technology
Grid-connected PV power generation in China started late, has developed rapidly in recent years. In the Ministry of Science, "Ninth Five-Year" and "fifth" preliminary research programs carried out in the roof grid-connected photovoltaic power systems technology development and pilot studies, and progress. These developments indicate that China has initially mastered the grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system the key technologies, including cvtpwm maximum power tracking control technology, and network inverter technology, the system real-time data acquisition and data transmission technology, with the design and construction of practical certain scale and grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems.
Second, the latest technological developments in 2009
Nano Science and Technology University of Missouri used to improve solar cell efficiency spear
University of Missouri (Missouri University of Science and Technology) researchers said, will be a zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-made spears (nanospears) nail in the solar cell surface, will be able to expand its absorption spectrum and thus enhance the solar cell efficiency.

Major players in the game
Sunwize solar lighting systems are used to provide lighting in areas where there is no utility power or where excavation for underground power lines make utility power too costly. The lighting system uses a luminaire that incorporates a computer-designed, polished specular reflector to maximize the lighting intensity and coverage area. SunWize DLS systems are powder coated in architectural bronze, including the optional pole and arm. The luminaire is available in both low pressure sodium and fluorescent lamps. The high density solar modules come with a 20 year warranty. The entire pole-mounted system is designed to withstand 90 mph load winds. The pole top mount adjusts 0-90 degrees horizontally and 360 degrees about pole. The enclosure can be locked, comes with mounting brackets, and has wiring access. * Selco
Selco systems use solar photovoltaic (PV) modules to provide electricity for lighting, water pumping, communications, computing, entertainment, and small business appliances. Selco provides CFL and LED indoor and outdoor lighting, as well as solar headlamps. * Silicon Solar Inc
Silicon Solar offers solar lights including security lights, solar spot lights, garden lights, landscape lights, post lights, step lights, and deck and patio lights. The solar services center provides custom and OEM product design for those customer applications where their standard products fail to meet specifications. * Pecan Engineering
Pecan Engineering offers a grid tied solar street light that combines a low powered bulb with solar energy to emit enough lighting to meet federal standards for street lighting. The street light connects to the main power, does not require a battery, and uses mercury vapor lamps. The advantages of being a grid connected solar light is that allow unlimited lamp wattage allowing any lighting standard to be met, it utilizes all available solar energy in any season, and has no ongoing battery replacements.

* Sunlight Solar
Sunlight offers solar powered lights for commercial, park and security lights. The Aussie SunLight series is created for lighting needs in the garden, security lighting, and for secondary street lighting. The Signet series is comprised of the traditional solar lighting systems. The Aussie marine light is used for navigation lighting in extreme marine environments. Sunlight also offers grid connected solar lighting called the GreenStreet series. Other products include LED lighting systems, advertising lighting for billboards, and industrial solar energy power systems. * Togo Technology
Togo Technology provides solar lights including lawn stake lights, outdoor table lights, rock lights, patio umbrella lights, garden lights, floating lights, solar camping lights, and solar street lights. Togo also provides decorative lighting for bars and stringed light sets. * Grenzone
Grenzone offers the EcooLite long-life lamp in 10.5-14.5 voltage range and the EcooLED lamp in cool and warm white and voltage of 5V and 12V. The EcooPower portable power series is for wireless applications including lighting, telecommunication, security, marine, transport, recreational and emergency relief. The EsoLit Outdoor lighting series has an auto on/off, back up power of 3 days. HMM power meter measures AC electrical parameters including power, energy voltage and current. MSC metered solar charger will charge any 12V/6V lead acid batteries, including new and old car batteries. The Nebulae garden light has a life of 50,000 hours, 2 year warranty and artistic body. The Kristal multi-functional PV system is used for roofs, facades or walls to generate electricity, provide skylighting, and many more functions. * Sunseap
Sunseap manufactures PV lighting systems for parks, roadways, playgrounds, resorts and gardens. The Sunseap Model 108 has a height of 4 meters, diameter of 77mm, a solar panel of angle of 20 degrees, extra bright with 1,400 lumens, and rainproof. The Sunseap Model 109 is 4 meters high, made of hot-dipped galvanized and powder coated steel and 50% energy savings because of the PWM technology of powered LEDs. * Jinwei Solar Co
JinWei manufactures poly, plastic, and metal series solar lights. The poly series is decorative rocks, holiday figurines, and fountains. The plastic series has lawn stakes in a variety of sizes and designs. The metal series has lawn stakes, lamps, lanterns, and bulbs. The solar lights are monocrystal, waterproof, and 6-8 hours of illumination with full charge. * MG Solar
MG solar manufactures solar lights for a variety of applications. The solar street lights are designed as outdoor lights with white and super bright LEDs, 30WP solar module, SMF 12v 28AH battery, with 5 hours of charging time and 12 hours of backup time. The solar garden lights consume low power, white/yellow/green and super bright LEDs, 10Wp solar module, SMF 12v 12AH, with 5 hours of charging time and 10 hours of backup time. The solar lantern can be used as an emergency light, with white and super bright LEDs, 3Wp solar modules, SMF 6v 4AH battery, with 5 hours of charging time and 5 hours of backup time. * Aolsun
Aolsun manufactures solar garden lights. The AOL22 model offers a 3W multi-crystalline silicon tempered glass encapsulation, 3Ah rechargeable battery, and stainless steel metal poles. The AOL21 model offers a 5W multi-crystalline silicon tempered glass encapsulation, 5Ah rechargable battery, super bright 3W LED lamp (120 lumens) and a continuous working days during cloudy weather of 3-5 days. * Hebe Solar Co
HEBE Solar Co. manufactures solar camping lanterns and solar traffic lights. The solar camping lantern has a life expectancy of 100,000 lighting hours and can be charged on a grid connection or 12Vdc car battery in times of reduced sun. Its battery capacity is 2.5 Ah and has 2.5W of power. The solar traffic light is made of solar cell, battery, controller, and LED lamp board. It keeps working in cloudy days with 5-7 days on cloudy or rainy days. The shell of the lamp is made of aluminum alloy castings with compression casting. * EcoSuny
Ecosuny manufactures solar billboard lighting systems that uses laminar design. The solar-powered LED billboard lighting system with solar photovoltaic source and spotlights that last up to five years. Lights are available in white, blue, green, yellow or red colors. The lights will charge under all weather conditions and has 4 days of autonomy. * Divine Solar Enterprise
Divine Solar manufactures solar road lights, solar road indication lights, and solar yard lights. The solar road light uses an intelligent microcomputer controller, the light turns on at night and off in the morning. The storage battery allows it to work on cloudy and rainy days. The solar panel has 60-120w mono/poly crystalline solar panels, a battery of 60-120Ah, and a steel pole with zinc and plastic plating. The road light comes in 5-8M, and works 8-10 hours per night. The solar road indication lights use ultra-bright LEDs, aluminum alloy body, and a replaceable storage battery and tempered glass enclosure allow for longer lifespan. The solar yard light comes with a light sensor, PV module solar cells, 3.2mm high-transparent low-iron toughened glass and bypass diodes. * Solar Energbie
Solar Energbie Technologies offers LED home lighting systems, LED street lights, LED reading lamps, solar lanterns, solar mini lanterns, LED lights, staircase LED lights, mini street lights, solar LED lanterns. solar street lights, and solar LED staircase lighting systems. These systems supply electricity for lighting, entertainment and information to areas where electricity supply is erratic or they can not be connected to grids. Solar Energbie offers CFL type and LED type lanterns in 13 different varieties. Their backup timing ranges from 2-24 hours and they carry models with 3Wp, 8Wp, 10Wp & 12 Wp modules. The SET solar street lights with 7W/9W/11W CF lamps have a low battery indicator and dusk to dawn automatic operation. * Shantou Right Forth Trade Co
Shantou Right Forth Trade Co. manufactures solar powered desk lamps, lawn lamps, emergency lamps, floating balls, garden and wall lamps, street lamps, staircase lamps, road lamps, and signal lamps. Most lamps are available in white and yellow. Road studs are available in red, green, blue, white and yellow. The solar hexagonal and cylinder assembly light ranges from 3W-10W with polycrystalline silicon solar panels and a 6V 4Ah battery. The operating time is 8-12 hours. * Sino-Transit
The Sino-Transit Co specializes in the distribution of photovoltaic modules. They offer solar lanterns, solar flashlights and solar street lights. The solar lantern has up to 9 hours of working time, an integrated 2.2 watt solar panel and 6 Ni-MH batteries with an LED lifetime of 10 years. The solar energy street lights are covered, with light sensors with built-in-timers, 3 days duration during cloudy weather and a lifetime of 25 years. * Savant Solar
Savant Energy manufactures solar street lights. They offer six different models with either single or double bulbs. The pole heights range from 6-8 meters and 65Wp-150Wp. All solar panels have a 25 year lifespan and 12V 120-200Ah batteries with 5-8 years of life. The operation voltage of all 6 models have DC24V operation voltages and 50,000 hours of lamp life. During rainy days, the lamp can stay lit from 3-5+ days. The designed sun radiation ranges from 5KWH/M- 7KWH/M.

* Autonic Energy Systems
Autonic Energy Systems offers solar bank lights, solar home lighting systems, and solar street lighting systems. The solar home lighting comes in 2-4 CFL light varieties. The system is able to operate for 10-11 hours daily and an automatic ON/OFF time switch. Batteries range from 12V 40Ah-130Ah. The solar street light systems come in 40, 50, and 100 Watts solar PV modules, 12V 40, 60, and 100Ah tubular plate battery with battery box, 9 and 11 Watt CFL lamp with fixtures and a service life of 15-20 years. * Winlar Solar Energy
Winlar Solar Energy manufactures solar walkways and garden lights with super bright white LED, solar floodlights and floating lights, solar motion and house number lights, solar string lights, solar lanterns and flashlights with pest dispeller function.


Industrial growth of solar lamps
Solar Energy and Cost-Competitiveness
Solar energy is currently only a small piece of the total energy generation and consumption picture. In order for solar energy to gain a larger share of the market, it must be cost-competitive with other primary energy sources. Getting there will be dependent on policy incentives that reduce the overall costs to deploy solar technologies and by continued high pricing for conventional electricity generation. However, in some segments of the market, solar already has achieved competitiveness.
Off-Grid Applications
PV can be fully cost competitive on economic grounds in remote (off-grid) industrial and habitation applications. The cost structure of solar energy has already created significant economic penetration in remote industrial applications: * Remote rural telecommunication, navigation lighting and cathodic protection systems * Remote habitation markets such as developing world village power * Home lighting, TV, and radio for off-grid homes in industrialized countries
In remote industrial applications, solar PV can be a cheaper alternative to diesel power generation, especially to power small electrical loads of up to hundreds of watts. The economics are driven by a balance between the high initial cost of a solar PV system with very low on-going costs compared to the low initial cost of a diesel generator with very high on-going fuel and maintenance costs. Diesel generator on-going costs are especially high if site access is difficult.
Off-grid homes have an economic reference point in the cost of installing a grid connection to the location. As a guideline, if a house is further than 1 km from the nearest grid line then it is likely to be cheaper to install a PV system. In developing countries, the source of power for lighting may be limited to candles or kerosene burners. In this case, solar provides a highly cost effective option and can provide power for a wider range of uses, too. The difficulty comes with the high up-front cost of solar which can make it unaffordable without the provision of funding from developmental aid or micro-finance to provide credit.

Grid-Connected Applications
The grid-connected applications are the biggest segments of the global PV market, and it is these that have transformed the PV industry in the 21st century. While solar is a long way from competing with conventional power generation costs at 3-5 cents/kWh, it is much closer to reaching electricity tariffs charged to residential, commercial and industrial consumers. This is especially relevant because when the PV is sited at the consumers' premises, then the customer is comparing the cost of PV electricity to the cost of the power consumed, not to the cost of power generation.
Precise calculation of solar electricity costs depend on the location and the cost of finance available to the owner of the solar installation. With the best PV electricity prices (in the sunniest locations) approaching 25 cents/kWh and the highest tariffs now exceeding 20 cents/kWh, the gap is now close. Funding programs that bridge this gap are causing rapid growth in sales of solar PV, especially in Germany, Italy and Japan.

Industry overview of LED lamps
For the longest time, incandescent bulbs, which replaced lanterns, reigned as the solution for lighting the world over. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) that consume less power to get as much lighting are slowly and steadily gaining acceptance in the market.
As a result incandescent bulbs will soon be shelved for good. However, even as CFLs are gaining momentum, they already have an emerging threat in the form of an even lesser power consuming and higher-efficiency technology—light-emitting diodes (LEDs). DARE/LED | What it is, how it works | A diode, the simplest sort of a semiconductor device, is a material with a varying ability to conduct electrical current. Light-emitting diodes (LED), in layman’s terms, are just tiny light bulbs that fit easily into an electrical circuit. However, unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs, they don’t have a filament that will burn out or get hot. It is solely the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material that illuminates LEDs1. The color of the emitted light depends on the composition and condition of the semi-conducting material used, and can be infrared, visible, or ultraviolet. Simply put, blue, green, and red LEDs can be combined to produce any color, including white. | 1 |
The stage is already set for LEDs to take over as the next big thing in the lighting industry. The act is in its making. LEDs are already penetrating into homes and businesses, but mostly as a decorative lighting solution. For regular indoor lighting though, not much is being done. Not to say that it does not hold the potential to do that. All that is required to ride on this new wave of lighting technology is innovation.
What the market is ready for and what is not being offered are LED-based products for regular indoor lighting at an affordable price. Can you give our readers an overview of the lighting industry in India?
India, being one of the fastest growing economies in the world, is witnessing a boom in construction as well as investments in infrastructure. This is contributing to accelerating the growth of the lighting industry.Of late, lighting as source of energy has become a hot topic of discussion and debate globally. According to the International Energy Agency: * Lighting is responsible for 19% of the world’s electricity consumption. * Artificial light accounts for almost one-fifth of the world's electricity consumption, substantially more than the output of all the nuclear power stations in the worldThis has lead to the growth in energy-efficient lighting, which can play a significant role in assuaging the impact of global warming.As per a report by the International Energy Agency, the adoption of more energy-efficient lighting systems could prevent a cumulative total of 16 billion tons of carbon from being added to the world's atmosphere over the next 25 years. Despite advances in lighting technology, between 67% and 75% of the world’s lights utilize older, less energy-efficient technology——some dating as far back as the 1950s.Tell us more about the advent of LED-based lighting solutions in India.
In 2006 alone, we sold energy-saving products that contributed to a reduction in installed load of more than 1000 MW of power. Philips pioneered the concept of energy-efficient lighting globally and in India with the introduction of compact fluorescent lamps.In 2007, an LED lighting range was launched for Indian homes, which includes an array of products for innovative energy-conserving lighting solutions. These products feature saturated colors, digital control, energy efficiency and such.The advantages of LEDs include longer lifetime, compact size and flexibility in design, digital control programmability, light output with no ultraviolet and infrared radiation and usage safety because of low voltage and low heat operation. These will expand applications of lighting in homes in ways one could only dream of a few years back.We believe that LEDs is the next wave of lighting technology. LED lighting systems provide a much higher color saturation and brilliance than by filtering conventional light sources. Different color effects are now possible from the same light source. Prior to this, LEDs have been used in many architectural and commercial applications. Now, home users can utilize LEDs for decorative purposes, save energy and reduce their electricity bill. Recently, we have introduced LED-based products for office, shop and city beautification segments in India.Recently, at the Light India International 2008 exhibition held in Delhi, we showcased our innovative and futuristic lighting solutions in office, urban, retail, hospitality and consumer lighting segment through concepts like future bazaar and experience zones.Typically, who would you say are the current target clients for LED-based lighting globally?
The current applications for LEDs in lighting are mostly in the decorative space. This means LEDs are mainly used for city beautification applications, shop windows and in urban homes.Where is the market—India or abroad?
While the penetration of LEDs is more in the western countries, the time gap between their adoptions there and in India is coming down significantly. |
Enlightening facts
LEDs consume less power and have higher energy efficiency than CFLs or incandescent light sources and have an extremely long lifetime, which means the product produces more or less no ‘waste’ in the form of spent light bulbs. LEDs do not contain any mercury. They can actually cut down that electricity bill manifold, even in comparison to compact fluorescent lamps (CFL).
The best thing about LEDs is that even though they are really small in size, the light emitted is really bright. This fact itself opens up a vast canvas for innovation in making products. The trick is to house LEDs in a variety of fixtures.
Further variations of LEDs include organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED), light-emitting polymers (LEP), flexible OLED (FOLED), and phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED). These variants have been put to innovative use in apparel displays, etc.
According to a report by the International Energy Agency, the adoption of more energy-efficient lighting systems could prevent a cumulative total of 16 billion tons of carbon from being added to the world’s atmosphere over the next 25 years. Despite advances in lighting technology, between 67% and 75% of the world’s lights utilize older, less energy-efficient technology.

One can easily gauge that this is a brave attempt, especially with the knowledge that there are so many other bigger players who are still not tapping this market aggressively. So, what is it that makes Purohit believe that he can survive the onslaught of a possible big players’ rush? “Our product is a cluster of LEDs and we manufacture the fixtures with reflectors required to hold this cluster and illuminate an area. Our product is a 4W fixture, which can easily replace a 15W CFL. In terms of energy efficiency, our product consumes 75% less power than CFLs, and 90% less power than incandescent lamps. These fixtures are developed and manufactured by us, and we are in the process of getting it patented,” says Purohit.

Major Manufacturers of LED Lamps with different products

Professional Manufacturer of LED SignComplex Ltd. Was established in 2001. From the right beginning, it was dedicated to designing and manufacturing LED materials for advertisement industry. We can provide a wide range of capabilities in research and production. From the high quality single LED to the state-of-the-art modules, Signcomplex aims to your value adding partner in China.Signcomplex Limited [Province:Guangdong, China] China Supplier of LED Products product is LED diodes, produced in our plant in Nanjing. Our new factory is in Ningbo. Our other major products are LEDs with total export of $4.5 million in 2005. We keep $1million LEDs on stocks to be able to ship smaller orders immediately. We export to leading markets including America, Europe, Australia and Japan.China Supplier of LED Lighting We have professional engineers always staying at the forefront of LED technology.We are especially well-placed in the field of Power LED thermal management and related lighting solutions.Our product range is led street light, led bulbs and tubes, led downlights, led floodlight, led strip, led modules and other led lights.Pros Light Co., Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China] Professional Supplier of LED 5 year's specialized experience of producing, varies of type satisfy different demands of customer. 3years guaranty. It adopts a kind super flexible PCB board as base and super bright LED as its luminous body. Viewing angle is easy installation with 3m tape on its back. Each three LEDs can be cut according to the length requirement. It could be widely used for indoor lighting decoration.LED King Opto-Electronic Co., Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China] China Supplier of LED Products It is a high-tech enterprise, which specializes in R&D, producing and sales of high power LED commercial lighting, Our main product lines include high power LED shading lamps, spotlight, grid lamps, desktop lamps, ceiling lamps, pendant lamps, floodlights and garden lights.Shenzhen North Pole Technology Co., Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China] China LED Lamp Manufacturer Established in 2002, Haining Tangming Electric Lighting Co., Ltd. is a specialized manufacturer of incandescent light bulbs. Our main products include indicator, globe, candle, clear, frosted, tailed, colored, navigation, flicker, tube, and energy saving bulbs.Haining Tangming Electric Lighting Co., Ltd. [Province:Zhejiang, China] * Top Manufacturer of LED Products * The range of LED Electronic Displays products including: Seven Segment LED Display, LED Custom Display, LED Indicator Light, LED Backlight. LED Traffic Light, LED Cross Display, LED Message Display, Indoor LED Display and Outdoor LED Display etc. Our professional team of engineers and technicians are committed to deliver the best quality in products and services to our customers worldwide.Hangzhou Fivelake Electronics Co., Ltd. [Province:Zhejiang, China] China Supplier of LED Products Ningbo G-Nor Electronics Co., Ltd. is a specialized supplier of optoelectronics. We offer wide range of optoelectronic products: Full series of LED lamp, LED display, LED dot matrix, LED cluster and so on. We can provide hundreds of LED related products with superb quality and competitive price.G-NOR OPTOELECTRONICS Co., Ltd. [Province:Zhejiang, China] China Supplier of LED Light Founded in 2000, HK Light Ltd. Becomes one of the biggest manufacturers of LED and LED-related products in China, which is specialized in the research, development, engineering, and marketing of LED, based led products.Our products are marketed well to all over the world, especially to Europe, North America, Australia, other countries in the worldwide.Shenzhen HK Light Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China] Top Manufacturer of LED Lighting It is an established high-tech firm specialized in the research, development, engineering, marketing of LED based lighting solutions. We have professional engineers always staying at the forefront of LED technology.Quasar Light Co., Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China] LED Light [Jan 30, 2011] LED/LED Light Packing: White Box Model No. : AR111 Productivity:...LED Quantity: 196 chips ...LED Module consumption: 15W ...2. High power LED retrofit emitter ...12. Do not use in sealed fixtureXiamen Brightness Optronics Technology Co., Ltd. [Province:Fujian, China]LED Lamp/LED Light/LED Ceiling Lighting (ZD-T0929A) [Jan 30, 2011] Roduct name: LED Lamp /LED light/ LED ceiling Lighting ...2) LED brand: Luxeon/Edison/K2 Luxeon/K2 Edison ...* Round recessed LED downlight ...Origin: Zhong da LED lighting Factory Shenzhen China.Zhongda LED Lighting Co., Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China]LED Light, LED Nano-Ceramic Light, LED Spotlight (XLS-MR16) [Jan 30, 2011] LED Light, LED Nano-Ceramic Light, LED Spotlight (XLS-MR16) ...*Using high-quality high-power LED as the light source, with luminous efficiency up to 80LM/W And average lifetime up to 100, 000 hours.Shenzhen Surelite Lighting Technology Co., Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China]LED Panel Light (LED lamp) [Jan 30, 2011] This LED panel light is non-waterproof. Please do not touch this LED panel light when power is on. The angle of emitting light can be designed according to the client's...LED panel light applications:Nanjing Yansheng Electronics Co., Ltd. [Province:Jiangsu, China]12W LED AR111/LED Spotlight (MR-AR111) [Jan 29, 2011] 12W LED AR111/LED Spotlight(MR-AR111) Specs: -Part#: MR-AR111 -Power Consumption: 12W -Voltage: 12V-24V AC/DC -LED Light Source: 2W*6PCS -Output Equality: 70W Incandescent -Dimmable: No -Flux: Warm...Wuxi Mingrui Science & Technology Co., Ltd. [Province:Jiangsu, China]Dimmable LED Ceiling Light With Cree LEDs 18*1w [Jan 29, 2011] LED ceiling Light,...Including LED light, LED lighting Downlight, LED Ceiling Light, LED Ceiling Spotlight, LED Ceiling Downlight, LED Downlight, LED Grid Lamp, LED Ceiling Lamp, LED Recessed downlightShenzhen Lance Electric Co., Ltd. [Province:Guangdong, China]5W LED Light Bulb (N4BECWXXAO) [Jan 29, 2011] LED Bulb, LED lamp, LED light, LED Bulb Light, LED bulb lamp, LED Spotlight, LED lighting, LED. Performance: CCT (K) CRI 85+ Warm White(3000K) 480lm Intermediate(4200K) 560lm Cool White(6500K) 560lmTennex Industries Limited (Dongguan Factory) [Province:Guangdong, China]High Power LED Light [Jan 29, 2011] High Power LED Light Model: G4, MR11, MR16, GU10, E27, JDR, C37, A60, GX53, T8 Voltage: 12V,...LED type: SMD, power LED LED qty: 12SMD, 1x1W, 3x1W, 3x2W, 5x1W, 144SMD, 288SMD, etc. LED life: 50 000 hoursShanghai Shininess Industrial Co., Ltd. [Province:Shanghai, China]LED Light [Jan 28, 2011] The character of LED light 1. LED light has super flexible PCB board is used as its base. ...3. Three LEDs can be cut according to the length requirement. ...5. LED spacing: 16mm ...7. The LED light ...Imagey Lighting Co., Ltd. [Province:Shanghai, China]LED Tube [Jan 26, 2011] T8 Tube in high power SMD LEDs Installation: Replace conventional fluorescent after remove the ballast and starter. Applications: Replacement for...LED quantity: 108PCS ...LED Brand: EpistarJumbo Industry Limited [Province:Guangdong, China] | Top of FormBottom of Form |
LED Light
LED Light

Industrial growth of LED lamps

Time Scheduling

In this project I have some work plan and its execution. My project is of 45 days, i.e.,
1 and half months. List Of Activities During The Project | Number of Days Planned | Number of days Actual work | My induction & company profile | 1 | 1 | Product knowledge | 3 | 3 | Questionnaire preparation | 5 | 6 | Collecting the data | 10 | 16 | Analyzing the Testing data | 5 | 4 | Preparing the Final Data Analysis | 9 | 6 | Final preparation of the project with conclusion | 12 | 9 |

Fig: The graph showing comparative time scheduling of numbers of days planed & actual work

Research methodology

A research process consists of stages or steps that guide the project from its conception through the final analysis, recommendations and ultimate actions. The research process provides a systematic, planned approach to the research project and ensures that all aspects of the research project are consistent with each other.
Research Framework:-
The report has been prepared on the basis of information collected from different sources. In order to achieve the objective of the project proper research method was applied. After giving thorough brain storming session, objectives were selected and the set on the base of these objectives, a set of questionnaires were designed giving major emphasis by gathering new ideas or insight so as to determine and bind out solution to the actual project. Hence forth, the entire research methodology of the respective project is summarized through the following bullets – * Defining a research plan. * Analysis if the project objective. * Preparation of relevant project questionnaire.(Annexure) * Collection of proper data. * Validation of the data through contacting method. * Proper analysis of the accumulated data. * Finding out the probable solutions and conclusions.

Based on the data that I gathered, I sub divided the different product characteristics. I then began to analyze the data of 100 customers’ feedbacks. The detailed analytical part is depicted below which describes the both of the products together - PRODUCT VARIENT, MODES OF PAYMENT, ADDITIONAL OFFERs, PRICE PERCEPTION, DELIVERY DURATION, AFTER SALES SERVICE, COMPLAIN MANAGEMENT
Customers’ response to Different Variables:

Product Variant | | | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid | STORNGLY DISAGREE | 13 | 13.0 | 13.0 | 13.0 | | DISAGREE | 28 | 28.0 | 28.0 | 41.0 | | NEUTRAL | 32 | 32.0 | 32.0 | 73.0 | | AGREE | 20 | 20.0 | 20.0 | 93.0 | | STRONGLY AGREE | 7 | 7.0 | 7.0 | 100.0 | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |

Modes Of Payment | | | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid | STORNGLY DISAGREE | 11 | 11.0 | 11.0 | 11.0 | | DISAGREE | 15 | 15.0 | 15.0 | 26.0 | | NEUTRAL | 12 | 12.0 | 12.0 | 38.0 | | AGREE | 19 | 19.0 | 19.0 | 57.0 | | STRONGLY AGREE | 43 | 43.0 | 43.0 | 100.0 | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | 100.0 | | Additional Offers | | | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid | STORNGLY DISAGREE | 16 | 16.0 | 16.0 | 16.0 | | DISAGREE | 56 | 56.0 | 56.0 | 72.0 | | NEUTRAL | 14 | 14.0 | 14.0 | 86.0 | | AGREE | 10 | 10.0 | 10.0 | 96.0 | | STRONGLY AGREE | 4 | 4.0 | 4.0 | 100.0 | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |

Price Perception | | | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid | STORNGLY DISAGREE | 6 | 6.0 | 6.0 | 6.0 | | DISAGREE | 22 | 22.0 | 22.0 | 28.0 | | NEUTRAL | 11 | 11.0 | 11.0 | 39.0 | | AGREE | 3 | 3.0 | 3.0 | 42.0 | | STRONGLY AGREE | 58 | 58.0 | 58.0 | 100.0 | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | 100.0 | | Delivery Duration | | | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid | STORNGLY DISAGREE | 2 | 2.0 | 2.0 | 2.0 | | DISAGREE | 25 | 25.0 | 25.0 | 27.0 | | NEUTRAL | 45 | 45.0 | 45.0 | 72.0 | | AGREE | 22 | 22.0 | 22.0 | 94.0 | | STRONGLY AGREE | 6 | 6.0 | 6.0 | 100.0 | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | 100.0 | | After Sales Service | | | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid | STORNGLY DISAGREE | 11 | 11.0 | 11.0 | 11.0 | | DISAGREE | 52 | 52.0 | 52.0 | 63.0 | | NEUTRAL | 23 | 23.0 | 23.0 | 86.0 | | AGREE | 8 | 8.0 | 8.0 | 94.0 | | STRONGLY AGREE | 6 | 6.0 | 6.0 | 100.0 | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | 100.0 | | Complain Management | | | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent | Valid | STORNGLY DISAGREE | 6 | 6.0 | 6.0 | 6.0 | | DISAGREE | 32 | 32.0 | 32.0 | 38.0 | | NEUTRAL | 40 | 40.0 | 40.0 | 78.0 | | AGREE | 15 | 15.0 | 15.0 | 93.0 | | STRONGLY AGREE | 7 | 7.0 | 7.0 | 100.0 | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |


Among all the above elements that I have showed in the above tables, the following four have the major impact in building the market penetration for any new company along with the current market share. Along with that these major four factors are the driving factors for the future for both the two products. They hold the key to success for them in building a long lasting impression in the customers mind as well as the dealer or distributer who is sourcing the same. This impression will allow the two products to build their brand image and increase their respective brand value, filly accelerating into the overall development of the products. The more the manufacturing companies put stress and hard work in keeping the four factors given below, the more they will be able to sustain in the business.




STANDARD QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MARKET ANALYSIS OF SOLAR LAMPS &LED LIGHTING INDUSTRY * For what period of time has the store been operating in the lighting industry?
0-10 Years □ 10-20 Years □ 20-30 Years □ More than 40 years □ * How many number of branches does the store has in Kolkata?
None □ One□ Two □ More than two branches. * Does the store cater to all types of light fittings including Solar & LED lighting?
Yes □ No □ * Are all the lighting equipments imported from china? Yes □ No □ * Which manufacturer’s lighting equipments are mostly stocked by the store?
Jaguar □ Eglo □ Massive □ Philips □ Local Manufacturer □ * Under which type of Distribution Channel does the store fall into?
Zero Level □ One Level □ Two Level □ Three Level □ * How many numbers of Distributers does the store actually require?
One □ Two □ Three □ More than three □ * What kind of major problems are mainly faced by the retailer regarding the distribution of lighting products?
Shipment Delay □ Inter State Transfer □ Shortage of inventories □ Inventory Cost □

* What kind of sales is the store dealing into?
Business to business □ Business to Customer □

* Does the store have any tie-up strategy?

* What principles are followed by the store in terms of pricing the products?

* What is the amount of revenue generated by solar and LED light products?
Below 5,00,0 □ 5000-10,00,0 □ 10,00,0-20,00,0 □ above 20,00,0

Signature of the authorised person with designation
Store Name & Address

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...Organizational Behavior 6.1 Study the “A Day in the Life of Yolanda Valdez” case (p. 542), and answer the three accompanying questions. 1.   Team competency was one that was illustrated. Team competency includes the knowledge, skills, and ability to develop, support, and lead groups to achieve goals. Clearly, Yolanda Valdez and her team where ultimately working as a team and had goals in mind to accomplish. From the everyday operations to plans on expanding the company. I felt that the organization worked together with their knowledge and skills to get the ultimate job done. Another competency used was communication competency. Communication competency includes the knowledge, skills, and abilities to use all the models of transmitting, understand, and receiving ideas, thoughts, and feelings- verbal, listening, non-verbal, and written- for accurately transferring and exchanging information Yolanda and her team uses different forms of communication throughout their daily activities whether its verbal with meetings they have or written in the form of questionnaires they use for feedback. All the forms are necessary for ClearVision in order for them to properly keep communication going. The change competency was also present. Change com potency includes the knowledge, skills, and abilities to recognize and implement needed adaptations or entirely new transformations in the people, tasks, strategies, structures, or technologies. As the organization of ClearVision grows and......

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...PYNK Lipstick Possible Articles Women in the workplace Sexism in the 21st Century 2011 Role Switch: The New Mr. Mom Tiger Mom oe vs. WAde/ dr charged with murder of fetuses Arizona shooting/ breeding of ignorance/ reptilian phase! The new stay at home dad/ unemployment MTV show / skins Mans world/ male dominance the workplace! Grading parents/Polk county Tiger mom own network Self image/ tv/ news 90 teens pregnant at one school Snookie book/ pure genius! Jailing females 4 male crimes / sex trafficking Benefit of having a professional site Good golly ms holly Letters to Sala Technology/Phone Credit cards The evolution of the IPOD/Apple Things to work on/ Contributor guidelines About us: PYNK Lipstick magazine is a publication for women, by women. Established in Orlando, Florida in 2011 as an online magazine, PYNK Lipstick is leading the way for setting new industry standards for women’s magazines by focusing on four core values which nourishes women’s minds, bodies, and souls. PYNK is Empowerment, Beauty, Intellect, and Philanthropy. PYNK is relevant, passionate, innovative, and at times controversial. Herstory: The idea for PYNK Lipstick started almost to years ago PYNK Picks!.. Editor Picks for items, services, etc. Precisely PYNK…Notable Quotes for the week. Tickeled PYNK! Notebale news about women I will be the first person to admit that I encouraged my husband to become a stay- at home dad. But now that this idea has......

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