Free Essay

Business Case for Renewable Energy

In: Business and Management

Submitted By maneshsingh
Words 2051
Pages 9
[pic]

SOLAR ENERGY SOLUTIONS/SERVICES TO TELECOM TOWERS
(Business plan)

(assignment to COURSE)
(entrepreneurship)

INDEX TABLE

Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary 3
2. The Problem/Pain Points 3
3. The Solution 4 a. Technology Selection 5
4. Why Now: 6
5. Market Analysis 7
6. Competition 8
7. Product/ Solutions 9
8. The Business Model 10
9. Management & Team 11
10. Financial 12
11. The Harvesting Strategy 14

This plan has been prepared for M/S XYZ Energy Servicing Company which intends to provide renewable energy to telecom towers in area where gird power is not available or if available it’s available for lesser time or the quality of power not up to acceptable level hence forces tower company to run the site either on generator using diesel or battery till the time its available. Since its must to run the telecom site 24 X 7 to provide seamless mobile telephone services to consumers/customers/subscribers. This report has been prepared by Telecom & Satcom Consultants.

Executive Summary

M/S XYZ Energy Servicing Company Limited ( hereinafter referred as the Company) has been incorporated as private limited company under Indian Company Act 2013 having registered office ………….. The company is established to provide

• Green Energy Solutions to telecom tower as primary/back-up energy source especially using solar power. • The company would provide O&M and other related services to telecom sites • The company would also explore the opportunity of setting up micro-grid using the solar plant to serve the community energy needs in rural/remotely located area

The company objective is to build the sustainable business and become a lead player in the market in 5 years time. The company would focus in first 3 years in telecom circles in Northern India especially –Haryana, Punjab, UP West , Delhi and Rajasthan. Subsequently company may expand to other circles.

The Problem/Pain Points

24x7 telecom operations require uninterrupted power supply. Due to multiple pain points across power value chain load shedding is quite rampant forcing telecom tower companies to heavily rely on liquid fuel. Diesel power, besides increasing operating cost is also leading to huge greenhouse gas emissions. With regulatory authorities contemplating to curb carbon emissions and rising liquid fuel cost putting pressure on operating margins, re-newable energy could prove to be an attractive option for telecom sector.

In India close to 400,000 telecom towers are there with tenancy ratio of ~ 1.8 . Electrification scenario v/s telecom coverage is depicted in Fig-1

Close to 10% towers don’t have electricity and around 50% towers get less than 12 hours supply. Since telecom operation is of 24 X 7 nature operators/ telecom towers company have to rely on back-up power sources that’s batteries and Genset.

It has been found that every tower on average consumes around 22 liters of diesel because of non availability of grid power which results around 20 CER per year per tower.

Also for a telecom operator in the operating cost the energy cost is 30-33% which needs to be brought down as this has pressure on bottom line as ARPU is getting lower and lower.

[pic]
[pic]
Fig-1[1]

Diesel pilferage losses ~20% have been observed in the industry which further increases the energy costs. In extreme cases overall cost of generation has sky rocketed to Rs 22-26 per unit

These tree pain points need cure in short time, in addition to regulatory requirements, required to be addressed in most effective and cost effective way.

The Solution

Telecom operators and telecom tower companies are having challenges/ to address points-

• Reduction in operating cost i.e. energy cost

• Reduction of carbon emission

• Stopping pilferage

Going ahead, telecom growth is expected from rural areas which would mean greater dependence on diesel for power and hence higher energy cost.

Higher dependence on liquid fuel along with intense com-petition would put pressure on margins for telecom tower companies going forward. Also in absence of 100% fuel pass through mechanism renewable energy appears to be a better option.

a. Technology Selection

A typical telecom tower has an energy requirement in the range of 3-5 kW. Various technology solutions are available for powering telecom towers, but success of each of the available technology depends on multiple factors like capital expenditure, operating cost, reliability etc. While there are complex technologies like fuel cells available, viability in Indian context becomes a question. In India, solar and wind have been widely used in various distributed generation applications and have been successful in the past.

[pic]

Solar & Wind energy are the most mature technologies amongst all the other sources of green power and could be looked as a long term power solution for telecom towers in India.

Therefore the Company would use solar as their solutions.

It would also take up the responsibility of Operation and maintenance of the site. Typically would sign long-term agreement with lock-in period of 5 years and reduction of energy cost to the order of 25%+ of the diesel cost.

[pic]
Fig-2 Site with Solar Solution[2]

Why Now:

Though the providing of power back-up through solar, wind and alternative resources being considered by telecom operators and tower companies since the tower sharing being vogue since 2007 when Department of Telecom allowed the sharing of passive infrastructure through IPL-1 licenses.

The Master Service Level agreements entered between telecom operators and Tower companies envisaged that Energy charges were pass through. Hence no incentive for a tower company to invest in energy efficient infra and operator were too busy in roll out and no focus on efficiency. But now is. Hence MSA being renegotiated for fixed energy charges.

Further as per the Department of Telecommunications directive dated 23.1.2012,

[pic]
Also

[pic][3]
Though telecom operators have been discussing with DoT , this have to be implemented sooner than later.

This provides opportunity for company like XYZ Energy to serve this market.

Market Analysis

There are around 400,000 telecom towers in India. The leading tower companies are and number of towers is as per the Table-1.

|S.No. |Tower Company |No of Towers As on 31st March|
| | |2015 |
|1 |Indus |125,000 |
|2 |Viom |42,000 |
|3 |Bharti Infra |38,000 |
|4 |GTL |32,000 |
|5 |Tower vision |9,000 |
|6 |ATC |10,000 |
|7 |Reliance Towers |65,000 |
|8 |BSNL |62,000 |
|9 |Ascend Towers |5,000 |
|10 |Vodafone/ Idea non Indus circles |14,000 |
| |Total |402,000 |

Table-1 [4]

Considering this if 50% towers having the less than 12 hrs grid supply then the addressable size is around 200,000 towers.

In the Targeted circles for the Company i.e.:

1- Haryana 2- Punjab 3- Up West 4- Delhi 5- Rajasthan

Around 60,000 towers are there. Assuming in first 3 years 30 % of this would get converted into Diesel free sites then its 18,000. Company would be targeting to get 10% thus around 1,800 sites.

Competition

The companies who are in business of generating solar energy grid connected or off grid are in competition but grid connected one not so interested as they deal in bulk supply of energy to grid. The off grid players are the one & RESCOs who are providing such services. Some of them are

• Applied Solar • Bhaskar Solar • Tata BP • OMC Power • Delta • Tapan Solar • LANCO • Moser Baer

The SWOT Analysis of XYZ Energy services are

Strengths:

1- State of the Art Technology based Solar Hybrid Systems 2- Technology expert with proven credential on board as designer of the solutions with combined experience of 100+ years 3- Focused geographical area/ customized services 4- Energy as well as O&M services contracts 5- Relationship with Key decision makers in Industries

Weaknesses:

1- New Entrant 2- Small base 3- Price pressure 4- Financial strength

Opportunities:

1- Large market size ready to be acquired due to regulatory compliance 2- Carbon Credits

Threats:

1- Regulation relaxation 2- Financial constraints of telecom & tower companies 3- Delay in payment / Bad cash flow.

Product/ Solutions

The company would use the integrated solar hybrid systems form the leading power electronics company to provide the solar solutions and managing the different source of energy at the new BTS sites. Company would provide the turnkey solutions comprising

• Power Electronic System • Photovoltaic modules • Cables • Switches • Monitoring & controlling systems • Installation & commissioning services • O&M services • Any other services as would be agreed upon on case to case basis.

And for existing site, it will use the Solar charge controller approach.

[pic]

This is schematic of a typical solar charge controller solution for a telecom site.

[pic]Integrated site solutions

The Business Model

To start with company would work on the OPEX and usage model and would sign contract with Tower companies. The technical configuration would be finalized along with agreed saving with respect to diesel with the customer and would be deployed. This would as follows

1- Customer would pay the monthly installment for 5 years period at the agreed interest rate towards the CAPEX 2- Energy contract would be signed for minimum of 10 years 3- Energy charges ( electricity pass through + agreed qty of diesel at market price) 4- Customer will also pay for the O&M charges of the site 5- Annual Maintenance charges 6- Any other charges mutually agreed upon 7- Space for PV module and other equipment would be provided by customers free of cost.

The company would tie-up with solar module provider and electronic provider as strategic partner for sourcing the required components of the solutions.

Would design the most competitive and reliable solution which meets the customer requirements and ensure the maximum availability.

Executive Relationships of the promoters and proven solutions design capability would be leveraged initially along with the credibility of technology partners.

Field Engineers team would be built-up as business grows at different circles.( 40-50 sites per engineer)

The organizations would be structured in Head office at Delhi and circle offices in Haryana & Punjab, UP West and Rajasthan.

The company would also tie up with local service providers in circles for providing O&M services.

Management & Team

The Organization structure would be

[pic]

Respective Functional Heads would formulate the policies, guidelines and procedures for their functions. However that would be consistent with the ethics and business practices of the organizations of reputes such as Tata .

The company having zero tolerance policy as far as compliance with law of the land, the acts, pollutions policy, labor and sexual harassments policies are concerned.

The company would hire the right person with required technical, communications and conceptual skills at all level without any biases and prejudices.

Financial

Assumptions are

1- The typical telecom sites having 2 BTS require around 6Kwp PV module. Hence the cost @ Rs 50 per watt = Rs 300,000 2- The cost of electronics , cables etc. = Rs. 150,000 3- Cost of battery = Rs. 75,000 4- Manpower cost per site per month= Rs.6,000 5- Interest rate = 17%

The project cost is calculated for 100 sites for maximum period of 10 years

The CAPEX Requirement is Rs. 44,438,087.67

OPEX Requirements as in the calculations.

The NPV for 10 years comes to Rs. 45,797,577.61

IRR for 10 years comes to: 36%

The NPV for 5 years comes to Rs. 7,257,167.33

And IRR for 5 years comes to: 23%

[pic]

The Harvesting Strategy

Based on the above financial the Enterprise Value after having achieved the installation of 100 sites and getting the Cash flow as projected comes to as follows

|The 10th year Revenue is | |
|30,614,300.76 | |
| | |
|The growth in the revenue is 7% | |
| | |
| | |
|Interest rate is 17% | |
| | |
| | |
|Hence perpetuity value is | |
|306,143,007.61 | |
| | |
| | |
| | |
| | |
|Hence Enterprise Value | |
|351,940,585.22 | |
| | |

The exit strategy would be to get the buyer who pays around Rs. 35 Cr. If not, the company would keep expanding the operation and would strive to get leadership position in North India and then All over India.

-----------------------
[1] Ministry of Power Government of India
[2] Department of Telecommunications/BSNL site
[3] DoT letter dated 23.1.2012
[4] Frost & Sullivan and KPMG Report

-----------------------
CEO

FINANCE HEAD

O& M HEAD

SALES & BD HEAD

CIRCLE FINANCE HEAD

CIRCLE O&M HEAD

CIRCLE SALES

FIELD ENGINEERS

HRD

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Small Scale Renewable Energy in India

...SMALL SCALE ENERGY SECTOR IN INDIA HUL 736: Developmental Economics and Planning Abstract A study on the small scale energy sector in India and its impacts on development Saumya Mathur 2011ME10725 Sanjeev Ranjan 2011ME10724 Contents Small Scale Energy ......................................................................................................................... 4 Technologies and set-up............................................................................................................... 5 The power plant ......................................................................................................................... 5 Extra equipment needed besides the power plant ..................................................................... 5 Possible set-ups ......................................................................................................................... 6 Costs ............................................................................................................................................. 6 Grid parity ................................................................................................................................. 7 Differences from Traditional Energy .............................................................................................. 7 Advantages and Disadvantages.............................................................................................................

Words: 5287 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Going Green

...Renewable Energy With a growing population around the world, the need for energy is grows as well. In modern society, we use electrical energy for multiple tasks such as operating vehicle, machines, for everyday uses. Every year the electrical energy needed requires mass amounts for such purposes. Which is created in power plants, for example, the Hoover Dam. Scientists continue to look for alternative sources to quench our thirst for more power. Renewable energy is a great example of what scientists are striving for to help quench the thirst. It is a natural resource that can also be naturally replenished. Renewable energy is the best solution for energy consumption, to ensure our survival. Renewable energy is the most reliable resource due to that it provides benefits globally and to human individuals. It helps maintain our energy infrastructure, well as provides long-term benefits. It helps combat global warming and other problems associated with fossil fuels. The environmental quality and preservation is the goal of the use of renewable energy. Renewable energy should be considered throughout the world because of the potential impact we may have on the environment. Renewable energy is the best solution because it provides long-term and environmental benefits. On a global scale renewable energy supplies a significant benefit to our planet such as, lowering energy costs, job creation, and preserving the environment. With energy costs continuously on the rise and more......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Reflection Paper 3

...reading the case on “Shaping the future of solar power: climate change, industrial policy and free trade” I gained much clearer insight to the history and working of the solar energy industry. From personal experience, I have seen the recent increased use renewable energy, particularly wind and solar energy. Internationally, in Europe wind and solar energy as source of energy is not new revelation too me, many European countries, such as the Netherlands, my birthplace, are not new in utilizing wind and solar energies. What this case brought me to really learn was the involvement and the relationship of the U.S and China government in the solar energy industry. It came as no surprise to me that the U.S government was subsidizing the solar energy, however what came to light to me was the level of international competitiveness and political gridlock between China and the U.S in the solar energy industry. It was interesting to touch on the issue if governments should intervene in the market place. It became clear, that it was tough issue for the government to tackle, with one side of the government arguing that government intervention in the solar energy industry is hurtful and detrimental to business, highlighting the case of Solyndra bankruptcy. The other side, Obama administration, argues that the U.S needs to continue to subsidize and give tax break to solar energy companies to make them competitive in the international markets. The confusing issue, in solving this case......

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Renewable Resources

...Scientists SARID1402 Group 3.1 13th of August 13, 2014 The issues of using renewable resources By Ridhwan Sabur The issues of using renewable resources By Ridhwan Sabur The following report discusses the issues that could occur through the use of renewable energy sources. The impact of energy sources on global warming and climate change is escalating, this creates the debate whether to use renewable energy or not. However, these alternatives come at a cost. In a world that is rapidly industrialising and technologically developing, energy resources will only be more in demand. By the year 2010, 93% of global energy was generated through non-renewable energy sources such as, oil, gas, coal and nuclear power (Bose, 2010). The world’s population uses up an extensive amount of energy each year, causing several environmental, social and economic complications to the world. These sources seem favourable, they still involve several challenges. Renewable resources can change the economy of a country and it does change the pollution around the world. This reports observes the causes of the need of renewable energy, the effects that they have and the recommendations to overcome these issues, Fossil fuels are commonly known to produce gases that cause air pollution and accelerate the global warming effect. Considering these factors, countless nations around the world understand the importance of sustainable energy sources. 1. Fossil fuels are finite. All fossil fuels......

Words: 1601 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Economic Benefits of Environmental Policy

... Contents Executive Summary 1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 8. 8.1 Introduction Environmental Policy and the Economy Environmental Policies and Productivity Description and background Policy instruments Review of evidence from the wider literature Evidence from examples and case studies Scale of economic benefits to date and assessment of the further potential Beneficiaries and timescale Environmental Policies and Innovation Description and background Policy instruments Review of evidence Examples and case studies Scale of economic benefits Beneficiaries and timescale Environmental Policies and Employment Description and background Policy instruments Review of evidence from the wider literature Evidence from examples and case studies Scale of economic benefits to date and assessment of the further potential Beneficiaries and timescale Environmental Policies and the Balance of Trade Description and background Policy instruments Review of evidence from the wider literature Evidence from examples and case studies Scale of economic benefits to date and assessment of the further potential Beneficiaries and timescale Environmental Policies and the Public Finances Description and background Policy instruments Review of evidence from the wider literature Scale of economic benefits to date and assessment of the further potential Beneficiaries and timescale Environmental Policies......

Words: 78697 - Pages: 315

Premium Essay

Energy Sector

...Energy sector All businesses depend directly on the energy sector which is the largest single market in the world. Some energy companies trade in fossil fuels (coal,gas and petroleum) while others supply electricity or fuel to end users.Many of the products derived from petroleum, like plastic, chemicals and fertilizers are essential components or ingredients for industry. As petroleum reserves become scarcer this drives up oil prices and encourages companies and governments to develop alternative or renewable energies .Increasing energy consumption is creating pollution and causing global warming. An increasing number of petroleum geologists have warned that official estimates of available global oil reserves are dangerously exaggerated. For energy companies, proven oil and gas reserves are their primary indicator of economic health. There may be considerably less oil in the world than the oil-producing countries and energy companies claim and it would be logical to expect that oil production could peak far sooner than predicted. For economy still reliant on fossil fuels the effects would be catastrophic. All major players In the oil business insist that there will be enough oil to last well through the 21 st century. The optimistic oil-reserve estimates also fail to take into consideration one vital question what will happen if global demand for energy continues to rise? The consequences of overestimating the global oil supply would be devastating. In......

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Onesdfdssd

...SCOPE OF COMPETITION IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SECTOR IN INDIA ___________________________ INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY: PRIYANKA VARMA BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY VARANASI UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: MR. VIJAY KUMAR SINGH DEPUTY DIRECTOR (LAW) ____________________________ COMPETITION COMMISSION OF INDIA NEW DELHI JANUARY 2012 i DISCLAIMER This project report has been prepared by the author as an intern under the Internship Programme of the Competition Commission of India for a period of one month from January 2, 2012 to January 30, 2012. This report is for academic purposes only. The views expressed in the report are personal to the intern and do not reflect the views of the Commission or any of its staff or personnel and do not bind the Commission in any manner. This report is the intellectual property of the Competition Commission of India and the same or any part thereof may not be used in any manner whatsoever, without express permission of the Competition Commission of India in writing. Priyanka Varma M.A. (Final) Economics Banaras Hindu University ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My sincere thanks and regards to Mr. Vijay Kumar Singh, Deputy Director (Law), Competition Commission of India, Government of India, for giving me the opportunity to work on this sector and for guiding me every step of the way. I would also like to acknowledge the Library and Support Staff of CCI for their unconditional help and cooperation during the entire duration of my......

Words: 20915 - Pages: 84

Premium Essay

The 11th Hour

...solutions describing the visions of the alternative energy sources, provide transportation options, improve environmental agendas of government, creating housing and urban infrastructure will be environmentally friendly and reduce the level of consumption in big cities. Perception Speaking of businesses will certainly talk about the profit. Problems arise when the awareness of environmental sustainability is still low. When only the advantage of being the first priority, other aspects sometimes neglected. Businesses that take natural resources and produce waste usually will have an impact on the environment. A company would harm the environment to whatever extent was profitable, and they often harmed the environment despite the fact that it was unwarranted to do so. If there are no business ethics applies here, environmental degradation and other losses will occur. Many companies especially in manufacturing industry dispose of waste into water, like into river or pond. Sometime this is relatively harmless to ecosystem, but increasing the amount of waste could became too toxic for some organism. If toxic accumulate and make disturbing ecosystem, other third parties could be impacted, like people around ecology, food resources contaminated. Imagine that company twice as much pollution into pond/river to save operational cost, but it kill fish in the pond. The fisherman that have income from fish will not have any income. In that case, the company decision to dump more waste......

Words: 1522 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Solar Photovoltaic

...Solar Photovoltaic System: An Alternate Source of Energy Introduction Despite enormous hydropower potential (theoretically 83,000 MW), only about 40 percent of the population of Nepal has access to electricity and this percentage even drops down in the remote areas. Since the rural energy demand is basically for lighting, Government of Nepal (GoN) has its dedicated energy policy to promote Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) including Solar Home Systems (SHS) which follows the principles of Solar Photovoltaic Systems. Photovoltaic are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into a flow of electrons. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. The first practical application of photovoltaic was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced dramatically in recent years. Solar photovoltaic is growing rapidly from a small base to a total global capacity of 40 GW (40,000 MW) at the end of 2010. More than 100 countries use solar PV. Some 24 GW of solar was projected in November 2011 to be installed in that year,......

Words: 2183 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Clean Energy Markets: Jobs and Opportunities

...Brief: Clean Energy Markets: Jobs and Opportunities April 2010 Update [Type text] In Brief: Clean Energy Markets: Jobs and Opportunities Executive Summary This brief discusses how investment in clean energy technologies will generate economic growth and create new jobs in the United States and around the globe. The United States stands to benefit from the expansion of global clean energy markets, but only if it moves quickly to support domestic demand for and production of clean energy technologies through well-designed policy that enhances the competitiveness of U.S. firms. Clean energy markets are already substantial in scope and growing fast. Between 2004 and 2007, global investments in renewable energy more than doubled. Forecasts of investment totals over the next few decades vary according to assumptions made regarding the nature of future global climate agreements. Annual investments in global renewable energy markets could reach $106-$230 billion a year in 2020 and as much as $424 billion a year in 2030 (in year 2000 dollars). Over the next decade, assuming strong global action on climate change, cumulative global investment totals for clean power generation technologies could reach nearly $2.2 trillion. Recognizing the potential of these markets, China, Europe, and other nations are moving to cultivate their own clean energy industries and position them to gain large market shares in the decades ahead. In 2009, China invested more money in clean energy......

Words: 10639 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Types and Uses of Renewable Energy and Their Influences

...of Renewable Energy and Their Influences DeVry University LAS-432 Professor Anthony Baker Team E Vincent Murr, Alisia Ngo, Mark Pick, Kristine Reed & Venrick Richards 02/25/14 Contents Introduction-Alisia Ngo 3 The Uses and Science of renewable Energy 7 History of Renewable Energy- Vincent Murr 10 Political Influence-Vincent Murr 15 Impact on the economy – Mark Pick 20 Cultural Issues-Kristine Reed 31 Environmental Effects- Kristine Reed 34 Moral and Ethical Concerns-Venrick Richards 38 Conclusion-Venrick Richards 46 References 50 Introduction-Alisia Ngo Throughout the 20th and 21st century, fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas have been essential to our way of life. In the past several decades scientists have warned that coal and oil have been diminishing and that it could take thousands of years for the earth to replenish what we have already used. With that being said finding other resources of energy is crucial to the conservation of our way of life as we know it. Evidence has shown that the U.S. relies heavily on oil, coal, and natural gas for its energy. So finding new ways to substitute these sources of energy through renewable energy like wind, and sunlight needs to be a high priority for local and state governments nationwide. In this paper I will explain why the need for renewable energy is so important to the environment and our way of life. I will speak specifically on the many types of renewable energy......

Words: 14436 - Pages: 58

Premium Essay

Incentive Plan

...can have a significant on the performance of employees and by extension the overall achievement of organizational goals. There are several techniques currently applicable in the field of human resource management that can be put into use to achieve this goal of maintaining a content staff. An incentive plan is one such technique mainly aimed at providing drive to achieve targets (Schoeffler, 2005). Business in the world today has seen the evolution of several plans available for application with widely varied results. An organization may choose to implement one plan or several incentive plans operating at once leaving employee’s to choose plans to pursue based on their individual goals. Despite the fact that all organizations would like to keep a staff that is highly motivated and productive it is not always possible to implement some of the plans based on factors that may be out of the organization’s control. For example, a non profit organization would find it impossible to implement a profit sharing plan. The selection of the incentive plan to use is dependent on the type of business among other factors and if properly implemented can provide a major boost to the organization. In this paper we will highlight the incentive plans at Pratt nursing home. We will attempt to understand why the incentive plans in place assist the organization in achieving objectives. We will also describe how we believe they are related to organizational goals and objectives. We Incentive Plan......

Words: 1795 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Project

...PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEM ABSTRACT Energy from renewable source such as solar is getting interest as the world’s power demands increases daily. Over time solar energy has emerged as a promising sustainable energy sources but unfortunately for solar panels the sun moves. Nigeria as a country is suited for harvesting of solar energy, of which if effectively implemented can end energy crisis faced by this Country Our design includes a construction of solar power system (solar photovoltaic module, rechargeable battery, solar charge controller and load) with an integration of a solar panel tracking device. The design also incorporates a web based portal for control and monitoring of the system remotely. The system uses an Arduino Uno as a microcontroller to control power supply to the inverter and for measuring the battery percentage in a real life over a WIFI Network using Arduino Ethernet Shield. INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background of the study Energy is fundamental to human daily activities. An important form of energy is the Solar energy which source is the Sun, other forms of energy also include Electrical, Chemical and Mechanical energy to mention but a few. The importance of energy to the Environment, Economy, ICT cannot be overemphasized especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Energy is an important factor for economy competitiveness and employment, it allows us to light our homes and offices in the form of electrical energy, to......

Words: 1553 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cost Benefit Analysis

...MBA 439: Business Economics CBA Report Writing Topic: Benefit-Cost Analysis of Pacific Islands Alternative Energy (An Economic Assessment of Renewable Energy Options for Rural Electrification in Pacific Island Countries) Lecturer: Professor Jim MacMaster By Tamaroa Tekeiaki – s11059287. Introduction Is there a way for Pacific island countries to opt for a more inexpensive and environmental friendly power source for rural electrification or should they just stick to the current source of energy they are using at the moment? This report provides then a summary of the evaluation on the economic and financial cost of these alternative renewable energy projects that the pacific islands may opt to in terms of their cost-benefit analysis. From recent data report the world relied on renewable sources for around 13.1% of its primary energy supply, according to IEA statistics. Renewables accounted for 19.5% of global electricity generation. (IRENA websites, 2009) According to the report, Woodruff stated that, “In the pacific islands alone approximately 70% (or approximately 50% excluding Papua New Guinea) of the region’s population still lacks access to electricity. In addition, Pacific Island Countries, despite their abundance of renewable energy resources, remain almost completely dependent on imported fossil fuels for meeting their energy needs. However, imported fuel from overseas account for an average of 40% of countries’ gross domestic products. With rising......

Words: 2286 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Business Research

...First Energy: Business Research Applications RES/320 Candice Ward July 02, 2012 First Energy: Business Research Applications First Energy is a multi-state corporation with more than 17000 employees and supplies electricity to customers in six states including Ohio, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland (First Energy Corp, 2011). With this many customers comes a large responsibility to maintain competitive costs and services. Supplying electricity, including customer and business revenue, is a costly venture. To stay viable and competitive, extensive research into alternative forms of energy is essential. First Energy spends much time and expense into this research and explains itself further in the following paragraphs. First energy commits itself to abiding by the rules, regulations, laws, and environmental policies in effect (First Energy, 2010). As pollution laws become stricter and fines increase for higher than allowed pollution levels, First energy must find efficient and cheaper ways to supply electrical energy. For First Energy to move forward with technology, keep customer and business rates low, and comply with state and federal regulations, First Energy spends generous amounts of time and assets into research. A major portion of these assets and time First Energy uses, is research into improving and enhancing existing equipment. To accomplish this, First energy partners with......

Words: 1158 - Pages: 5