Free Essay

Business Ethics Term Paper

In: English and Literature

Submitted By rahulv2015
Words 1736
Pages 7
Business ethics involved in Indian mining

The following paper looks at the major problems in Indian Mining industry, the key players involved in the entire system and tries to offer suggestions to improve the efficiency of the process for the better functioning of economy

Especially when one is dealing with natural resources and public wealth, earning profits shouldn‟t be our goal, earning profits in a right way i.e environmental and society friendly way should be our goal. Any work that causes benefit to few but harm to large number shouldn‟t be done. Ethics is not simply the absence of a negative; it is not a list of „rules‟ we should follow and „regulations‟ we should not break. Rather, it is a vibrant code that expresses our values. When we live an ethical life or run an ethical business, it means our decisions, policies and behaviour are all congruent with our values. These values lay the vision for the world.

1|P ag e

In a resource rich country like India, mining is one of the key industries in the Indian economy without which Indian economic growth would not have been the way it is. Having said that mining in India has been a contentious issue and has been plagued by a dangerous mix of bad policies, weak institutions, corrupt government oversight and thus regulation of India‟s mining industry is largely ineffectual. The result is chaos. The level of lawlessness that is prevailing in India‟s mining industry is hard to overstate. Illegal mining is rampant in Indian mining sector. According to official statistics, there have been more than 82,000 instances of illegal operations of mining in 2010 alone and an annual rate of 30 criminal acts for every legal mining operation in India. But according to me, an even bigger problem is the failure of key regulatory mechanisms to ensure that even legal mine operators comply with the law and respect human rights. We can see look at the examples of iron mining in Goa and Karnataka states to illustrate broader patterns of failed regulation, alleged corruption and community harm. It shows how even mines operating with the approval of government regulators are able to violate the law with complete impunity. Finally, I try to offer practical, straightforward recommendations on how the Indian government could begin to address these problems.

Human rights violation Although Indian government is obliged by International law to protect the Human rights of citizens from abuse of mining firms and other companies, its laws are designed very poorly and implementation is even poorer due to private interests and inefficient administration of corrupted civil servants. Human rights violation is rampant due to shoddy implementation of
2|P ag e

regulations. The result is that key government institutions stand by as spectators while outof-control mining operations threaten the health, livelihoods and environments of entire communities. In Iron mining areas of Goa and Karnataka, Human rights watch noted that mine operators had contaminated the water sources of local residents due to inefficient practises followed in mining and overexploitation of natural resources was a normality. Spillage from the overfilled trucks carrying mined materials caused the crops in the area to be filled with metallic dust and left a trail of harmful smoke behind. Homes in the villages were also coated with metallic dust leading to respiratory problems and people who raised their voices were intimidated and threatened. All of these allegations echo common complaints about mining operations across many parts of India. Corruption In Karnataka Minster Mr. Janardhana reddy had used his ministerial position in the state govt. to illegally mine and cheated the Indian people by embezzling billions of rupees thus depriving the state of funds that could have been put towards the improvement of the state‟s dismal health care and education systems. Ineffective regulation in Karnataka was the key factor in giving corrupted people a free hand in mining sector. Public officials openly admit their inefficiency to tackle such a problem. Indian companies are left to regulate themselves by India‟s govt. thus leading to large scale corruption. In Goa too similar problems are there, activists and even the CM of state allege illegal activities in mining industry and surprisingly no one in the mining industry is denying. One company executive interviewed by Human Rights Watch spoke of “chaos and corruption” and a “total lack of governance” in the state‟s mining sector. A spokesperson for the Goan

3|P ag e

mining industry estimated that nearly half of all mining in the state violates various laws and regulations. Role of Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) The ministry of Environment and forests is tasked to give environmental clearance after considering new mine‟s potential impact on human rights and livelihoods of affected communities. The process has proven to be dysfunctional. Usually clearances are given solel on the strength of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports commissioned and paid by the very companies looking to mine. Naturally these reports ignore the human rights issue and other community impacts. These reports in most cases are extremely inaccurate and contain false information. Important conclusions are just copied from one report to other, while assuming regulators are not going to read anything. “In the most notorious example of this phenomenon, a mine in Maharashtra state received clearance to proceed even though its EIA report contained large amounts of data taken verbatim from a similar report prepared for a bauxite mine in Russia.” It is no surprise that under this framework, almost no mining project is ever denied environmental clearance. Once the clearances are received, monitoring systems are so poor in India that there are few people for thousands of mines and thus they are rarely able to check upon them. So they rely entirely on compliance reports provided by mining companies themselves which in turns makes the process completely ineffective. As we can see India‟s Ministry of Environment can be thought as the main culprit in this entire process simply because any success on its part is very essential to minimizing the human rights issues. According to Human Rights Watch fixing the environmental clearance

4|P ag e

method and other process linked to Ministry of environment are most needed in safeguarding the human rights of mining affected communities.

Political consequences The situation in the India‟s Mining sector turned out to have deep political and economic implications. The scandals in 2011 made the public to come together and collectively overthrow the govts in Karnataka and Goa. Karnataka CM was forced to resign and the state mining industry was closed down by a belated central govt. crack down at a big economic cost. In March 2012, Goa‟s state govt. was voted out of power due to public rallying together in order to counter the scandals plaguing the states mining industry.

• One has to make sure that concerned officials focus their attention on potential human rights and impact on communities near proposed mines through existing impact assessment process or new assessment process focused exclusively on human rights. • We have to take away the option from mining firms to select and pay the consultants who make EIA reports. These reports could be funded through a general fund paid for by mining firms but under govt. control. • We have to empower the expert appraisal committees to carry out a more detailed review of the negative impacts of new projects, also push for more site visits. This process needs a lot of recruitment of staff and other resources and will slow down the process of project consideration and clearance. • Tighter rules need to be drafted for mandatory public consultations and imposing robust sanctions needs to be done. We have to include criminal prosecution where appropriate on
5|P ag e

mining companies and consultants who have provided material false information in their EIA reports and were negligibly incorrect. • An independent review needs to be initiated of the Environmental Impact Assessment reports covering all the existing mines to check for correctness and to find out any materially false or misleading data. Suspend the licenses of mining operators and order them to reapply for clearance if their EIA reports contain falsified information. • We have to empower the ministry of environment and forests (MOEF) to make sure they actively monitor the existing mining projects. This can be done by increasing the staff and providing adequate resources to carry out their roles effectively. • We have to explore ways to make sure that institutions which prepare the EIA reports are well acquainted with human rights principles and try and implement best practices followed globally related to mining sector.

Indian mining industry is riddled with controversy and scandals with private contractors exploiting the powerless workers by denying the basic Human rights and making them work in deplorable conditions. Nowhere in India can we find working conditions which meet the international standards. Added to this is the corruption of powerful ministers who take mining contracts in the name of third parties and make millions of rupees by over exploitation of mining areas. The Ineffective government institutions only seem to aid these people and waste millions of rupees of public wealth. There is an urgent need to implement strict controls in allotting and regulation of mining contracts, there needs to be standards which should be met by every contractor to continue with contract or his license suspended until he changes his policies. Ministers need
6|P ag e

to be strictly monitored and all their actions be closely watched by special authorities so as to stop them from exploiting public resources.

References: Vedanta hurt by Church of England decision to sell stake - Economic Times Mining company in eastern India loses millions in investments due to „ethical concerns‟ « Values, morals and ethics - copper mining India (1980-2009) „Ethical Mining‟ and Adivasi Community as „Stakeholder‟ at Sanhati Delhi's ethics law to hit mining groups - BBC News - Ministers 'stole millions in Karnataka mining scam' BBC News - Why mining in India is a source of corruption India, The Next Mining Giant? The 7 Challenges Ahead Top 7 Reasons To Believe In India‟s Mining Future India's Goa State Suspends Mining - Mines and Communities: Norwegian government indicts Vedanta as "grossly unethical"

7|P ag e

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...University of Phoenix Material   Key Terms   Ethical Terms   Character: Moral actions based on duty-driven ethical principles. These include trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship (Josephson Institute, 2009).   Ethical System: Underlying ethical principles, which a person uses to make decisions   Ethics: “The principles, norms, and standards of conduct governing an individual or organization” (Treviño & Nelson, 2011, p. 17); ethics form the basis for determining the correct action, or moral behavior, in a particular situation.   Morals: Actions based on one’s underlying ethical principles   Values: Those things or actions upon which the individual or organization spends time and money     Ethical Systems   Duty-based: A moral obligation or commitment to act in a certain manner, with clear right and wrong being determined by an outside authority   Entitlement-based: Moral decisions are based entirely on what is in the best interest of the individual, regardless of relationships, the needs of others, or business.   Goal-based: Focuses on the outcome or final purpose, which may be localized, as in business, or universal, as in feeding all the hungry children in the world   Humanistic (secular humanism or human nature ethics): Beliefs based on the extremes of human behavior, both good and bad, without the direction of an outside authority   Relativistic: Relativism often uses the personalized approach to ethics. It is subjective and......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Should Social Responsibility and Business Ethics Serve a Role in Corporations

...Should Social Responsibility and Business Ethics serve a role in Corporations? NorthCentral University Abstract When you turn on the television, surf the internet or browse the Wall Street Journal the terms – business ethics and social responsibility are discussed. Recently, the Gulf coast oil spill has questioned the social responsibility of British Petroleum. However, can the terms business ethics and social responsibility apply to corporations? A review of two articles - “What is business ethics?” by P. Drucker and “The social responsibility of business to increase its profits written” by M. Friedman evaluates the two ethical terms. These articles suggest both business ethics and social responsibility should not apply to corporations. The focus of this paper will compare and contrast two approaches to business ethics. The conflicting objectives between the two parties will be analyzed. Lastly, my view and definition of business ethics and social responsibility will be conversed. Research for this paper consists primarily of peer reviewed articles and published articles. Should Social Responsibility and Business Ethics serve a role in Corporations? During the twenty- first century, businesses are confronted with many different responsibilities. Each responsibility must be address while ensuring obligations to stakeholders, special interest groups, employees and the environment. Businesses are expected to have very strong ethics, but often this is not......

Words: 1274 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Chapter 4

...OC College of Business Administration MGMT 5603.93: Ethics, Decision Making, and Communications Fall 2015, Term 2 Online _______________________________________________________________________________________ Professor: Dr. Phil Lewis, Professor of Management Phone (Work): (405) 425-5561 or 425-5560; (Home): (405) 475-7070 Email: Virtual Office Hours: Email responses normally within 24 hours. Mission of Oklahoma Christian University Oklahoma Christian University is a higher learning community that transforms lives for Christian faith, scholarship, and service. MISSION OF THE OC SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Within a framework of excellence in contemporary business education, the School of Business Administration will build a community of lifelong relationships upon a foundation of enduring Christian values. CONTRIBUTION OF COURSE TO CHRISTIAN SERVICE AND LEADERSHIP For I have walked in my integrity … I will walk in my integrity … Joyful are people of integrity, who follow the instructions of the Lord. Psalm 26:1, 26:11, 119:1 (NKJV). THE OC COVENANT The Covenant for Oklahoma Christian University is posted under Course Information. REQUIRED TEXT Phillip V. Lewis, Ethics in the World of Business, Kendall-Hunt Publishing Co., 2014 (ISBN: 978-1-4652-3979-2). COURSE DESCRIPTION This course examines the basic ethical issues involved in the conduct of business from a biblical perspective. Critical thinking of organizations......

Words: 2380 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...for Students FREE SAMPLE ESSAYS, RESEARCH PAPER EXAMPLES, TERM PAPERS, EXAMPLE DISSERTATIONS, WRITING TIPS AND WRITING GUIDELINES FOR HIGH SCHOOL, COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. HERE YOU CAN ALSO FIND INFORMATION ABOUT CUSTOM WRITING SERVICES AT WHICH YOU CAN BUY CUSTOM WRITTEN PAPERS ONLINE. FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 2010 Essay on Business Ethics http://writing4students.blogspot.in Essay on Business Ethics Business ethics represents all the principles and standards that guide behaviour in the world of business. Therefore, all this set of principles applies in any of the fields of business (marketing, finance…) and people inevitably face ethical decisions in their every day working lives. The aim is to make every employee adhere to these standards because obviously, it is more profitable for a company to be ethical in business. But, as ethical issues are linked to decision-making, how can all decisions be ethical and above all whose responsibility is it? Therefore, we could wonder if business ethics is a personal responsibility or a group responsibility. We are going to divide this essay into two parts, the thesis and the antithesis, in order to determine whether or not business ethics is a personal responsibility. We can write a custom essay on Business Ethics for you! Values are very important as they are the core of our culture. However, people tend to separate ethics in business and in personal life even if both are......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics in Organizations

...TERM PAPER Deteriorating Ethics and Values in Organizations: In the face of Indian Reality - VATSAL  DUSAD   2010TT10971 ”Integrity has no need of rules.” --Albert Camus Ethics  and  Values  in  the  context  of  organizational  culture  have  been  a  topic  of  intense  research  and   arguments  over  a  long  period  of  time,  and  it  has  also  been  recognized  as  a  very  important  aspect  of   organizational  behavior.  In  this  paper,  I  would  be  discussing  the  deteriorating  ethics  and  values  in   organizations.   I   would   begin   with   elaborating   what   ethical   culture   means,   then   taking   it   over   to   highlighting   its   need,   pondering   over   the   reasons   -­‐   so   as   to   why   unethical   culture   prevails   and   then   study   about   ethical   leadership.   I   would   like   to   conclude   by,   bringing   it   to   Indian   context   and   laying   down  a  discussion  -­‐  on  how  prominent  and  prevalent  is  this  issue  in  our  own  land.       There  has  been  a  sudden  rash  of  corporate  scandals  and ......

Words: 2639 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Evolution of Business Ethics

...Evolution of Business Ethics Introduction In any business, decisions must be made to ensure that a business entity or firm is conformity with its vision as well as mission. Most of decisions made by businesses are tailored toward wealth maximization of the firm which ensures that there is continuity production and operation of the entity. It is clear that most if not all businesses want to make profits, however, it is undeniable too that businesses must also be socially responsible to their environment which in this case involves consumers, sellers, lenders, the government and the entire community at large (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2011). For a business to be able to accept its social responsibility, then the application of business ethics must be applied. Business ethics is considered to be the accepted norms or set standards that determine what is right and wrong in the context of a business organization. Therefore, this paper will summarize the development of business ethics over the past thousand years and describe the major changes that led to the focus of business ethics. In addition, the paper will illustrate how these changes impact business practices and compare them with my personal values that have evolved over time. Development of Business Ethics over the decades The origin of business ethics can be traced back during the time of business development, this goes back before 18th century, like any other personal values and norms, ethics in business......

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personal Ethics Development

...Personal Ethics Development Paper * ------------------------------------------------- * ------------------------------------------------- * ------------------------------------------------- * ------------------------------------------------- * ------------------------------------------------- Displaying messages 1 - 2 of 2 Participants: rose.angel13 and Smart-Guru rose.angel13 2015-02-28 23:32 Write a 1,050- to 1,200-word paper on personal ethics development that examines your personal ethical system and ground rules. * Incorporate the terms found in the University of Phoenix Material: Key Terms. * Focus on the developmental aspect of your ethics rather than on a particular position on any issue. * Define your underlying ethical system, its primary principles, the sources that helped shape your ethics—such as people, institutions, events, and so forth—and the criteria and decision-making factors you have used to revise them. * Discuss the potential effect of your ethics on your performance or use of them in your workplace. Use a specific personal example. * Explain why ethics are needed in an organization and how ethics are integrated into an organization to achieve its direction and goals. What effect does the application of these ethics have on individuals, organizations, and society? Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.   KEY TERMS Key Terms   Ethical Terms   Character: Moral actions based on......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Business Ethics

...Organization and business environment overview………………………………….….3 3. Code of Ethics Beiersdorf AG…………………………………………………….………3 4. Code of Ethics Procter & Gamble...…………………………………………….………..5 5. Code of Ethics related business issues in comparison………………………………..7 6. Summary………………………………………………..…………………………………..8 1. Introduction This paper is presented as the option B term paper for the Business Ethics elective course within the MBA program. The goal is to give an overview and an analysis of the codified Codes of Ethics of two major companies within the business field of consumer goods. The respective companies will be the Beiersdorf AG as the requested German example and actor in this field and Procter & Gamble as the world leading competitor in this area of business. The term paper will be structured in the following way. First the aim is to give a brief overview about the companies in question and the area they are doing business in. In a second step the Codes of Ethics of both enterprises will be analyzed using the framework and criteria for an effective Code of ethics which were presented in class. Thirdly, the aim is to give a personal opinion on the presented facts and compare the companies in their approach. The paper is going to be concluded with the presentation on historical and current issues of ethical questions which are applicable for Beiersdorf and P&G. 2. Organization and business environment overview Both companies which are analyzed in this......

Words: 2878 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...nm Name: Tashfia Rifa Zaman Bus101, Sec-4 Assignment-2 ID NUMBER-1520402810/27/2015 | *How is legality different from Ethics? Ethics depends on a person’s morality and personal code whereas Legality involves laws passed by the government to protect consumers etc. * How can we tell if our business decisions are ethical? An ethics check can be used to check whether our business decisions are legal, balanced and it will help finding out what we as owners feel about these decisions. * What is management’s role in setting ethical standards? Managers of business are usually in charge of everything and their behavior influences employees the most. Therefore, their actions send out messages to employees depending on how they react towards ethical misconduct. *What’s the difference between Compliance-based and integrity -based ethics code? Compliance-based ethics code are emphasize avoiding unlawful behavior by punishing law breakers and increasing control whereas integrity- based ethics code emphasize on creating an environment that promotes ethically sound behavior and it involves the organization’s guiding values. *What is Corporate Social Responsibility? It is a business’s concern for the welfare of society and not just it’s owner. *How do businesses demonstrate Corporate responsibility toward stakeholders? A business is responsible for four types of stakeholders, which include: -Customers have to be satisfied with real value goods and......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Rating Different Viewpoints of Business Ethics - Introduction The purpose of this short paper is to compare and contrast three different peer-reviewed journal articles and one online periodical. First, the paper provides a brief introduction of the four articles. Second, the paper compares and contrasts the four articles. Finally, the author presents his views on the topic of social responsibility and business ethics before concluding the paper. Four Articles All four articles center their focus on business ethics. Of the four articles, three are scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles and one, by Friedman, is an online periodical.... [tags: Business, Ethics] :: 4 Works Cited 2005 words (5.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Alahmad and Murphy on Business Ethics - The first two journal articles that were compared and contrasted were Ala Alahmad’s 2010 article on To Be Ethical or Not to Be: An International Code of Ethics for Leadership and Patrick Murphy’s 2009 article on The Relevance of Responsibility to Ethical Business Decisions. Some key findings of Alahmad’s writings were that ethics and leadership were closely tied together; they were found to be derivatives of one another. He mentioned that ethics is an individual thought process of making good or poor decisions.... [tags: Business Ethics] :: 4 Works Cited 970 words (2.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Ethical Perspectives on Business Ethics - The determination of this paper is to compare and contrast the......

Words: 3552 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Business Ethics

...The success of modern business is apparent, but recently there is much concern in the business-and-society literature and in the general press on whether business fulfils its social role responsibly. Business ethics, corporate social responsibility and corporate governance movements have been developed in recent decades as responses to a growing sense of corporate wrongdoing. This paper attempts to explain why the three movements seem yet to have generated little in the form of widely accepted prescriptions for improvement of business behaviour to the satisfaction of the “constituents” of business, i.e. the major stakeholders. Without denying the usefulness of any of the three movements, the paper suggests that there are weaknesses in all three, especially concerning the way they conceive modern business operation. To this end business pluralism, responsive codes of practice and re-examination of the assumptions (conditions) of business operation could be helpful. In the business literature there is a major strand that celebrates business strength and seeks formulae for success. This strand was manifested in the Scientific Management tradition dating from Frederic Taylor’s work in the early twentieth century (Taylor, 1911) and continued through the Human Relations studies of Elton Mayo that sought to find growth through taking care of the “people dimension” (Roethlisberger and Dickson, 1939). The tradition was further developed following the publication by Peters and......

Words: 1693 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

, Financial Management of Health Care Organizations and Ethics Are an Important Part of Running a Health-Care Facility.

...  Unit 2 Term Paper Gary M. Kidd Kaplan University Author Note Pro. Young-White, I’m sorry the term paper is a day late, but I spent most of 3 September at a scheduled medical procedure to refill the pain pump implanted in my spine with Dilaudid. It kept me knocked-out most of the day. Please remember that I’m given extra time on assignments via the Kaplan University office of student disabilities. Abstract This term paper for unit two review three articles, Ethics Consultation in United States Hospitals This term paper also defines 8 financial terms. Keywords: Balance sheet, Shareholder Equity, EBITDA, EBITDAM, Financial Ethics, Financial Benchmarking, Financial Trend Analysis, and Ratio Analysis. Unit 2 Term Paper Business ethics is the appropriate business guidelines and customs regarding debatable issues, like the way a CEO runs his company, illegal stock trading, corruption, business social and monetary obligations. The government’s authorities frequently enforce business ethics, still there are times when businesses alone will use a straightforward structure that organizations can abide by so that they simply may benefit the public interest (, 2013). Article Review The first article chosen for this assignment, is Betsy Gallup’s article Ethics Are an Important Part of Running a Health-Care Facility, and she explains ethics as having three components: independence, integrity and......

Words: 1921 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Excel Work

...Business Ethical Papers: Task1: SUBDOMAIN 310.2 - ETHICS Competency 310.2.1: Ethical Issues in Business - The graduate can determine ethical and socially responsible courses of action in a given business situation. Objective 310.2.1-05: Evaluate a given situation to determine a company’s attitude toward social responsibility. Introduction: Many believe that business entities should have an ethical duty to be socially responsible, to work towards increasing its positive effects on society while decreasing its negative effects. Many organizations look for opportunities to be socially responsible while also creating shareholder wealth. Given: Company Q is a small local grocery store chain located in a major metropolitan area. They have recently closed a couple of stores in higher-crime-rate areas of the city, reportedly because these two stores were consistently losing money. After years of requests from customers, all of their stores have started offering a very limited amount of health-conscience and organic products—all of which were high margin items. When asked by the area’s food bank for donation of day-old products, management declined deciding instead to throw the food away, citing worries over lost revenues due to possible fraud and stealing by employees who might say they are donating the food. Task: Write a brief essay responding to the given statement (suggested length of 2–3 pages) in which you: A. Evaluate Company Q’s current......

Words: 2285 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Ethics Paper

...Ethics Paper MGT/498 University Ethics Paper Strong business ethics, which include honesty, integrity, and fairness to all, play a critical role in running a successful organization as this function of a business operation allows today’s businesses to characterize the differences between correct and incorrect ethical behavior. Additionally, strong ethical values also help businesses gain a competitive advantage (Johnson, 2008), and it allows them to ensure that every employee is following the ethical standards that have been established by the leaders of his or her organization. To gain a better understanding of the importance of strong ethical value, this paper will a) explain the role of ethics, social responsibility, and sustainability in relation to organizational strategy. B) Examine the various types of shareholders that influence’s a company strategy. C) Identify at least one (or more) examples of a company that exemplifies sustainability and social responsibility in their operation. Role of Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability on Strategy Ethics, social responsibility, and sustainability are one of several factors that historically have an effect (either positive or negative) on an organization’s strategy. For example, a company ethical value can have a far-reaching affect on the following areas of an organization: * Public Image (or credibility level): Public image is how a company is viewed by the people or entities in their market......

Words: 1163 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Team Ethics

...Team Ethics Paper July 27, 2013 MGTOP593 Section 3 Team 4 Normative Ethical Decision Making Frameworks 1. Utilitarian approach is an ethical theory stating that the rightness and wrongness of an act depends on the consequences the act produces not the act itself. There are four components of the utilitarian approach: 1) the act does not need to maximize benefits but rather focuses on utility, 2) when calculating benefits, utilitarian’s consider themselves equally with others in the equation, 3) utilitarian’s focus on long-term consequences in addition to the short-term benefit-harm ratio. According to utilitarianism an act is not moral only because its benefits outweighs its harm, instead one where utility i.e. satisfaction has been maximized. (Frederick, 1999, pp. 17-19) 2. Unlike the utilitarian approach, the Virtue ethics approach does not take into account the principles of the action, the action itself, or the consequences of the action, rather focusing on the values and moral character of the person performing the act. Characteristics are the personal virtues. (Frederick, p. 30) The shortcomings of virtue ethics are its inability to solve the problem of dilemma when a person has contradictory values. Second, the justification problem, because every culture has different virtues how do you justify which character traits are virtues. (Hursthouse, 2013) 3. Deontological ethics approach judges the morality of an action based on expectations from the person......

Words: 2127 - Pages: 9