Free Essay

Business Hrm

In: Business and Management

Submitted By khanhlai
Words 4633
Pages 19
SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

1 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY
Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was developed by Peter Checkland in the late 60’s at the University of Lancaster in the UK. Originally it was seen as a modelling tool, but in later years it has been seen increasingly as a learning and meaning development tool. Although it develops models, the models are not supposed to represent the “real world”, but by using systems rules and principles allow you to structure your thinking about the real world. The models are neither descriptive or normative, though they may carry elements of both. One of the interesting things about SSM is that it constrains your thinking in order for you to expand your thinking. Thus blowing away the idea that system thinking is always expansive. Like many other systems approaches the heart of SSM is a comparison between the world as it is, and some models of the world as it might be. Out of this comparison arise a better understanding of the world ("research"), and some ideas for improvement ("action"). In classic SSM the researchers begin with a real-world problem (or perhaps “situation” is a better word). They study the situation in a fairly unstructured way. Following this, they develop some models of that situation. The particular strength of SSM for evaluators is that it can be used to untangle the evaluative lessons from programs with multiple goals and multiple perspectives on these goals. It does so by developing specific perspectives on the program, rigorously constructs some models based on these perspectives and then compares these with real life. The classic SSM inquiry has seven stages. Some of them address the “real” world, and some of them – perhaps the most important parts – address a conceptual world.

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

2 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

THE SEVEN STAGES OF SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY

STAGE ONE AND TWO – THE SITUATION DEFINED

The first step, very much in the real world, is to acknowledge, explore and define the situation in some way. Peter Checkland talks about the “problem situation” since his original purpose of developing SSM was a problem solving one. This workbook uses some of Peter’s original illustrations and thus uses the problem situation phrase, but it could be equally “program”, “issue” or the kinds of words we use in evaluation. So first we decide what it is we are actually exploring. At this stage we don’t define the problem but assess the general area that interests us. Take an example of something called the Sustainable Food Collaboration. The primary activity of this collaboration is developing and sustaining a method of “Sustainable Food” labeling on foodstuffs. Its activities are supported by labeling and auditing fees (ie assessing farms for their “sustainable” practices), and a grant from a major Foundation. This is an arbitrary starting point and it may shift – for instance at some stage we may choose to open out the boundary of the situation to sweep in more aspects of the situation. It could be sustainable food production in general, or working in businesses that support environmentally sustainable products [Churchman’s Critical Systems Thinking – see later - places much greater stress on this issue}. A bit like goal free evaluation, we are not particularly constrained by any formal definitions or organisational boundaries. We collect as much data as we can, qualitative, quantitative, by whatever method seems appropriate - survey, observation, measurement. In Stage Two the issue is “expressed” in some way. Checkland calls this a rich picture for two reasons. Firstly the situation needs to be expressed in all its richness. Checkland provides some guidelines as to what should be included. These are • • • • • • Structures Processes Climate People Issues expressed by people Conflicts
3 bobwill@actrix.co.nz The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

Secondly, Checkland suggests that the best way of doing this is in a picture form. Here is an example from one of his books that expresses the rich picture of a distance learning situation.

Evaluation questions : What are the key : • Structures • Processes • Climate • People • Issues expressed by people • Conflicts • How can the situation be expressed in an “unstructured” form ?
Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams 4 bobwill@actrix.co.nz The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

STAGE THREE – ROOT DEFINITIONS OF RELEVANT SYSTEMS

Stage Three moves out of the “real” world and into the world of systems. This is the Stage out of which everything else grows. That is why Checkland called it the “root definition” stage, and is the unique and most challenging part of the methodology. The first step is to understand the concept of different perspectives that are possible to draw out of the rich picture. Checkland calls them holons - plausible relevant purposeful perspectives that can describe the real world activities. This is why SSM is fundamentally evaluative. Each holon provides a separate value base by which to evaluate the situation. Here are some possible Sustainable Food Collaboration holons. Note : For the purpose of this workshop we are using set of collaborative activities as the “situation”. In real life you would generally identify the particular situation that is of interest rather than a specific institution that is of interest (see Stage One) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ensuring consumers can be confident about the sustainable practice used to grow the product A lever for the Foundation to pursue a broader agenda of social and economic change. A means of treating growers more fairly A means of treating the ecosystem more fairly Employing food specialists. Providing structured opportunities for people to feel more closely connected to food, cultural and local richness of sustainable produce Providing inspiring stories about sustainable agriculture that influence policy Providing greater informed food choices for consumers Translating the theory of sustainable agriculture into practical observable and auditable processes and features. A “safe” way of attracting big food processors, users and retailers to the practice of sustainable agriculture Helping small farms, producers and retailers maintain sustainable agriculture practice Creating a point of difference for specialist producers and retailers The Foundation fulfilling the legal obligations for dispersal of its capital Creating a community where innovation is valued Delaying the death of dying communities Salving the conscience of affluent town dwellers Sustaining careers for farm development workers Providing additional income for auditing consultants

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

5 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

All these are perfectly valid purposeful perspectives. Although they may be undiscussible within The Sustainable Food Collaboration, or not recognised by senior management within the organisation, they are still valid perspectives held by those affected by the situation and will affect the relevance and success of any intervention. For instance, it is very common that service integration designed to improve client outcomes actually increases the cost of the service because it identifies unmet needs that were previously hidden by “gaps” in service. So if one unspoken aim of the integration was to save money, then from some stakeholders’ perspectives the project has been a failure and they may even work against it working well. The basis of SSM is that trying to address all these perspectives as a whole is too complex an endeavour. Clarity is gained by addressing key perspectives separately, understanding their implications and then using those understandings when seeking to reintegrate these perspectives into a set of evaluative conclusions and suggestions for future action. What you do now is to select a particular perspective and put it through a very structured and rigorous model development process. Checkland developed the mnemonic CATWOE to help you. The starting point is a Transformation (T). From this particular perspective, what is actually transformed from input to output ? Once you have identified the Transformation, you then proceed to identify other key elements of the system. • • • • • • Customers who (or what) benefits from this transformation Actors who facilitates the transformation to these customers Transformation from “start” to “finish” Weltanschauung what gives the transformation some meaning. Owner to whom the “system” is answerable and/or could cause it not to exist Environment that influences but does not control the system

In constructing CATWOE it is important for everything to flow from the transformation. One way of ensuring this is to construct the CATWOE in the following order : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Transformation Weltanschauung (ie this transformation is relevant because …) Customer Actors Owners Environment

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

6 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

It is worth noting here that in recent years, some associated with Critical Systems Thinking who use SSM have made two very significant changes to CATWOE. 1 1. They have replaced C with two concepts; B for Beneficiaries, and V for Victims (BATWOVE) 2. B and V can include ideas as well as people These are highly significant changes that open up new domains for SSM – although similar issues could be identified in the political and social analysis described in Step 6. Whichever version you use, you use it to form a statement of a relevant system. Checkland suggests that one way of structuring this statement is : A system to do X, by Y in order to do Z For example, using one of the above perspectives here is a possible CATWOE and Root Definition : Holon : Providing inspiring stories about agriculture rather than depressing stories about agriculture. CATWOE : Customers = sustainable agriculture lobbyists Actors = project evaluators, farmers, retailers, Sustainable Food Collaboration staff Transformation = preponderance of bad stories replaced by a preponderance of good stories Weltanschauung = stories bring about pressure for social change Owner = The Foundation Environment = established practice, isolated area, poverty and lack of investment capital [Consider what reforming this as BATWOVE might achieve] Description of a Possible System Foundation sponsored activities by the Sustainable Food Collaboration and their stakeholders create a set of good news stories about consumer use of sustainable agricultural products that allow lobbyists to use as part of their policy development levers. Of course (and this is critical to the entire SSM approach) even the same perspective can have different CATWOE components. What would happen to CATWOE or the Root Definition is we identified “service consumers” as the “customer”, or “funders” as the “owner”. We might end up with very different CATWOE, different root definitions and ultimately a different model. This is why SSM is a very iterative approach – you keep trying things out and see how that changes your assessment of the situation. Checkland recommends keeping the elements of CATWOE roughly in scale. For the same holon an “owner” could be a particular individual, part of an organization, an
1

My thanks to Martin Reynolds and Gerald Midgley for bringing this to my attention 7 bobwill@actrix.co.nz The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

organization as a whole or perhaps an entire sector). These different levels of scale need to be matched throughout the CATWOE – so for instance the Transformation will be quite different at the level of a “worker” than the level of an entire industrial sector. Getting the scale appropriately balanced (ie a relevant system) is one of the arts of SSM. Evaluation questions : What different ways are there to comprehend this situation ? Within that perspective who could be doing what for whom with what assumptions in which kind of environment ?

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

8 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

STAGE FOUR – DEVELOPING THE MODEL Using the “root definition” you draw up a conceptual model using systems conventions. There are lots of ways of doing this, but Checkland recommends that beginners follow the process below: 1. Using verbs in the imperative write down activities necessary to carry out the Transformation (T in CATWOE). Aim for 7±2 activities that are at the same scale. 2. Select activities which could be done at once (i.e., not dependent on others) : 3. Place these activities in a line, and then those that are dependent on these first activities in a line; continue until all are accounted for. 4. Indicate the dependencies

5. Rearrange to avoid overlapping arrows where possible. Add a means of assessing performance and include the aspects of the environment identified in CATWOE. 6. Finally check whether your model demonstrates the following systems properties : o An ongoing purpose (that may be determined in advance – purposeful, or assigned through observation - purposive) o A means of assessing performance o A decision taking process o Components that are also systems (i.e., the notion of sub-systems) o Components that interact o An environment (with which the system may or may not interact) o A boundary between the system and the environment (that may be closed or open) o Resources o Continuity So how might this look in the case of the Sustainable Food Collaboration ? Here again is the “holon”, the relevant perspective, I chose to explore :Providing inspiring stories about agriculture rather than depressing stories about agriculture.

With a root definition of a relevant systems taken from the “holon” being :
Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams 9 bobwill@actrix.co.nz The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Foundation sponsored activities by the Sustainable Food Collaboration and their stakeholders create a set of good news stories about consumer use of sustainable agricultural products that allow lobbyists to use as part of their policy development levers. From this I’ve identified the following list of core relevant activities:

Decide who needs to know stories

Develop relationship with relevant lobbyists

Put into lobbyist language and feed stories to lobbyists

Determine policy change needed

Use response to determine improved stories

Explore potential for FA to tell these stories

Identify good stories

Fund FA along these lines

Decide what a good story might look like

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

10 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Applying the process recommended by Checkland, and then double checking again the list of essential properties of a system I ended up with the following model :

Poverty, no capital, history, isolation
Determine policy change needed Decide what a good story might look like

Decide who needs to know stories

Explore potential for FA to tell these stories

Develop relationship with relevant lobbyists

Identify good stories

Fund FA along these lines

Put into lobbyist language and feed stories to lobbyists

Use response to determine improved stories

Checkland recommends you don’t spend much time in initial model building. I spent about twenty minutes from root definition to model. He considers it better to undertake the comparison stage, have the discussions, gain insights, and return to the model, rather than spend a long time on the initial model building. This reinforces his belief that the SSM process is about cycles of discussion, debate and learning rather than producing the “ideal” solution first time. However, the speed is not at the cost of rigour. Indeed he recommends the model to be closely inspected in ways that increase the rigour of the overall inquiry. However, others consider that the debates and discussions that surround model building are in some ways more important that the model itself. In other words similar to the debates that surround Program Logic.

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

11 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

For instance : • Does the diagram come wholly from the root definition and CATWOE and no other extraneous features and ideas added ? The rigor of the method depends on this. The modelling process is not an idea generation process but a logical process of excluding all factors not logically flowing from the definition. Is the “model” a “system” or a collection of boxes with lines between them ? Does the model include all the features that make it describe a system ? Does the system in particular have a means of monitoring, assessing and responding to its own performance ? For those CATWOE that include multiple items (eg multiple Owners) how would the model and definition look if only one was used ? What alternative or additional W’s are there, and what implications does that have for the defined system and model ? Have you confused “context” (ie a description of the particular state of system or its environment) with “environment” (factors that interact with the system but are not part of it) ?



• • •

Evaluation Question What are the minimum critical components needed to bring about the desired impact for each relevant perspective ? Once you have asked yourself these questions and modified the model you may think you can move on to the next stage; comparing the model with reality. BUT…… But that would be to miss one of the really powerful parts of soft systems methodology. It is wise to do one more thing before moving on. Run through process again using different CATWOE (eg identify a different “owner”), different perspectives (holons), different scales (ie sub-systems of the model you have just developed). This is where you start getting real insights into the complexity of the situation. By running through several different CATWOE and models will help us explore what recurring themes might emerge, or what contradictions might be between the models. Alternatively if you have multiples in any component of CATWOE what are the implications for the model of having only one. What happens if you select another “owner” or “Weltanschauung” ? You don’t have to produce multiple models, but SSM really comes into its own when you do. Although ideally they should be developed, like all models, collaboratively with a range of stakeholders, there are times when it is useful to do them just yourself. For instance, in a recent evaluation, my colleague and I developed six models each representing a different way of seeing the program. We did all six in just under an hour. We did them because we needed to get some clarity around what we were doing at a particular stage of the evaluation. It was a complex evaluation and we were getting
Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams 12 bobwill@actrix.co.nz The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

a bit lost. The client never saw them although it allowed us at the reporting stage to defend a viewpoint on the program that the client initially resisted. So in terms of the Sustainable Food Collaboration here is how a workshop explored the following possible holons. I’ve deliberately left out the systems model diagrams so that you can have a go drawing your own. Remember is must develop solely from the root definition and CATWOE. No other extraneous things can be introduced. That is the rigor of SSM – it is a systems method that constrains your thinking in order for you to expand your thinking. Perspective #2 The Foundation fulfilling its legal obligations for dispersal of its capital C = Sustainable Food Collaboration, other grantees, A = PA, PDs, Foundation Finance department T = Achieve annual payout obligations W= Payout achieves the Foundation’s existence O = The Foundation’s Board E= IRS, Annual Goal Area Budget Description of a Possible System (Root Definition) Foundation approved funding allows for effective grant making to help people help themselves as well as sustaining the Foundation’s existence
[Draw your own soft systems model here. Consider using BATWOVE]

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

13 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Perspective #3 Providing additional income for food process auditing consultants C= Auditors A = Sustainable Food Collaboration T = Lower income for auditors to higher income for auditors W= Auditing is a valuable activity O = The Foundation or Sustainable Food Collaboration (they might decide to stop the auditing part of their activities) E = Demand for formal stamp of quality, food producers “pretending” to have sustainable produce Description of a Possible System (Root Definition) The actions of the Sustainable Food Collaboration generate demands for audit transactions that increases the overall income of process quality auditors
[Draw your own soft systems model here. Consider using BATWOVE]

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

14 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Perspective #4 Salving the conscience of affluent town dwellers C = Affluent town dwellers A = Retailers, farmers T = Dissatisfaction with current social situation about food production to satisfaction with current situation with food production W = People will purchase “sustainably produced” labeled food if available O= Retailers E= Public attitudes towards sustainably produced food; social desirability Description of a Possible System (Root Definition) A system that allows affluent townies to buy sustainably produced food in order to feel good about themselves when that food is readily available and clearly visible.
[Draw your own soft systems model here. Consider using BATWOVE]

Again for each model you ask yourselves the questions about the model described on page 11
Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams 15 bobwill@actrix.co.nz The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Steps Five to Seven – Back in the Real World Now the model is compared with reality, insights drawn from that comparison, and ideas for improvements determined. This is the real powerhouse of the methodology.

Step 5

Compare Model And Real World. Gain Insights

Checkland suggests four ways of doing this : 1. 2. 3. 4. Unstructured discussions Structured questioning of the model using a matrix approach Scenario or dynamic modelling Trying to model the real world using the same structure as the conceptual model

The second is the most common – often using a matrix that looks at each component of the model and asks : • • • • Does it exist in the real world ? How does it behave ? How is its performance identified and measured ? Is this process any good ?

So in the Sustainable Food Collaboration example we would look at the above model and the basis of that model (ie CATWOE and the root definition) and consider what actually does happen in the real world. What is present, and what is missing. What behaves similarly and what does not. The biggest and most common mistake you can make at this stage is to confuse reality with the model. Indeed the clients I mentioned earlier looked at a holon and say “but it is not the purpose of this program to do this”. They confuse the point. A holon is a perspective on the system; it is a way in which some people might see the program. The purpose of this stage is to develop insights; in this case into the way in which the change program worked, even if breaking reducing patch protection was not an explicit aspect of the program.

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

16 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Step 6 Develop desirable and feasible interventions
At this point the methodology tends to stop being sequential and starts swinging back and forth through all seven stages of the methodology in order to gain the greatest leverage. On the basis of this analysis possible interventions are explored. Assessing the feasibility of these interventions are an important aspect of the methodology, and Checkland suggests several ways of doing this. 1. Run through the model again using different CATWOE/BATWOVE, different perspectives, different scales (ie model sub-systems) 2. Undertake different systems based analyses (eg system dynamics, CAS, CHAT) 3. “Owner” analysis. Who fundamentally has the authority to take action ? 4. “Social system analysis” How do the various roles, norms and values present in the real world relate to the conceptual model ? 5. “Political analysis”. How is power expressed in the situation being studied ? Run through the model again using different CATWOE/BATWOVE, different perspectives, different scales (ie model sub-systems) As I have already shown, comparing the models of all four possible systems with “reality” may start to reveal areas of contradiction and synergy that suggest possible strategies. Undertake alternative systems based analyses Checkland never regarded his methodology as exclusive. Depending on the particular situation surrounding the Sustainable Food Collaboration situation you could use a variety systems based approaches. I’ve seen SSM combined with System Dynamics and Critical Systems Heuristics for instance. The owner, social and political analyses The Owner, Social system and Political analyses were early additions to the original methodology and a response to initial criticism that the methodology neglected the really soft (but of course exceptionally hard) factors that determine implementation. Checkland argues that these analyses should run parallel to the entire investigation, informing each step, not just the later ones as described here. Whilst the playing with models and comparison with what is actually going on creates a large range of possibilities, the real whiff of reality comes from the application of the owner, social and political analyses. These are to some extent the make or break analyses that test the feasibility of the ideas. Clearly The Sustainable Food Collaboration activities have a wide range of potential “owners”, in the SSM sense. I can imagine as “owners” being ratepayers, managers, case workers, and elected representatives depending on the holon. The owner analysis would explore this in much more detail, depending on the possible strategies for action that emerge.
Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams 17 bobwill@actrix.co.nz The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Similarly the full application of soft systems to the Sustainable Food Collaboration change process would also look at the prevailing political, societal and commercial norms, attitudes values, and histories that impinge on the situation being investigated. [Similar in some ways to the kind of analysis that takes place during a CulturalHistorical Activity Theory based inquiry]

Step 7

Action to Improve the Situation

This is where the methodology comes full cycle, and maybe starts a new cycle (rather like the cycles of expansive learning in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory) Evaluation Questions To what extent does the actual situation match the logic models ? How important are the similarities and the differences ? To whom ? From the important similarities and differences, what conclusions can we draw about the value or worth of the actual situation and the processes and procedures that brought about that situation within this context and environment ? How did social, political and cultural factors assist the similarities and accentuate the differences ? What were the consequences of that ? To whom ? What impact did those with power have within the situation ? What conclusions can we draw about their behaviour ? What does this mean for future action ?

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

18 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

SO WHAT FOR EVALUATION ? Soft Systems Methodology is useful when rigor and deep insights are needed under these circumstances: • Multiple goals • Different views and perspectives • Different assumptions • Different logics • Different stakeholders • Very entangled REFERENCES Books Checkland, P. and Scholes, J. (1991) Soft systems methodology in action. Checkland, P (1999) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice : a 30 year retrospective. Chichester: Wiley. Patching, D. (1990) Practical soft systems analysis. London: Pitman. INTERNET http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill/Resources/ssm.doc

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

19 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Lessons learned

Strengths of soft systems methodology: when would I use it?

Weaknesses of soft systems methodology: why might I not use it?

Possible uses of soft systems methodology in evaluation

Things to try when I return home

Soft Systems - Modified December 2005 Bob Williams

20 bobwill@actrix.co.nz

The Kellogg Foundation http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hrm Business

...BUSI 1475 Class: Intake 7; Student ID: 00013526 Student Name: Le Thi Minh Hien Lecturer: Bryan Tran Course: Contemporary Issues in Management Introduction In the orgnization’s today, managing employee is very important . If a organization want to developp, they need a good manager. Based on Shivarudrappa (2010), Human resource management are playing the role that the manager employ, educate, pick out and develop contributory for an organization. He also told us that HRM is making and implementation plan for all staff and operations of the company. So the role of HRM is very important for the development of each organization.To complete the task, HRM is the lead right from the first step.HRM must understand the needs of the employees, the company's strategy, knowledge of marketing, creative, and refreshing work themselves, said creating effective working environment (Zuzeviciute and Tereseviciene, 2007 ). This article was aimed to clarify the skills, abilities and knowledge of the HR manager in a modern company Skills, Competencies and Knowledge Human resource management’s role is one of the important components of the organization. There are some skills can help the manager grow into more effective. Two of the most important skills an employer's selection and recruitment.Recruiting good staff is the first basic skills of a recruiter.It is in the process of selecting a group of highly qualified candidates for recruitment office’s worker(Gold, 2007). He also......

Words: 2262 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Castle's Family Restaurant

...the tools to improve the company-employee relationship on multiple fronts. A valuable HCM solution may also assist with increasing employee satisfaction and motivation, as well as automate many of the tedious administrative tasks involved in managing human capital. When reviewing software options, it’s important to look for a solution that is customizable to address your company’s specific business needs, easily integrates with your existing payroll and HR software and collects data to produce valuable insights into retention patterns and workforce strengths and weaknesses. ADP Functionality ADP vantage HCM, is one of the most widely used software for HRIS (Human Resource Information Systems) in the United States. With the right training from management, employees would remain motivated and begin to enjoy the company while increasing their absenteeism, and their respect for their company while making the employee’s feel like they are a part of a family outside of home. The employees would start feeling a sense of appreciation. A happy employee causes a happier work environment. Business Assessment The ADP Vantage (HCM) is used for a company that has no more than 1,000 employees. That means that when starting a company that has less than 1,000 employees there is no need to panic but once you reach over the 1,000 employee mark you’ll then have to upgrade your system, provided that ADP has not already sent HRIS an email pertaining the upgrade itself. HRIS Vendor Choice A...

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hris

...access to training servers, customization, private training. | The website offers very detailed and comprehensive information about all software Lawson has. It is a simple, well structured and informative website. | Lawson.com | Industries of all types and sizes, with a particular emphasis on the healthcare and US public sectors | UltiPro HR | UltiPro Workforce Portal, eEmployee Self-Service, eManager Self-Service, eAdministration, eHuman Resources, ePayroll Processing, eRecruitment, eBenefits Enrollment, eReporting and UltiPro Business Intelligence, Position Management | SAAS, cloud | Customer videos, whitepapers, video casts, company documents, podcasts. | Ultimate has a comprehensive and well structure website. It is very informative with all kinds of introductive videos and descriptions. Attractive website. | Ultimatesoftware.com | Industries of all types and sizes (ranging from 200 – 1000+ employees) | Oracle | Human Resources, HCM Warehouse, HRMS Portal Pack, Employee Benefits and Compensation Modules, Recruiting Modules, Payroll Modules, eDevelopment, Learning Management, ePerformance, Workforce Planning, Absence Management, Directory Interface, eProfile, Time and Labor. | SAAS | Oracle Premier Support, Oracle Advanced Customer Support Services, My Oracle Support, Training. | The website is well categorized, and the interface is very fancy. It is informative as well, and it will attract many potential...

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Determining Hris Needs

...Systems Consideration in HRIS In today’s knowledge economy, organizational success depends almost disproportionally on the performance of Human Resources (HR). To increase the effectiveness of Human Resource Management (HRM) organizations are becoming more dependent on human Resource Information Systems (HRIS). A HRIS organizes employee applicant and qualifications, organizational demographics, recruiting, professional development, performance appraisals, payroll, retention, and attrition. Organizations that implement HRIS’s improve the organizations administrative efficiency with faster information processing, improved employee communications, greater information accuracy, lover costs and overall HR productivity improvements (Beadles, 2005). When selecting a HRIS, Human Resources (HR) should consider the efficiencies of using software as a service, the inefficiencies of various Microsoft Access based database software, the risks involved with integrating and combining multiple products into one system, and the consequences of improper database maintenance. In analyzing HRIS’s that would be beneficial in my current organization I chose to focus on HRIS Pro by Micro Systems, and MyHRIS by Nuview Systems. Commercial Database Systems HRIS-Pro information management software allows organizations greater effectiveness in managing HR functions and responsibilities. The advantages of HRIS-Pro are the information systems cost, modular flexibility, expansion capabilities,...

Words: 2068 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Systems Consideration in Hris

...Human resource (HR) database systems are in vast abundance throughout the business world today. HR database systems help HR professionals manage and carry out basic functions needed to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Column Case Management HR and HR Quick are two commercial HR database systems. Column Case HR is an easy to implement, web-based HR Services delivery solution addressing collaboration, content management, workflow automation, and integration features to improve organizational performance. Column Case HR advantages include multi-language support, 24-hour access, security features, it capitalizes on HR talent productivity and organizational performance, computerizes and regulates organizational practices and communication, and improves information distribution with extremely versatile, case-specific workspaces. Column Case HR only disadvantage would be its price; smaller businesses might not have the resources to afford its services. HR Quik is a Human Resource Management System that simplifies the processes and procedures of tracking employee information and generating forms that are critical to the employment process. HR Quik advantages include affordability, user-friendly; can easily track history of job, salary, and manager changes, track benefits plans by employee, employment forms are easily generated and ready to print, and running reports are hassle free. HR Quick also doesn’t have any management features that would allow the company to manage...

Words: 1018 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Impact of Hrm Business

...Week 7 Day 5 CheckPoint Impact of HRM on Business BUS/210 April 20, 2012 Rob Garcia, MBA Impact of HRM on Business Introduction I have been asked to review some recent suggestions on improving our HR department here at The Office Store. Having to review and suggest new ideas in such a large company is not an easy process to take. While I am the newest assistant manager here, I do bring some experience from my previous job with a competitor. There were many great suggestions submitted, I have selected two of the suggestions I think would have the most impact on our business and help improve and possibly streamline some of the work the HR department has to deal with on a daily basis. HR Suggestion #1: Technology and Payroll The first suggestion I would like to submit would be “Employees having access to paycheck related information.” The basic idea is currently all employees that have direct deposit have also agreed to go paperless giving the company the added savings of printing and mailing paychecks. Many times an employee may need access to previous paycheck stub information for tax purposes or even wage and employment verification. I agree it would be a benefit to the company to enable employee’s access to their own information for payroll as well as basic employment information. “This assists the employee greatly when he or she they can check to see what he or she are claiming on the latest Form W-4 or what...

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Riordan

...Running head:   Human Resource System Executive Summary In 1992, Riordan Manufacturing Inc., implemented and established human resource information system (HRIS), which was included as part of a financial package. The HRIS package included functions such as maintaining personnel information, pay rate and tax information, hire and seniority dates, vacation leave for non-exempt employees, and organizational information. However, certain areas of the HRIS could be improved upon and developed. One area that needs improvement is the network communications between headquarters and all the Riordan plants. Improvements are also needed in central repository, resume storage, maintaining training and knowledge skills information, online employee user interface, and a central location for updating and maintaining employee personal and professional information. Improving the current HRIS activities would be advantageous to Riordan leadership and their employees. Hugh McMCauley, the COO for Riordan Manufacturing requested that the human resources (HR) system be analyzed to integrate the existing variety of tools in use in the present day to a single integrated application. The request will take advantage of a more sophisticated look for information systems technology in the HR department at Riordan Manufacturing. After the project is to be completed, Riordan Manufacturing will then be left with a detailed project plan that will provide a list of tasks, resources, schedule and budget......

Words: 3888 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Castle’s Family Restaurant Business Plan: Stage Iii

...to be controlled by technology. One such area is the HR process that has become a manual, time consuming, daunting process. Castle’s can improve their HR operations and support their growing company overall, by implementing a web-based HRIS. After much research and evaluating the needs of the organization my recommendation to help with automating the HR process would be Asentis. This web-based software would be an asset to the restaurant chain. It would assist the operations manager, Jay Morgan is carrying out his duties in a more time effective manner rather than driving from store to store to deal with HR issues. Asentis is secure, comprehensive, caters to the needs of a growing business and is very easy to use. Asentis will assist with the payroll process and other aspects of the business including scheduling, benefits management etc. Additionally, with a staff of 340 plus, having this system will allow for better scheduling which can also be tied into the payroll system once implemented that way. The software will limit the potential of human error on the part of Mr. Morgan who can get consumed in dealing with issues at all eight locations. Previously, all payroll records were being kept in a spreadsheet and the potential to enter wrong information into an employee’s payroll file could have been high. Implementing Asentis as the HRIS will limit errors and withy its automated solutions it will help...

Words: 2690 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Hrm Business Law

...Author Note: This paper was prepare for Managing Employment Law in Business HRM 306 Contents Introduction 3 Background 3 HERRING V. HEWITT ASSOCIATES, INC. (D.N.J. 7-24-2007) 5 Body 5 International Franchise Association, Inc., Charles Stempler, Katherine Lyons, Mark Lyons, Michael Park and Ronald Oh v. City of Seattle 7 Conclusion 10 References 11 Introduction One of the biggest issues that are going on today is should we raise the minimum wage? According to Bureau of Labor Statistics, “In 2011, 73.9 million American workers age 16 and over were paid at hourly rates, representing 59.1 percent of all wage and salary workers. Among those paid by the hour, 1.7 million earned exactly the prevailing Federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. About 2.2 million had wages below the minimum. Together, these 3.8 million workers with wages at or below the Federal minimum made up 5.2 percent of all hourly-paid workers” (Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers In 2011, 2012). According to the data, there are very few people getting paid at or below the federal minimum wage. Yet, people are complaining that the current wages are not enough. With wages at the current state, people are still living in poverty. With the new Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2015 (H.R. 1010), the minimum wage will rise from $7.25 to $10.10. The debate is whether the increase in wage will either benefit everyone (employees and businesses) or will this increase have negative effects and create more......

Words: 2803 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Hrm and Business Strategies

... Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines (by referencing their respective sets of permissible questions, evidence sources, criteria, etc.). Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion. The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is considered important in the academic fields because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure their thinking, thereby decreasing the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. For example when students join high school they are usually told that mathematics is hard but a student who thinks critically will first practice it then come up with his /her own conclusion about the subject It enables people to think about and evaluate their own thinking and behavior on issues related to health education,......

Words: 1602 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

How International Business Affected Hrm

...How International Business Affected HRM Terry Conry Human Resource Management 12 August 2014 How International Business Affected HRM Introduction Changing trends within globalization, technology, and e-business has caused for diversity to have an impactful effect on each & every aspect of business involving human resource management. Furthermore, there has been the enhancing demand for organizational flexibility. Human resource management has been very challenging within international regard. This has been the discipline, which trusts totally on the people, and its behavior has been decided through shared values. As values change from one generation to the next, from one country to another, and from one culture to the next, rules of human resource management have been regularly altered ("Going Global: Managing the HR Function across Countries and Cultures.," 2009). The effect of globalization combined with internationalization within increasingly competitive business arenas is required to be evaluated. This particular paper will give insight to how human resource management fits in along with contributes towards companies international business strategy, as well as discussing important factors that influence international human resource management with regards to globalization. • How has the growth in international business affected human resource management? A major outcome to internationalization...

Words: 1893 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Management of Hrm in Hospitality

...Hospitality Industry Human Resource Management (HRM) has been placed, at least in terms of prescriptive theory, above all the other primary activities of a business and the importance of HRM to businesses in general has been argued to be central and fundamental in order to better enable their business activities and for the fulfilment of their business objectives. In discussing the Resources, Competences and Strategic Capability of Businesses, Johnson and Scholes (1997, Ch 4, p147), say of HRM - “This is a particularly important area which transcends all primary activities. It is concerned with those activities involved in recruiting, managing, training, developing and rewarding people within the organisation”. Others have found evidence that HRM practices can significantly improve a firms performance and for example Dessler (2000 p18) cites research which claims as much as 30% differences (improvements) in financial performance which were attributed to differences in HR practices in banks. He continues to note a study (p 19) which identifies that in 97 metalwork manufacturing plants “Similar evidence of the HR-Performance link has been found”. Elsewhere, as Redman and Wilkinson, Editors (2001 Ch 1, p10) point out, Strategic Human Resource management (SHRM) theory holds that “an organisation’s human resource assets are potentially the sole source of sustainable competitive advantage” This serves to illustrate that HRM has been placed in a central position in an......

Words: 2628 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Hrm Management Strategies

...of internally consistent bundles of HRM strategies/implementation to its overall business strategy and desired performance, to develop critical resources or competencies. This...

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

G-Bio Sport

... Bachelor of Science in Business with a Concentration in Human Resource Management The Bachelor of Science in Business (BSB) undergraduate degree program is designed to prepare graduates with the requisite knowledge, skills, and values to effectively apply various business principles and tools in an organizational setting. The BSB foundation is designed to bridge the gap between theory and practical application, while examining the areas of accounting, critical thinking and decision-making, finance, business law, management, marketing, organizational behavior, research and evaluation, and technology. Students are required to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the undergraduate business curricula through an integrated topics course. The Human Resource Management Concentration helps students develop an understanding of the fundamentals of human resource management and its strategic relevance in business. The concentration addresses the legal and ethical components of the decision making process involved in the human resources environment. The Human Resource Management Concentration introduces students to the basic concepts of human resource management, and allows further study in the areas of employment law, risk management, recruitment and selection of employees, international HR, change management, compensation and benefits, employee development, and performance management. Students will also develop an understanding of the critical business implications for human......

Words: 2400 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Bum Bholenath

...List Area Course Code Course General Management SB01GNM203 Business Simulation (Core) General Management SB01GNM204 Business Ethics and Corporate Governance (Core) Global Course Global Course Global Course Finance HRM Entrepreneurship Marketing Finance HRM Marketing Finance Marketing Operations Finance HRM Marketing Finance HRM Marketing SB01GLS203 SB01GLS204 SB01GLS206 SB01FIN202 SB01HRM206 SB01ENT205 SB01MKT202 SB01FIN203 German-2 Spanish-2 French-2 Project and Infrastructure Finance Life space Life roles Entreprenurial Marketing International Marketing Derivatives and Risk Management Credits Faculty 3 Prof. Rajkumar Phatate 3 Prof. Vinayak 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 Prof. Chitra Dandawate Prof. Ganeshdatta Podar Prof. Neeta Sharma Prof. Anil Mendhi Prof. Indira Parikh Prof. Sajith Narayan Prof. Meenakshi Rawani Prof. Anil Mendhi Prof. Diganta Chakrabarti Prof. Meenakshi Rawani Prof. Manoj Kumar Prof. R G Nambiar Prof. Khalid Sheikh Prof. Amarendra Sahoo Prof. Shilpa Shinde Prof. Pranab Deb Prof. Salim Shamsher Prof. P A Noronha Prof. Sushil Bahl Basket Basket 1 Basket 2 Basket 3 Basket 3 Basket 3 Basket 4 Basket 4 Basket 4 Basket 5 Basket 5 Basket 5 Basket 6 Basket 6 Basket 6 Basket 6 Basket 7 Basket 7 Basket 7 Basket 8 Basket 8 Basket 8 SB01HRM205 Performance Management (HR core) SB01MKT203 Services Marketing (Marketing core) SB01FIN205 Business Analysis and Valuation SB01MKT204 International Business SB01OPS204 Logistics Management SB01FIN208 Marketing......

Words: 330 - Pages: 2