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Encourager les étudiants de L’Université de Concordia
À utiliser davantage les transports en commun.

Présenté à
M. Philippe Colas
Université de Concordia (JMSB)

Préparé par
COMM.212 Section
Université de Concordia (JMSB)

Montréal, le 28 Novembre 2011.

Lettre d’accompagnement

Monsieur Colas,

Le sujet que nous allons analyser dans cette présente étude est le rapport entre les étudiants de l’Université de Concordia et les transports en commun. En effet, nous allons démontrer que l’usage des transports en commun par les étudiants, ne peut être que bénéfiques pour eux. De ce fait, nous avons mené une enquête au sein de l’Université en interrogeant, aléatoirement, vingt-cinq étudiants pour nous décrire leurs différents points de vue concernant le transport public. Les résultats de notre étude nous ont montré qu’une majorité (64%) des étudiants utilise les transports en commun dont 44% quotidiennement, principalement pour se rendre à JMSB et/ou pour les loisirs. L’enquête a été répondue majoritairement par des hommes (56% des sondés) et pourtant ces derniers utilisent moins les transports en commun que leurs homologues féminins. En effet, sur les 48% des étudiants qui détiennent une voiture personnelle, 70% d’entre eux sont masculins, et n’hésitent pas à utiliser leur voiture quotidiennement. Les recommandations pour augmenter l’usage du transport public par les étudiants de JMSB seraient une meilleure prise de conscience, concernant l’impact de l’usage immodéré de la voiture par les étudiants, et informer les étudiants sur les multiples avantages que les transports en commun leur proposent. Pour de plus amples informations concernant cette étude, n’hésitez pas à me contacter soit par courriel, slimane.laamouri@ceram.fr, soit par téléphone au 514-924-1076.

Cordialement,

Table des Matières

Lettre d’accompagnement 2 Sommaire 4 Objectif de l’étude : 4 Transport public et JMSB. 4 Recommandations. 5 Introduction. 5 Facteur écologique. 6 Facteur sanitaire. 7 Facteur Social. 7 Facteur Economique. 8 Conclusion. 10 Sources: 11 Attache 1. 12 Sondage proposé : 12 Attache 2. 13 Memorandum 13

Sommaire

Objectif de l’étude :

Notre principale mission, dans un premier temps, est de collecter des statistiques juxtaposant les étudiants de JMSB et le transport public pour ensuite les analyser, et les interpréter pour en tirer un maximum d’information. Dans un second temps, nous allons montrer l’impacte négatif sur l’environnement de l’utilisation excessive de la voiture par les étudiants. Pour cela nous allons utiliser différentes sources, complémentaires à notre sondage, issues de sites internet fiables et officiels, et de rapports du ministère des transports et du développement durable Québécois.
Quelques précisions concernant le déroulement de notre sondage : il a été effectué sur vingt-cinq étudiants de JMSB (John Molson School of Business) à Montréal. Ces derniers ont été interrogés soit durant les 15 minutes que précède le début d’un cours, soit à Second Cup, café situé à proximité de l’université et très fréquenté par les étudiants. Effectué en deux temps, le sondage s’est très bien déroulé. Les étudiants ont été réceptifs et serviables à ma requête. Notez que le sondage fût entièrement écrit en Français, de ce fait, nous avons pris la précaution de le proposer qu’à des étudiants maîtrisant cette langue.

Transport public et JMSB.
Notre recherche nous a amené à savoir que 64% des étudiants utilisent les transports en commun de Montréal, ce qui est un pourcentage relativement correct. Cependant, à la question « Si vous avez une voiture personnelle, pour quelle(s) raison(s) l’utilisez vous ? »
33% ont répondu : « Pour me déplacer à l’école et au travail ». Il y a donc des étudiants pas assez convaincu par les transports en commun, pour utiliser leur voiture dans des déplacements quotidiens. Il est donc essentiel de faire prendre conscience à ces 31% d’étudiants que les transports en commun sont parfaitement aménagés pour assurer le déplacement à l’Université et ceux malgré qu’on habite à l’autre bout de la ville.

Recommandations.

A la suite de notre étude, nous pouvons donc lister quelques recommandations aux étudiants pour les inciter à utiliser davantage le transport public.

1) Informer régulièrement (une fois tous les mois), au rez-de-chaussée de JMSB, les inconvénients que leur apportent l’usage de leur automobile.
2) Créer une association d’étudiants promouvant le co-voiturage. Un chauffeur (étudiant) et sa voiture, accompagnant quatre autres étudiants à l’université. Le chauffeur se verra recevoir une réduction tarifaire pour le stationnement de la part de JMSB.
3) Cibler les étudiants masculins (plus gros utilisateur de voiture) en mettant en place un système « d’escorting » par de jolies étudiantes. Celles-ci accompagneront les jeunes hommes, dans le bus ou le métro, et leur feront un rappel informatif et persuasif sur les avantages de l’utilisation des transports en commun.
4) Si les méthodes « douces » précédemment citées ne fonctionnent pas, alors il faudra taxer les étudiants utilisant leurs voitures. Les fonds récoltés serviront à promouvoir le transport public dans l’enceinte de JMSB.

Introduction.

« Avec près d’un véhicule pour tous les deux Canadiens, nous avons l’un des ratios de possession de voitures par personne les plus élevés du monde» (Le Guide du Bon $ens au Volant, 2002). Le réseau routier de Montréal est un sujet d’actualité. En effet, celui-ci est saturé, et tous les soirs de mon balcon, aux alentours de 18h00, je vois d’immenses files de voitures au point mort avançant de quelques mètres à la minute. A cet instant précis, je me pose la question « Pourquoi ce ne prennent ils pas le métro ?! » Il est vrai que certaines personnes n’ont pas d’autres choix que d’utiliser leur véhicule car c’est leur outils de travail mais lorsque vous apercevez des étudiants de JMSB, qui une fois sorti de l’école, se précipitent vers leur voiture pour ensuite s’embourber dans le trafique, alors je reste sans réponses. Il existe un accès direct de l’université à la station de métro Guy-Concordia, des arrêts de bus, desservant des kilomètres à la ronde, dans un périmètre de cent mètres de l’école, et malgré cet aménagement parfait, 33% des étudiants interrogés utilisent leur voiture pour aller à l’école.
Ecologiquement parlant, ceci est un désastre pour la planète. Mais nous allons montrer dans notre étude qu’en plus de l’environnement, l’utilisation de la voiture nuit grièvement à la santé du portefeuille de son propriétaire. Nous allons donc développer notre recherche sur deux parties, la première décrivant les avantages écologiques, sanitaires, et sociaux que procurent l’utilisation des transports en commun, la seconde, démontrant l’avantage économique.

Facteur écologique.

« La voiture moyenne produit trois fois son poids en dioxyde de carbone tous les ans. Les voitures qui sont mal conduites et mal entretenues en produisent encore plus. » (Le Guide du Bon $ens au Volant, 2002). Tous les conducteurs le savent : La voiture pollue. En effet, le dioxyde de carbone, un gaz à effet de serre parmi tant d’autres, a des effets néfastes sur l’écosystème. Le réchauffement de la Terre n’est plus un mythe, et les étudiants de JMSB le savent. Il faut donc par tous les moyens réduire nos rejets de gaz à effet de serre, et cela passe par une réduction de considérable de l’utilisation de la voiture. Les transports en commun se présentent donc naturellement comme une solution à ce problème. En effet, Montréal est une ville bien desservie par différents types de transport public. De plus, JMSB est situé au cœur du centre-ville, ce qui facilite énormément l’accès en transport en commun. « Au Québec, environ 13% des travailleurs utilisent les transports en commun pour se rendre à leur travail » (Statistiques du Canada, 2008), alors qu’à JMSB, nous avons recensé 33% de la population étudiante.

Raisons de l’utilisation de la voiture, par les étudiants de JMSB :

Notez que la somme des pourcentages est supérieure à 100% car les personnes sondées pouvaient choisir plusieurs différentes propositions.
Facteur sanitaire.
La sédentarité est l’ennemi numéro 1 du corps humain. En effet, rester au volant de sa voiture, assis sur son siège chauffant, tout en mangeant un hamburger hypercalorique n’a rien de bénéfique pour notre organisme. Ici l’exemple d’une étude menée par des chercheurs Américains et Chinois :
«De 1989 à 1997, un groupe de 2485 adultes âgés de 20 à 25 ans au début de l’étude ont été suivis pour mesurer l’impact de l’acquisition d’une voiture sur les risques d’obésité. Durant cette période, 14% des ménages chinois ont acquis une automobile. A la fin de l’étude, 84% des adultes ne possédaient toujours pas de moyen de transport à moteur. Ce statut leur a valu un tour de taille significativement inférieure à celui des automobilistes, nous apprend l’étude. Durant cette période de huit ans, le pourcentage d’obèses a augmenté de 18% parmi la population masculine devenue motorisée. Ces nouveaux automobilistes ont engraissé de 2,2 kilos (le poids moyen d’un Chinois est de 57,9 kilos) et courent désormais deux fois plus de risques de devenir obèses.» (http://largeur.com/?p=1163)

Il serait donc plus sécurisant pour les étudiants, soucieux de leur santé, d’abandonner leur voiture pour quelques minutes de marche par jour pour rallier son domicile à la station de métro, par exemple. Il n’y a rien de plus rafraichissant que de sortir de chez soi un matin, sentir l’air frais, et marcher jusqu’à son arrêt de bus. Et pour les étudiants les plus déterminés, une fois arrivé à JMSB, n’utilisez pas l’ascenseur et emboiter le pas en direction des escaliers. Sachant que la montée des marches (je m’adresse ici particulièrement aux dames) est un exercice idéal pour la musculation des quadriceps et des fessiers.

Facteur Social.
Il n’y rien de plus stressant (à part un examen final) que d’être enfermé dans sa voiture, et coincé dans les bouchons. Alors que l’étudiant, soucieux de sa santé, est paisiblement installé dans le bus à lire un livre, écouter de la musique ou faire la connaissance de nouvelles personnes, qui peut être se verront être des ami(e)s par la suite. En effet, en tant qu’utilisateur du transport public, à plusieurs reprises, il m’est arrivé d’échanger une conversation plus ou moins intéressante avec une personne que je ne connaissais pas avant de monter dans le métro ou le bus. Contrairement à l’étudiant qui est tout seul dans sa voiture à repenser à la dure journée qui vient de passer, le transport public permet aux étudiants d’être socialement actif et d’éviter une routine démoralisante.

Raisons pour lesquelles les étudiants de JMSB prennent les transports en commun :

Notez que la somme des pourcentages est supérieure à 100% car les personnes sondées pouvaient choisir plusieurs différentes propositions.

Comme on peut le voir ci-dessus, aucun étudiant n’a mentionné une raison sanitaire ou sociale lui persuadant d’utiliser les transports en commun.

Facteur Economique.
« L’argent », probablement la principale source de motivation pour l’être humain, et particulièrement pour des étudiants en commerce assoiffés de challenges et de responsabilités. Ceci a été confirmé par notre sondage lorsque à la question : « Pour quelle(s) raison(s) utilisez vous les transports en commun ? », treize étudiants sur vingt-cinq, soit 76%, ont répondu : « Peu cher ». Ce qui représente la deuxième raison la plus citée (cf. histogramme précédent). « Le budget moyen consacré par un Canadien à son automobile est de environ 9500$ par an (pour une voiture intermédiaire roulant 20 000 km par année), contre environ 500$ à 800$ pour l'usager du transport collectif » (http://www.caaquebec.com).
Si on suppose qu’un étudiant suit un cursus à JMSB de cinq ans, alors cela lui fait une économie d’environ 45 000$ ! Soit une somme idéale pour lancer son entreprise ou rembourser un prêt étudiant. L’université de Sherbrooke a très tôt compris que le facteur économique a le pouvoir d’influencer les étudiants. Voilà pourquoi elle offre l’accès à tous les autobus de la ville de Sherbrooke gratuitement pour les étudiants de l’Université.
(http://www.ledevoir.com). En effet, il leur a fallu trouver une solution au problème de stationnement autour de l’université. Concernant l’université de Concordia, mise à part la navette gratuite reliant le « H-building » au campus de Loyala, ce qui permet aux étudiants habitant près du campus de Loyala de voyager gratuitement, il n’y a pas de transport gratuit à disposition des étudiants. Cependant, grâce à un certificat de scolarité (étudiant à temps plein) et une photo, un étudiant de JMSB peut bénéficier du tarif réduit sur le réseau STM, soit 42$ par mois. Notez qu’il est toujours plus avantageux de payer 42$/mois et avoir accès à toutes les lignes de bus et de métro de la ville, que de perdre un temps fou à trouver une place de stationnement et d’ensuite payer 12,75$/jour de frais de parking au campus Sir-George-Williams.

Lien économique avec le transport en commun :

Notez que la somme des pourcentages est supérieure à 100% car les personnes sondées pouvaient choisir plusieurs différentes propositions.

Cette statistique nous montre que malgré la gratuité des transports en commun, 20% des étudiants ne feraient pas l’effort d’utiliser davantage le transport public. S’il existe des étudiants trop attachés à leur véhicule pour pouvoir s’en passer, alors une solution écologique, et économique serait le covoiturage. En effet, les 11 000 usagers québécois de l'auto-partage réduisent leurs émissions de 13 000 tonnes de CO2 chaque année, soit 1,2 tonne par usager. (http://www.equiterre.org). La création d’une association, au sein de JMSB, permettant de réunir, et d’organiser les étudiants pour pouvoir former des groupes de covoiturages serait une idée à développer. Par la suite, pour remercier l’étudiant conducteur et en motiver d’autres, l’association, avec l’aide de l’université, se portera responsable des frais de parking.

Conclusion.

A travers cette étude, nous avons vu que l’Université de Concordia a encore des progrès à faire pour persuader totalement (une utilisation exclusive des transports en commun par 90% des étudiants serait idéale.) les étudiants d’arrêter d’utiliser leur voiture. De plus importantes mesures, en matière d’information et de communication, doivent être prises par l’université pour convaincre les 33% d’irréductibles chauffeurs.
Réduire l’utilisation de la voiture aura certes des effets positifs sur la planète mais cela ne stoppera l’arrêt total d’émission de gaz à effet de serre. L’unique solution pour se déplacer sans emmètre le moindre gramme de CO2 serait la téléportation. En effet, pourquoi pas un jour se déplacer, comme dans Star Trek, instantanément et sans polluer ? Plusieurs recherches sont faites actuellement pour tenter de téléporter des molécules, et pourquoi pas un jour des cellules voire des êtres humains… .

Sources:

- "Le Guide Du Bon $ens Au Volant." Ressources Naturelles Du Canada, 09 Sept. 2002. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/M92-87-3-1999F.pdf

- Grimm-Gobat, Geneviève. "La Voiture Favorise L’obésité, C’est Prouvé." Largeur.com. 19 Sept. 2002. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. http://largeur.com/?p=1163

- "Tableau 3b Proportion Des Travailleurs Utilisant Le Transport En Commun Pour Se Rendre Au Travail Et Groupes D'âge, Canada, Provinces Et Territoires, 1996, 2001 Et 2006." IIS7. 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-561/table/t3b-fra.cfm

- "Transport Gratuit: Sherbrooke Ouvre La Voie | Le Devoir." Le Devoir | Nouvelles, Actualités, Politique, Culture Et Chroniques. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. http://www.ledevoir.com/non-classe/70318/transport-gratuit-sherbrooke-ouvre-la-voie .

- Budget Voiture annuel http://www.caaquebec.com/NR/rdonlyres/13A3F0E9-DB9F-4933-BF85-BE0A0012BD38/0/CoutUtilisationAutomobileFrfev2009.pdf

Attache 1.
Sondage proposé :

Attache 2.
Memorandum

Purpose: Motivating Montreal' students to use more public transports.
Claim: Using public transports is beneficial and advantageous for students.

"Getting around in Montreal?" is a subject of utmost relevance today. Indeed, every evening in the TV news, we are talking about projects of hundred million dollars to improve roads networks. That's why I decided to research on this issue concerning millions of Montrealers, specifically the 9000 JMSB’ students. (Concordia Univ. 2010).
As a student at JMSB, I asked myself various questions about this topic: "Do all students take the subway like me?", "Is there any students foolish enough to seek a parking space in front of the school? ", and in answering these questions, I conclude that public transport is the best way to get around when you are young, limited financially, and pressed.
There are many reasons that can persuade a student to take the subway or the bus rather than his car to go to school. For example, one bus can replace more than forty cars, saving 70,000 liters of fuel and prevent the release of 168 tons of pollutants per year. (“Le Guide du Bon $ens au Volant”, 2002). These statistics show us the environmental and financial impact that can result from the use of cars.
We can try to solve this problem in several ways. The most "democratic" one would be to change the bad habits of students, who use their car for any reason, through funny activities for example. The “strong-arm tactic” would be to tax any student who uses his car as he lives near JMSB or a subway station, for example.
Therefore, to support my claim, I am going to show evidences through two parts. The first part will show why is beneficial for the environment, personal health, and the society to use public transportation. Secondly, I will proof that it is financially more advantageous to take public transports than one’s car. My evidence will be extracted, firstly, from secondary data, like government websites, sustainable magazines, newspapers, and secondly, from primary data (a survey who will ask 20 JMSB students about their opinion about public transports).

References:
-Number of students, Concordia University website, 2010; http://www.concordia.ca/about/fast-facts/
-Consumption Statistics, p37 “ Le Guide du Bon $ens au Volant”, 2002 ;http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/M92-87-3-1999F.pdf

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...Business research methods Name Institution There are different types of issues that are said to be accompanied by the research process and are inclusive of the decision making process which comprises of the favored-technique syndrome. Following that some of the researches that are carried out are method bound, there always tend to be a problem with the management who want their methodology of research to be followed failure to which they become uncomfortable with the research undertaken. The management has to provide a technique of handling the research since this aid in determining if the research can be carried out (Bell, 2005). On the other side, a manager tend to have issue following the fact that some fields were created for some specific reasons and those reason may not be compatible with the management research question. However, in most cases not all the management issues are researchable and not all the research questions can also be answered and this becomes an issue that is said to happen in research process. Some management problems are very complicated and prove to be intractable to traditional form of analysis which becomes an issue to the research process which is slowed down. In this case research can not be handled with accuracy following the existence of the many interrelated facets which also reduces the susceptibility of attack from the quantitative research methods. The urge to attain genuine politically motivated research information is an issue that......

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...a necessary but not sufficient condition for correlation. | | | b. Correlation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for causality. | | | c. Causality is a necessary and sufficient condition for correlation. | | | d. Correlation is a necessary and sufficient condition for causality. | | Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 The ________________ is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. Choose one answer. | a. Dependent variable | | | b. Independent variable. | | | c. Moderating variable | | | d. Intervening variable. | | Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Which of the following answers is not an objective of preliminary research? Choose one answer. | a. One does not run the risk of “reinventing the wheel”. | | | b. To determine whether a variable is an independent variable, a dependent variable, a mediating variable, or a moderating variable. | | | c. Important variables that are likely to influence the problem situation are not left out of the study. | | | d. The problem statement can be made with precision and clarity. | | Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 Which of the following studies is a causal study? The researcher tries to find out: Choose one answer. | a. If smoking is related to cancer. | | | b. Why unemployment in Europe is higher than in Asia | | | c. All the above answers are......

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...Business Research Business Research While working in the janitorial services industry, the business research process played a vital role in the company’s success. This process entailed learning everything about a company’s product or services, customers, competitors, and the industry. The first step of the business research process is to identify competitors. Information is garnered concerning what services and products were offered and at what prices. Other information that is usually obtained is a competitor’s market sales, the number of people that are employed by the company, and it’s key strengths and weaknesses. While in the janitorial services industry, I looked up several other companies and what they offered. Comparisons were made between several companies offering similar services. The next step in the business research process is to explore potential customers and clientele. A target audience is studied to see which customers are more likely to purchase the services that are being offered. It is important, in any industry, to figure out what the customer will want and need. If a customer’s needs are not met, they will usually go to a competitor. To ensure the success of the janitorial services company I was employed with, surveys were sent out to inquire about customer satisfaction and to determine what features and prices are best for the products and services being offered. The third step in doing business research is looking into the company itself.......

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...Master of International Business Administration Business Research Methods for Managers-Fall 14086 THE REASONS BEHIND EMPLOYEE TURNOVER, ITS’ EFFECT AND THE METHODS TO REDUCE IT Supervised By Dr. Ashraf Elsafty Presented by: Yasser Hassan El Sayed Created Date: Oct 10, 2014 Last updated: Dec 11, 2014 Table of Contents LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 3 1. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 4 1.1. AN OVERVIEW 4 1.2. PROBLEM DEFINITION 4 1.3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 4 1.4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 5 1.4.1 MODEL VARIABLES 6 1.4.1.1 Dependent variable 6 1.4.1.2 Independent variables 6 1.4.2 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS 6 1.4.3 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 6 1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 7 1.5.1 MAJOR QUESTIONS 7 1.5.2 MINOR QUESTIONS 7 1.6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 7 1.6.1 RESEARCH TYPE 7 1.6.2 SAMPLING 7 1.6.3 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 8 1.6.4 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD 8 1.7. THESIS STRUCTURE 8 2. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 9 2.1. INTRODUCTION 9 2.1.1 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 9 2.1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH 9 2.2. PREVIOUS STUDIES 9 2.2.1 REASONS BEHIND EMPLOYEE TURNOVER 9 2.2.2 SYMPTOMS THAT ORGANIZATION FACE IN RESPONSE OF TURNOVER 10 2.2.3 COSTS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER 11 2.2.4 MANAGING TURNOVER THROUGH SELECTION 11 2.2.5 THE FORMATION OF AN EFFECTIVE RETENTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 11 3. CHAPTER 3: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH DESIGN 12 3.1. INTRODUCTION 12 3.2. PROBLEM DEFINITION 12 3.3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 12 3.4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 13 3.4.1 DEPENDENT......

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...Preparing to Conduct Business Research Preparing to Conduct Business Research: Part 3 A current situation happening at St. Luke’s Medical Center is the dilemma of transitioning their work force of temporary employees to full-time employees, but they cannot choose them all. When St. Luke’s decided to undertake this hiring process the first things they had to consider were the significance of the hiring, the scope and magnitude of the hiring, and finally how feasible the hiring was going to be. What are the attributes they should be looking for? The research question, narrowed down to a statement that can be proven true or false, is called the hypothesis (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). The hypothesis will consist of variables that St. Luke’s will need to account for. Continuing the picture, the research design method St. Luke’s will implement is a communication study. In support of the study, stratified sampling will be conducted. As the data is collected and begins to filter in to management, it is their job to analyze it, and accurately report the results. Last, St. Luke’s will need to take into account ethical considerations. They will need to implement a set of criteria to help them in narrowing down their selections. Done correctly this process will help St. Luke’s choose the right candidates for the jobs? Significance, Scope, Magnitude, and Feasibility The significance of the research project undertaken by St. Luke’s is twofold. St. Luke’s values the reputation they......

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...staffing to outside agencies. Business Problem California law mandates specific nurse to patient ratios based on patient acuity, location, and population served. Although there is a budget allocated to “backfilling” and replacing employees that are on vacation or protected leaves of absence, over utilization results in the creation of a variance that exceeds the allocated budget. The desire of this learning team is to find ways to not only decrease sick call utilization but decrease the operational payroll dollars required to maintain proper staffing levels. Role of the Team The team will assess the current Attendance Policy and look at the employee attendance calendars to identify trends and patterns associated with last minute sick call. Factors may be department specific, hours/shifts worked, full-time vs. part-time, recent denial of time off requests, etc.. This data will be collected and analyzed into a summary with statistical techniques applied. Research Question from Independent and Dependent Variables Our management dilemma began when a manager asked if they are over budget in premium dollars due to excessive last minute sick call replacement coverage. We formulated our research question: Is there a correlation between unbudgeted premium dollars (DV) and last minute sick call replacement coverage (IV)? Our variables are unbudgeted premium dollars (numeric) and last minute sick calls (numeric data). Hypothesis Statement from Research Question The......

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...alternatives when using a decision variable. Decision variable- is a quantifiable characteristic, attribute, or outcome on which a choice decision will be made. Investigative questions- questions the researcher must answer to satisfactorily answer the research question; what the marketer feels he or she needs to know to arrive at a conclusion about the management dilemma. Management dilemma- the problem or opportunity that requires a marketing decision Management question- the management dilemma restated in question format. Management-research question hierarchy- is a process of sequential question formulation that leads a manager or researcher from management dilemma to investigative questions. Measurement questions- what participants in marketing research are asked or what specifically is observed in a research study. Pilot test- is a trial collection of data to detect weaknesses in the design or instrument and provide proxy data for probability sampling. Primary data- is data the researcher collects to address the specific problem at hand— the research question. Research design- is the blueprint for fulfilling research objectives and answering questions. Research process- various decision stages involved in a research project and the relationship between those stages. Sample- a group of cases, participants, events, or records constituting a portion of the target population, carefully selected to represent that population. Secondary data- is data originally......

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