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The Role of Guidance and Counseling Services on Behavioral Modification among MVCs in Children Rehabilitations Institution

A Case study of Mkombozi Children Centre and Amani Centre for Street Children in Moshi Municipal

Yusta P. Mahiku

Sunguya F Sunguya
(Research supervisor)

It covers the back ground to the study, the statement of the problem, and objectives of the study others are, the research questions, significance of the study, limitation and delimitations of the study, conceptual frame work, definition of operational terms and organization of the study.
This study focuses on looking at the roles of guidance and counseling services on behavioral modification to MVCs in Moshi municipality, the case of Amani Centre for Street Children and Mkombozi Centre for children. The study will focus on examine the roles of guidance and counseling on behavioral modification to MVCs in Rehabilitation Institutions in Moshi Municipality Guidance and Counseling major role on improving children life, behavior change in general wellbeing. (k, 2008)
However in globally particularly Chinese guidance and counseling have played many roles in children behavioral modification by helping the child to develop a positive attitude to life, recognize their strengths and express themselves. It does not involve making decisions for the child, imposing beliefs on them or preaching. It has shaped the behavior of children who were spending their time in watching pornographic film and it has eliminated sexual behavior. (ouk, 2003) In addition globally children face many unique challenge up to today pressures at school ,problem at home and dealing with other peers ,sometimes they feel misunderstood alone or confused hence they feel angry or sad which at the end they generate aggressive behavior. , emotional abuse, relationship problem with family. Teachers and pears when it reaches at high extent they become MVCs then guidance and counseling plays it role on providing safe and supportive environment and relationship building though the problems are not yet solved because ineffective practice of guidance and counseling.(ouk 2003)
(Biswalo, 1996)Moreover in Africa context particularly South Africa the concept of guidance and counseling, come to exist because of response to the growing social issues among African youths, and young people particularly girls, HIV/AIDS, street children, child prostitution, child abuse and drug usage and some of these children affected were the MVCs in South African. They have agreed that due to various factors, especially young people face many difficulties and problems which may be expressed through: withdrawal, unhappiness, frustration, anger, anxiety and inability to meet needs, get required knowledge, partial or total failure; inability to realize aspirations. Therefore many rehabilitation Centre were formed to help the young people to realize their aspiration these includes Addiction Recovery and Self development Centre, Children Movement Centre, Tina Ottes Family Centre, Community Children Centre and Christian Care Centre which was dealing with children who were affected with HIV/AIDS. All these centre in South Africa were offering counseling and guidance, awareness rasing, moderation of behaviors. But in South Africa there are still many problems which are raises day to day to children which shows that Guidance and counseling has not worked accordingly that is there are many complications behavior to children in south Africa and this study will show the role of guidance and counseling (R, 2002)
However in Tanzanian context guidance and counseling come to exist not earlier as (biswalo, 1996)

. (E, 1988)

Guidance and counseling occupies a very potential position in any rehabilitation institution system and even our Tanzanian Government is aware of this fact; that is why the reemphasis is on the need for guidance and counseling services in those rehabilitation institution so as modify the behaviors of those in children act (2009).There is high rate of children miss behaving in our societies due to many reasons and some of this children have been placed on the rehabilitation intuitions so that they may be counseled and behave accordingly to society norms. These services are meant to assist children to develop their academic, social and personal competencies in order to make realistic choices and relevant decisions in life. However, this seem not to have been realized since there are noticeable children behavior ‘disturbances that often take the form of unrests, poor sexual relationships, wastage of time, poor study habits, substance abuse and difficulty in coping with environment anxiety. Consequently, distress, depression and unhappiness have become part and parcel of children ‘life in the rehabilitation institution. The rehabilitation institutions authorities are confronted with the children’ social, academic and personal adjustment challenges. This study sought to determine the roles of guidance and counseling services on behavioral modification to children in rehabilitation institution in Moshi municipal. Final due to this there is an important of let people and the Government to understand the roles of counseling and guidance in Rehabilitation centre so as to improve the behavior of children especial which are negative to positive since this child comes from different places and they are vulnerable due to many reasons.

1.3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY General objective
To examine the roles of guidance and counseling on behavioral modification to MVCs in Rehabilitation Institutions.
Specific objectives
To identity the roles of guidance and counseling on children behavior modifications.
To asses if guidance and counseling is effectively practiced in rehabilitation institution.
To test whether having guidance and counseling has changed the behavior of MVCs in rehabilitation institutions. .

1 What are the roles of guidance and counseling service on behavior modification?
2 how guidance and counseling is effectively practiced?
3 what extent is guidance and counseling service has changed behavior to MVCs?

This study will benefit children’ social, personal and academic welfare in the rehabilitation centre Moreover, parents will also benefit from the findings of this study since their efforts in counseling their children would be supplemented. Also all people in the society will benefit from this study by having awareness and deep understanding on roles of counseling and guidance services and the Government will recognize that professional in all sectors and it been given priorities like other courses in higher learning institution. Lastly other researchers they will borrow some ideas from my proposal when it will be published.


This study will find out the roles of guidance and counseling on behavioral modification to MVCs in Rehabilitation Institutions. This study will be conducted in moshi municipal of Kilimanjaro region on the selected areas which are Amani centre for street children and Mkombozi Centre because the title of the study matches with the areas selected and I will accommodate all the data because both institution deals with MVCs In each centre the study will employ both children and the counselors of those places selected by the researcher because they will help in reducing cost particularly financial ever since the researcher is self sponsored.

1.7Conceptual frame work to show the roles of counseling and guidance services on children behavioral modification.

ROLES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ▪ Relationship building▪Promoting awareness▪ Advocating for those who are disempowered▪ provide alternatives in self-understanding▪ Fostering conditions in which a client can grow and develop as a person▪Provide leadership in developing a healthy psychological environment |

Limited time the time given to conduct the study is too limited which will lead the research not to accommodate all information for the study so in order to overcome this limitations the researcher has should select the area which is familiar with to avoid some disturbances during data collection and targeted population with the sample which is small so as to utilize the limited time appropriately
Also there is limitation of resources especially financial resources where by financial key important factor in doing any study because with money all the process of preparing the study will be done accurately so to overcome this limitation the researcher should make effective communication with those who sponsored the researcher and if the researcher is self sponsored should conduct the study in area where it will not need much use of money example in some area can just walk during data collection instead of use bus it will reduce some cost. 1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Counseling is a professional process that helps the individuals to align or discovers and develop his education, vocational, and psychological potentialities there by to achieve an optimum level of person and social usefulness. (kennedy, 1977) Guidance it is a service that is designed to assist people in deciding where they want to go, what they want to do, and how to get to their destination in their way of thinking. (marshall, 1998)
Behavior can be defined as the way in which an individual behaves or acts. (gorden, 1993)
Rehabilitation institutions refer to resocializing criminal to non criminal norms and values. (chambilis, 1997)
Chapter one: this provide the overview of the study which included the introduction, background of the problem, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study of the study, scope and delimitation of the study, conceptual frame work ,operation of definitions of terms and organization of study
.Chapter two: this will explore the details concerning literature reviews which contain the introduction part, review of different theories, and review of the empirical studies demonstration of the knowledge gap.
Chapter three: under this chapter, it will explain on research design and methods which contain information about introductory part of the chapter, target population, description of the sample and sampling procedures, description of data collection proceeding and description of data analysis procedure

This chapter consists of the following sections; Review of related theories, Review of empirical studies, and demonstration of Gap of knowledge.
The following are some theories related to the role of guidance and counseling on behavioral modification to MVCs in rehabilitation.
Psychoanalytical Theory (Sigmund Freud) he considered human behavior to be dynamic, meaning that there is an exchange of energy and transformation. Freud used the term catharsis to describe this release of this energy. Freud saw the personality as composed of a conscious mind, a preconscious mind and an unconscious mind. The conscious mind has knowledge of what is happening in the present. The preconscious mind contains information from both the unconscious and the conscious mind .The unconscious mind contains hidden or forgotten memories or experiences. According to Freud, the Role of the Counselor is “To encourage the development of transference and giving the client a sense of safety and acceptance. The client freely explores difficult material and experiences from their past, gaining insight and working through unresolved issues. The counselor is an expert, who interprets for the client (CoreyG2009)
This role is very important to be used by counselors in the rehabilitations institutions. It can help this MVCSs in changing their behavior This is because when they are encouraged in developing transference they will be free to explain how the behave the way they do and the counselor will be able to change their behavior.

Person-Centered Theory (Carl Rogers). Rogers viewed human nature as basically good. He believed that if given the appropriate environment of acceptance, warmth and empathy, the individual would move toward self-actualization. Self-­actualization is the motivation that makes the individual move toward growth, meaning, and purpose. Person centered is considered as phenomenological psychology whereby for there by the individuals perception of reality is accepted as reality for the individual. person-centered often referred to as a self theory, because of Rodgers’s emphasizes oneself being an result of persons’ life experiences and the person’s awareness of comparisons to others as the same or different. Rogers believed that most people were provided conditional acceptance as children, which lead them to behave in ways that would assure their acceptance. However, in their need for acceptance, the individual often behaved in ways that were incongruent with the real self. Thus, the greater this incongruence between the real self and the ideal self, the greater isolated and maladjusted the person became.
The Role of the counselor is to sets up an environment where the client is safe to expose any aspect of the self. The counselor’s job is to facilitate the exploration through a special relationship of unconditional positive regard, empathy and warmth if this theory will be used appropriately in the rehabilitation institution it can help in modifying the behavior of the MVCs provided that the children are given appropriate environment it is possible for their behavior to change. Behavioral theories (B. F. Skinner) View of Human Nature that all behavior is learned whether the Behavior is maladaptive or adaptive the Behaviorists believe that adaptive behavior can be learned to replace maladaptive behavior. According to Skinner, the role of the counselor Roles of the counselor are varies and include being a Consultant, a reinforce, and a facilitator to use social learning to model the desired behavior, the theory aims at changing behavior Counselors using social learning may model the desired behavior, since the theory says the behavior is leant then one especially children may learn bad behavior therefore the children can also learn positive behavior if the behavioral theory is used by the counselors in rehabilitation institutions.

(kennethed, 1989) Explained that apart from counseling and guidance behavior can be modified through punishment, positive reinforcement, extinction, shaping, stimulus control, time out and observational time. Behavior Change or Modification is based on a simple idea of learning. It is based on the idea That behavior followed by reward is more likely to be repeated, or retained, than not On the other hand, behavior which results in an unpleasant outcome tends to be quickly dropped or disappear. Behavioral change is based on the idea that behavior is, in part, controlled by its Consequences. The Punishment Technique this is used when it becomes necessary to apply an aversion stimulus to correct undesirable behavior. When you see the many techniques available for modifying behavior, you may realize that this technique has been over used. They have been known to use good, honest work as ‘punishment,’ leading to stigmatization in children' minds. Examples of this may include cutting grass or digging in the school garden. Positive reinforcement - This involves the use of rewards for positive responses in order to strengthen the new behavior. Non-reinforcement - No reward is given to the client for undesirable behavior. This helps to diminish problem behavior. Extinction - The counselor may stop rewarding established behavior in order to Let the pupil stop responding the way he/she do. Shaping - This is the process of rewarding successive responses which are viewed by you, the teacher, as being closer to the desired one. Stimulus control - This technique requires that the teacher should control the Situation in which the behavior occurs. Time out - In this technique, you remove an individual from the source of the problem in order to help him/her change. This can be done in three main ways. Observational time - The child is withdrawn from a reinforcing situation. For instance, the child is placed outside the perimeter of the activity. Sometimes the child can be asked to put his/her head on the desk.

Fuster (2002) points out the goals of counseling as facilitating behavior change, enhancing
Coping skills, promoting decision-making, improving relationships and facilitating the
Client’s potential. It is a personalized and individualized process for helping the individual
To learn and acquire habits, skills, attitudes and interests which make him a normally adjusted
Being. Therefore, it is evident that the process and goals of guidance and counseling is to
Help the client move towards a greater level of self understanding and self – acceptance. The
Process of professional counseling involves a counselor helping the client to develop an
Effective relationship that enables the client to work through difficulties.

Makinde (1984) indicates that guidance is really the body of psychotherapy while counseling is the soul or heart without which a self-understanding person cannot be produced. Ordinarily, counseling may be understood to mean consultation, discussion, deliberation, and exchange of ideas, advice or process of decision- making. Corey (1991) holds that counseling is a service designed to help an individual to analyze himself/herself by relating his capabilities, achievements, interests and mode of adjustment to what new decision he has. According to Engelkes and Vandergoot (1982) counseling is an interactive process conjoining the counselee who is vulnerable and needs assistance and the counselor who is trained to give this assistance. The goal is to help the counselee learn how to deal effectively with himself and the reality of his environment. Ndondo (2004) defines counseling as a process in which the counselee having identified an emotional problem is helped by the counselor to see his problem clearly until he is able to give himself advice considering his opinions, abilities and limitations in solving it.

This study will include some theories Psychoanalytical Theory “which encourages the development of transference and giving the client a sense of safety and acceptance also Individual Psychology Theory (Alfred Adler) which insists on the role of the counselor is as a diagnostician, teacher and model. The counselor helps the client to explore conscious thoughts, beliefs and logic for behavior that are not in the client best interest or social interest moreover there is also Person-Centered Theory (Carl Rogers). Rogers viewed human nature as basigood. He believed that if given the appropriate environment of acceptance, warmth and empathy, the individual would move toward self-actualization. Another theory is Behavioral theories (B. F. Skinner) View of Human Nature that all behavior is learned whether the Behavior is maladaptive or adaptive the Behaviorists believe that adaptive behavior can be learned to replacemaladaptive behavior all these theories explain on behavior and how the counselor can use this theory to modifies children behavior.
Many researchers have developed various research works on the topic about roles of guidance and counseling on behavioral modification on children Tanzania and other countries.
This proposal works will try to show the various roles of guidance and counseling service on children’ mostly based in behaviors, adjustment, life success and ability to solve their own problems. But they did not explain the role of guidance and counseling services on behavioral modification. Also they did not explain how guidance and counseling services affect behaviors if it is not given to children. Not only that but also they did not suggest the suitable theory of guidance and counseling to be applied in rehabilitation so as to bring about positive behavioral change among children
In this research proposal will explain clearly the role of guidance and counseling services on behavioral modification among children in rehabilitation institutions. Also it will explain how guidance and counseling services can cause some effects to children if it is not practiced accordingly in Moshi municipal at Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. Furthermore the researcher proposal will suggest a suitable counseling theory to be used in rehabilitation institution counseling so as to bring about good behavior

This study will include some theories Psychoanalytical Theory “which encourages the development of transference and giving the client a sense of safety and acceptance also Individual Psychology Theory also Person-Centered Theory (Carl Rogers). Rogers viewed human nature as basic good. He believed that if given the appropriate environment of acceptance, warmth and empathy, the individual would move toward self-actualization. Another theory is Behavioral theories (B. F. Skinner) View of Human Nature that all behavior is learned whether the Behavior is maladaptive or adaptive the Behaviorists believe that adaptive behavior can be learned to replace maladaptive behavior all these theories explain on behavior and how the counselor can use this theory to modifies children behavior. But the best theory in this study is person centered theory by (Car Rogers ) On the basic assumption of the theory it assumes that non judgmental, listening and acceptance of the client can leads to change also people have the ability to solve their own problems without counselor direct intervention. This is suitable in behavior modification as it explains that if the children are provided with good environment acceptance warmth they can change also by knowing that there is conducive environment then theca solve their own problem .on other hand this cannot work independently it should corporate with other theory because each person has own problem and the source of it so it may need psychoanalytical or cognitive theory

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS 3.0 Introduction This chapter comprises the following research design, area of study, study population, sample and sample size, methods of data collection, methods of data presentation and analysis strategy and ethical consideration.
3.1 Research design Research design is strategy of plan or road map for planning and conducting a study. (Seidman, 1998) This study will involve both qualitative and quantitative research design, this is because under quantitative research design the study will stick on survey quantitative design which deals with studying people’s behavior, attitudes and their believes. This kind will be appropriate because the study investigate on the behavioral modification to MVCs. The study will be carried out by using cross sectional survey, that studies different samples like counselors and MVCs in rehabilitation institution at the same time so as the researcher will be able to describe the current characteristics of the sample, this was because, counselors and MVCs will be found at same time and the same context. On the case of qualitative design the study will focus on case study where by the researcher will select specific area where the study will be conducted and the specific population that will be used to carry out the study and the area is Moshi Municipal specifically Amani Centre for Street Children and Mkombozi Children Centre, This because it will provide in-depth information about a particular small group and geographical area. 3.2Area of study
Moshi is a Tanzanian municipality with a population of 184,292 according to the 2012 census. The municipality is in the Kilimanjaro Region and is situated on the lower slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro, a dormant volcano that is the highest mountain in Africa. The municipality covers about 59 km2 and is the smallest municipality in Tanzania by area. Many people from the Chagga and Pare ethnic groups live in Moshi, which lies on the A23 Arusha–Himo east–west road connecting Arusha and Voi, Kenya. The economic activities which are found in Moshi are agriculture, industry and tourism. The rehabilitation institutions found in Moshi are; Gabriella Children Rehabilitation Center, Amani Center for Street Children, Compassionate Center for Street Children, Upendo Orphanage Center, Mkombozi Center for Children. Generally, the study will be carried out in Moshi Municipal particularly Amani and Mkombozi. The researcher selected this due to limited resources such as time and financial resources.
3.3study populations
Study population refers to the entire group of individuals or objects to which researchers are interested in generalizing the conclusions. The target population usually has varying characteristics and it is also known as the theoretical population. it is also the group which a research is intended to study (J, 2010).The intended populations in this proposal will be the MVCs and counselors in rehabilitation institution which are Amani centre for street children and Mkombozi centre found in Moshi municipal. It will comprise 100 total populations both MVCs in both centers, and their counselors in both Institution therefore the total study /targeted population is 100 people. The purpose of selecting these children Institutions it is because it will provide the accurate data of the study and also these centre do rehabilitate children who are venerable due to different reason like some are orphans others are living with HIV/AIDS so it will be easy to get accurate information on their behavioral modification since they arrived in the centre.

3.4Sample and sample size
Sample is selection taken from a larger group (the "population") so that you can examine it to find out something about the large group. (Coolican1994) .It sub-group parts of the study population used for research study.the sample size will be50 people total both MVCs and counselors


3.5 Sampling procedure
Sampling is the technique or a process of choosing sub-group from study (targeted) population to participate in the study. The study will employ both probability and non- probability sampling. Under probability sampling the study will use simple randomly sampling while in non-probability the study will use purposive sampling.
The sample was chosen from the population by using both probability and non-probability procedures, the MVCs will be chosen using the probability sampling, this choice of probability was due the numbers of the sample in the total population. Counselors will be chosen by using the non-probability sampling, the researcher have decided to choose this because the number of the sample is smaller, so the researcher will go directly to the subject/sample and collect the data.
3.5.1 Simple Random Sampling
Is done when each member of the target population is assigned a consecutive number and then is selected randomly. During sampling of the MVCs, simple random will be assigned, this will involve all the children on the entered institution. In this it will depend on the place in their dining hall or smart area where they will gather. Children with age of 10 – 17 years old will be involved in the study. There will be a container which contained piece of paper with a consecutive number according to total size of the children then the child will be required to pick a paper from the container by chance and those who picked number 1-23 will be used as sample then they will be used to fill the questionnaire.
3.5.2 Purposive Sampling
This method / procedure, the choice of sampling unit depends on subjective judgment of the researcher. The researcher selects subjects based on his/her view that such person has the relevant information which is important for the study. So, Non probability sampling especially purposive sampling will be used in getting sample of counselors. This will be used primarily when there were a limited number of people that have expertise in the area being researched. Most of Rehabilitations Institutions in Moshi Municipal have few counselors one to three per institution. So this sampling which will be used will be appropriate.

3.6 Methods of dada collection
Data collection or method is the instruments which are used in the study to collect necessary information for the problem. The main instrument that will be used to collect data in this study will be questionnaires and interview. Therefore there will be two main types of data which will be obtained which are primary data and secondary Primary data will be those which will be collected fresh and for the first time and happen to be original in character and this will be obtained through the survey questions.
Another type of data will be secondary data. These will be those which have been already collected by someone else. This involves the collection and analysis or published documents in the library or from the published document in those institutions. Secondary data will be important to be used since statistical information and records might be needed.

3.6.1Questionnaire | Questionnaire is a means of eliciting the feelings, beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or attitudes of some sample of individuals. As a data collecting instrument, it could be structured or unstructured. The questionnaire is most frequently a very concise, preplanned set of questions designed to yield specific information to meet a particular need for research information about a pertinent topic. The research information is attained from respondents normally from a related interest area. The dictionary definition gives a clearer definition: A questionnaire is a written or printed form used in gathering information on some subject or subjects consisting of a list of questions to be submitted to one or more persons. (J&Levy, 2010) | This part will contain the number of printed questions which will be required to be answered by the respondent. The study will use both closed and open ended questions. The questioners I will provide to the counselors

An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Interviews are usually defined as a conversation with a purpose. They can be very helpful to your organization when you need information about assumptions and perceptions of activities in your community. They're also great if you're looking for in-depth information on a particular topic from an expert (I, 1989). The study also will use interview which will be semi- structured interview, this is because the researcher will rely on quantitative information and high degree of objective and clarification for comparison. Also the interview will be used to those MVCs because some may not know how to read and write so it is better to use interview. This method was flexible, allowed new question to be brought up during interview.

3.7Methods of data presentation and Analysis strategy
Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, compress and summarizing, and evaluate data (H, 1994).
The data will be analyzed through statistical package for social science( SSPS) vision 11.5 and summarized by using summary statistics, analysis followed by using graph, charts and table in terms of degree and percentage which was reflecting actual circumstance on described respondents numerical

3.8 Ethical consideration during the execution the study The study will be guide under research ethical considerations. In informed consent, a researcher will provide the information to the participant about the study that would be undertaken and respondent readiness. In confidentiality; the agreements between a researcher and the respondent that limit to other access to privacy information. This means, a researcher should assure no other information leak to other person. Other ethical issues that will be used include; avoiding harming in collecting data, doing justice to the participant in analyzing data, avoiding bias and incorrect reporting. Also the introductory letter will be used for introducing a researcher what is going to do and the time that the researcher will use to accomplish data collection.

Appendix 1: Work plan Date | Activity | Responsible personal | Place | September | Selection and submission of the research topic to the supervisor | Student | MWUCE | September-October | Research topic approval | Supervisor | MWUCE | October- November | Prepare and submission of the concept note to the supervisor | Student | MWUCE | November | Consultation to the supervisor and Research proposal writing | Student- Supervisor | MWUCE | November-December | Submission of the first proposal draft to the supervisor | Student | MWUCE | December | Submission of the second proposal draft to the supervisor | Student | MWUCE | January 2014 | Submission of the final proposal draft to the supervisor | Student | MWUCE | February-March,2014 | Data collection | Student | MOSHI | March-April, 2014 | Data analysis and report writing | Student | MWUCE | April-May, 2014 | Submission of the first draft of the report to the supervisor | Student | MWUCE | May,2014 | Submission of the second draft of the report to the supervisor | Student | MWUCE | June, 2014 | Submission of the final draft of the report | Student | MWUCE |

BUDGET ITEM | COST | Typing, Printing and Photocopies | 50000/= | Binding & Lamination | 10000/= | Transport and meal | 25000/= | Ream paper (1) | 5000/= | | | Internet | 20000/= | Communication | 10000/= | Five pens | 5000/= | Others | 25000/= | TOTAL | 150,000/= |

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Appendix For MVCs

Dear Students
I am YUSTA P MAHIKU, a third year SOCIOLOGY Student at Mwenge University. I am carry out a study entitled ‘‘The role of guidance and counseling services in BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION TO MVCs IN REHABILITATION Moshi Municipal” I kindly request you to take part in this study by responding to the following questions. The information provided will be kept confidential and used for this study only.
Please select only one answer for each question. Put tick.
1. Gender: Female ( ) Male ( )
2. What is your age? (a)10-15 (b )16-18
4. Education Level: (a ) primary(b) secondary
Section B: General information on guidance and counseling services (please tick
Where appropriate)
5. Are you aware that the institution provides guidance and counseling services to Children?
Yes ( ) No ( )

6. Whom do you prefer to offer you guidance and counseling in rehabilitation institution?
A Female Counselor ( )
A Male Counselor ( )
Any of them ( )
Give reasons for your answer

7 Which of the areas listed below have you been given counseling services?

a) Social
b) Personal
c) Vocational
d) Spiritual If you have been assisted in any of the above areas, comment on how these services have been useful to you
.8 Did your institution have guidance and counseling service YES ( ) NO ( )
9. Have you ever been counseled? YES ( ) NO ( )
10 Do you feel comfortable to tell counselor your problem? YES ( ) NO ( )
11 Do you think the guidance and counseling services has any important in your life?.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
12. What problem will you be likely to suffer, if there is no guidance and counseling in your Institution?..........................................................................................................

Appendix II

Interview for counselors
Age 25-30( ) 31-45( ) 46-50( )
Gender male ( ) female ( )
Occupation employed ( ) non employed ( ) 1. How many children have you counseled in your Institution? What was the response 2. Which behavior is more likely to occur? 3. Do you think counseling and guidance can affect positively the relationship among children and care givers in your institution? How? 4. What are the major areas on children’s behavior which need counseling in your Institution? 5. What is your suggestion on the roles of guidance and counseling services on behavioral modification among MVCs? 6. Do you have records of all those who come to you for counseling services?

7 Do you have available resources for provision of guidance and counseling? 8 How do you get/reach your clients?

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...Social Networks and Media Conquer B2B Social Networks are a flourishing phenomenon in today’s generation. It has already entered and affected the B2C network. In B2C network the social networks have become a concerning factor and plays a major role in marketing and communications. As we are all familiar with the B2B network and what does it actually implies, the question arises whether the social networks can play an important role in B2B network and for B2B companies. Social networks are not another passing phenomenon; they have matured and have registered themselves highly in the minds of the customers. B2B network also gets conquered by the social networks the business houses that trade with each other are actually the customers of each other and they also engage themselves in social networking. Some useful statistics from the social networking world states that the total time spent on social media has increased from 6% in 2007 to 20% in 2011. The registered users will almost reach 2 billion people by 2014. These figures show relentless growth and usage of social media. Already 91% of the B2B companies are active on Facebook, 53% on Twitter and 47% on LinkedIn. These statistics reveal that social media has conquered B2B network and has entered in that chain as means of effective communication and presentation. B2B companies deal with people and not robots. So the influence of emotions before purchasing a product is applicable to them also as they are not immune to these...

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...Unit Title: The Business Environment Guided Learning Hours: 160 Level: Level 5 Number of Credits: 18 Learning Outcome 1 The learner will: Understand the significance of the environment on business activity. Assessment Criteria The learner can: 1.1 Explain the features of business activity. Indicative Content 1.1.1 Explain the business organisation as a transformation process. 1.1.2 Describe the different ways in which a business may structure its activities. 1.2 Discuss the complex interactions that operate between a business and its environment. 1.2.1 Discuss the complexity, volatility and uniqueness of an organisation's environment. 1.2.2 Explain the influence of shareholders on the internal environment of an organisation. 1.2.3 Outline the nature of the external environment (PEST). 1.3 Explain the need for change and its management within an individual business. 1.3.1 Discuss the need to monitor changes in the external environment. 1.3.2 Discuss the implications of environmental change for a business, its stakeholders and society. 1.3.3 Explain reasons for resistance to change by firms, managers and employees. 1.3.4 Describe ways in which resistance to change may be overcome. Learning Outcome 2 The learner will: Understand the structure and organisation of business. Assessment Criteria The learner can: 2.1 Discuss the impact of industrial and legal structure and size on organisational behaviour. Indicative Content 2.1.1 Classify businesses...

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...The Business Enterprise 1.) Discuss the common elements described in the theories/philosophies of Case, Kouzes, and Drucker including how their principles/strategies relate to the new definition of entrepreneurial leadership presented in Understanding Entrepreneurial Leadership in today’s Dynamic Markets. Case, Kouzes and Drucker each have good theories and philosophies on entrepreneurship and leadership. Each had different ways of stating what they thought made a good entrepreneur but for the most part focus on some of the same things and agreed that with the right balance of these characteristics then succeeding, as an entrepreneur would be possible. One of the common elements that each focused on was people. Interaction with people is important when it comes to entrepreneurship and leadership skills according to Case, Kouzes, and Drucker. Each inferred that if a person does not have people skills, then the person would not succeed as an entrepreneur or a leader. People skills would be the ability to motivate others and interact. A leader cannot lead without being able to interact with people. Starting a business requires interaction with people on some level. Another common element that they all thought were important was not being afraid to take risk. Taking a risk in order to monopolize an industry to succeed is important. The definition of entrepreneurial leadership is one of an enterprising, transformational leader who operates in a dynamic...

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...Business communication can take many forms, written and verbal. It can be between managers and employees within a company, or between a company and its customers, partners or suppliers. The purpose of business communication also varies, but it should always benefit your business. When carried out effectively, business communication can build your company's reputation, resolve and prevent conflicts, and contribute to strong relationships between your company, its customers and the business community. Build Customer Relationships Few businesses would grow or even survive without the benefits gained through marketing communications. You can take advantage of the wide variety of media available to let the public know about your products or services. Use business communications to establish your company as an authority or thought leader in your industry. Offer a white paper or online articles that discuss common problems business owners face and present your company's solution. A weekly or monthly newsletter to your prospects or established customers will help build trust by providing helpful tips and information. Occasionally sending out a direct mail or email survey will help you get to know your customers and better fill their needs. Freely sharing your expertise and gathering feedback from your customers will help you build a strong relationship with your customer base, and establish your company as a trusted expert in your industry. Motivate Team Good communication...

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...ecutive Summary The New Australian Company is a new red wine brand that will be introduced in Singapore. The brand is a unique and high quality red wine brand that meets the growing preference of consumers. It will be distributed to several hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, and wine boutiques/shops that are located in the commercial business districts of the city-state. The brand is managed and owned by a group of wine-lover businessmen who have tremendous experienced in business administration, marketing and sales management and customer service. The owners are now looking for additional investments in order to capitalize the project well. The company has already made several negotiations with successful business distributors in Singapore. The company is confident to compete with many large distributors because it is closely working with top-notch suppliers and manufacturers who are known as wine experts or cellar masters. The target market is the Generation Y or the millennial because it is 77 percent of the population. This group also consumes wines at a faster and higher rate. The sales forecasts for the New Australian Company begin with $700,000 for the first year, and this will increase to 50 percent ($1, 050,000) in the second year, and 60 percent ($1,680,000) in the third year of operation. The company will be expecting a profit margin of 30-40 percent, and at least 25 percent return of investment in the first operational year. The company wants to change...

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...Module-16 The role of business in The economy: M arkets and coMMerce TEACHER’S GUIDE P. 487 P. 491 P. 492 P. 492 P. 493 P. 496 P. 497 P. 501 Defined Content standards Materials Procedure Lesson outline Closure Assessment Overheads VISUAlS N Visuals for overhead projector. Copy to transparent paper for overhead. P. 502 NVisual-1: Market defined P. 503 NVisual-2: Business defined lESSonS 2 Copy and handout to students. P. 506 P. 513 P. 518 P. 522 2Lesson-I: I, Pencil 2Lesson-II: Specializing in production 2Lesson-III: Wal-Mart 2Lesson assessment the role of business in the econoMy Markets and coMMerce Module-16 Teacher DEFInED A market is a social arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to discover information and complete voluntary exchanges of goods and services. commerce consists of trading something of economic value such as a good, service, information, or money between two entities. business is the management and coordination of people and resources to accomplish particular production goals, usually for the purpose of making profit. business, commerce, and markets create many benefits for consumers, and as a result of business, commerce, and markets in the economy, consumers experience an increased standard of living. businesses obtain resources such as labor and equipment, and businesses specialize in the production of particular goods and services. As a result of business in the economy, the variety...

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...cover cover next page > Cover Business, Management and Finance Small Business; Entrepreneurship title author publisher isbn10 | asin print isbn13 ebook isbn13 language subject publication date lcc ddc subject : : : : : : : Entrepreneurship and Small Business Burns, Paul. 0333914732 9780333914731 9781403917102 : : : : cover next page > file:///Z|/_==%CF%CE%C8%D1%CA==/Entrepreneurship%.../ [06.10.2009 1:01:58] page_i < previous page page_i next page > page_i next page > Page i Entrepreneurship and Small Business < previous page file:///Z|/_==%CF%CE%C8%D1%CA==/ [06.10.2009 1:02:00] page_ii < previous page page_ii next page > page_ii next page > Page ii < previous page file:///Z|/_==%CF%CE%C8%D1%CA==/ [06.10.2009 1:02:00] page_iii < previous page page_iii next page > page_iii next page > Page iii Entrepreneurship and Small Business Paul Burns < previous page file:///Z|/_==%CF%CE%C8%D1%CA==/ [06.10.2009 1:02:00] page_iv < previous page page_iv next page > Page iv © Paul Burns 2001 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be...

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...CHANGING CLOTHES. CHANGING CONVENTIONAL WISDOM. CHANGING THE WORLD. Fast Retailing has the conviction and vision to face the challenge of creating a better world. PARIS Valerie Dassier, Head of E-Commerce and Customer Care, Comptoire des Cottonniers and Princess Tam Tam To become a leader, it’s not enough to do it a little bit better. Great leaders see a different reality. LONDON Kate Pierre, Store Manager, Uniqlo UK We are going to be the number one casual clothes company in the world. And we will look to our managers in the company to take on bigger roles in their local countries and abroad. MOSCOW Aleksandr Kurchatov, Store Manager, Uniqlo Your attitude and your smile go a long way. My philosophy is to give people the chance to smile and they will open up. NEW YORK Jennifer Parker, VP Store Management, Theory, NY More than any other retailer, FR empowers people to be the CEOs of their own four walls. They put the onus on the store manager to change themselves and make it the most important role. SAN FRANCISCO Daisuke Tsukakoshi, Director West Coast, Uniqlo USA In the U.S., the home of casual clothing, competition is fierce. We’ll need people who are willing to play major roles in opening up this effort. SHANGHAI Joanne Lam, Merchandising Director, Uniqlo, Hong Kong and Mainland China I always admired Coco Channel as a kid. She turned around the whole fashion industry of her time. I want to work in a big company that is prepared to make that...

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...- BTEC FIRST DIPLOMA BUSINESS - Unit 16: Business Enterprise Assignment [pic] [pic] • The due date for the whole assignment is Friday 25th May 2012 • You will have time allocated to complete the MERIT and DISTINCTION criteria only when the PASS criteria is completed • You will be able to gather evidence for Level 2 Key Skills in Communication, Application of Number and Information Technology from completing the assignment You will also be able to gather evidence for Key Skills Level 2 Improving Own Learning and Performance (LP2.1, Lp2.2 and LP2.3) as you plan, review and complete the assignment ASSIGNMENT TASKS The scenario You and some friends have always been interested in working for yourself rather than being an employee. You now feel it is the right time to start up a new business and so you begin to consider the idea and investigate the possibilities further with your friends. There are many ideas you have but before you can start the business you have decided to investigate what things you need to know about starting up a business. You and your friends are considering asking your bank manager to provide you with the finance for starting up the business and so it is important that you know exactly what is involved. You and your friends will have to present your business idea to the bank manager so it is important that you know what you have to do…! ______________________________________________________________ ...

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Business this issue. The latest issue can be found on the Edexcel website: References to third-party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.) Authorised by Roger Beard Prepared by Susan Hoxley Publications Code BH029073 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Limited 2011 Edexcel BTEC Level 4 HNC Diploma in Business Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Accounting) Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Management) Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Marketing) Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Human...

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...A business undertaking is an organisation which is engaged in some industrial or commercial activity. It represents an institutional arrangement for carrying on any kind of business activity. It may be owned and controlled by a single individual or by a group of individuals who have entered into a formal or informal agreement to jointly conduct the business. Every business undertaking is a separate and distinct business unit. It has its own identity and separate ownership. It can be distinguished from other undertakings on the basis of its ownership, management and control. According to Wheeler, a business undertaking is a concern, company or enterprise which buys and sells, is owned by one person or a group of persons and is managed under a specific set of operating policies". Thus, a business undertaking may be defined as an organisation operating under separate ownership, management and control and carrying on any business activity with independent risk- bearing. All business undertakings are directly or indirectly engaged in the transfer or exchange of goods and services for value. They deal in goods and services on a regular basis. Their main motive is to earn profits and they are exposed to various types of risks. Characteristics of a Business Undertaking The basic features of a business undertaking are as follows: 1. Separate identity: Every business undertaking has a separate identity. It has a distinct name and separate existence. Its assets and liabilities are...

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...Recording Transactions Keeping business records accurate and up to date is important for the smooth running of a business. The business owner must record all of the money coming into the business from successful sales of the product and all of the money going out, such as expenses including money owed for storage, wages that are paid and money to purchase the stock. If a business fails to do this it may find itself not chasing payments, forgetting to pay bills or, even in trouble with HM Revenue and Customs. If the business does not record its transactions correctly, it cannot report its financial performance accurately and therefore tax payments may be wrong. By recording the sales made, the business owner is given a clear indication of what’s popular and so it becomes clear what products should have increased stock or altered price. In your case, it is very important that you monitor your sales as a new business will most likely not make any profit straight away, so it’s vital to record your transactions so you are able to at least breakeven until more customers become aware of your business and you can start to make a profit. Furthermore, since you have negotiated a one month credit with a supplier, it is important to record your transactions so you know that you can repay the supplier after the month has passed and avoid any consequences. It would be beneficial to you if you could keep your credit supply as then you will have money coming in from your customers to then...

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...The United States exists in a capitalistic economy meaning that private enterprise is based on fair competition, economic freedom, and private ownership therefore; business is the heartbeat of our economy. Everything from manufacturing, health care, sales, and agriculture involves business in some way. Businesses provide jobs and produce goods and services that we depend on every day (What Role Does Business Play in Our Economy..?). They pay state and federal taxes to the government on their services provided. The taxes paid by businesses and the people employed by them allow the government to function. Looking at businesses in this way you can clearly see that business is a pivotal part of the economy. Within our economy two types of business organizations exist: for-profit and nonprofit. A for-profit organization will produce goods or services in the hopes of making revenue off its products. Most organizations you think of today are probably a for-profit establishment. Organizations that are classified as not-for-profit or nonprofit often operate under the guise of the emotional appeal of compassion but can also become major economic engines. They are business like establishments but unlike a for-profit business, their primary goals do not include making monetary profits. For profit businesses operate to generate revenue under the idea to have more profit than loss at the end of the day. Unlike for- profit businesses, nonprofits are organizations that are classified...

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...offer the bases in preparing, presenting and displaying even in interpreting general-purpose financial statements. There are some important accounting concepts that support the readiness and preparation of any accounting arrangement or financial statements such as Going Concern Concept, Consistency Concept, Prudence Concept, and Accruals Concepts. For example, Going Concern Concept is a company or organizations will not be going to bankrupt unless there have a confirmation and evidence to the contrary and this is supported by accountants. Purpose of Accounting Conventions An accounting convention refer to regular and common practices which are all around followed in recording and exhibiting accounting data and information of the business entity. They are taken after like traditions, convention, and so forth in a general public. Accounting conventions are evolved through the normal and consistent practice throughout the years to encourage uniform recording in the books of accounts. Accounting conventions help in contrasting accounting information of various specialty units or of the same unit for various...

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