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Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

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Harvard UTS
Referencing
Guide
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UTS:
Library
001

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

Click on the upper left menu to jump to the generic reference section you are after, and from there specify the article you would

Welcome to the Interactive
Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

like to reference.
Use the forward and back arrows in the top right corner to navigate through the PDF.

This document is an interactive PDF and is designed to help you reference quickly and simply.
This document can also be scrolled through like a regular PDF and can be printed off.

002

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

01 Books
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

1.5
1.6
1.7

003

Book (No Date)
Different Editions
Translation From The Original

1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13

Edited Book With Only One Editor
More Than One Editor
Chapter Within An Edited Book
Online Book

Book On An eReader
Books with a foreword written by a different author

01. Books

1.1

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

One Author

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Lester 2005) or Lester (2005) was the first to propound the theory
(Siirtola 2007, p. 16)

Reference List Model
Lester, J.D. 2005, Writing research papers: a complete guide, 11th edn, Pearson/Longman, New York.
Siirtola, H. 2007, Interactive visualization of multidimensional data, Tampere University Press, Tampere.

(Carpenito-Moyet 2010, pp. 19–20)

Explanation

Carpenito-Moyet, L.J. 2010, Handbook of nursing diagnosis, 13th edn, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.

When you cite a reference in the text of your document, use the author’s surname and the year of publication.

The key elements for this book reference are:
>
Author’s family name followed by initials
> Year
>
Book title (in italics)
> Edition
> Publisher
>
Place of publication

If you are quoting, enclose the quote in single quotation marks and add a page number into the text citation.
Add a page number or numbers to the in-text citation. Use
p. for one page and pp. if the quote starts on one page and ends on another.
004

See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

01. Books

1.2

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

More Than One Author

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model
Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. 2006, Writing academic English, 4th edn, Pearson Longman, White Plains, NY.
Holly, C., Salmond, S.W. & Saimbert, M.K. 2012, Comprehensive systematic review for advanced nursing practice, Springer Publishing Company, New York.

(Alysen et al. 2003)

Explanation

(Oshima & Hogue 2006)

(Holly, Salmond & Saimbert 2012)

In Use

Alysen, B., Patching, R., Oakham, K.M. & Sedorkin, G. 2003, Reporting in a multimedia world, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW.

Use the ampersand symbol (&) before the last author’s surname List all authors’ family names followed by their initials.

If there are 4 or more authors, list the first author and abbreviate the rest with et al.
See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author
005

The rest of the reference should follow as in Section 1.1 One Author

01. Books

1.3

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

No Author

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Maximum Linux security: a hacker’s guide to protecting your Linux server and network 2001)

Maximum Linux security: a hacker’s guide to protecting your Linux server and network 2001, 2nd edn, Sams, Indianapolis, Ind.

Explanation

If there is no author, use the title of the work (in italics) followed by the year.

The key elements for this reference are:
>
Book title (in italics)
> Year
>
Edition
> Publisher
>
Place of publication

See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

006

01. Books

1.4

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

Organisation As An Author

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee 2005)

Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee 2005, Personal liability for corporate fault: discussion paper, Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee, Sydney.

Explanation

When the author is an organisation such as a government department, or a company, treat the name of the organisation as the author surname.

The key elements for this book reference are:
>
Corporate author
> Year
>
Book title (in italics)
> Edition
> Publisher
>
Place of publication

See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

007

01. Books

1.5

Book

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

No Date

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(White n.d.)

White, J. n.d., Recollections of colonial New South Wales, Debrett, London.

(Newton c. 1713)

In Use

Newton, Sir I. c.1713, Treatise of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures, Smith & Walford, London.

If you have no date for a reference, use n.d. (for ‘no date’) instead of the year.

Follow same format as in Section 1.1 Book (One Author) but replace year with n.d.

If you only have an approximate date, put c. (for ‘circa’, meaning around) in front of the year
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

008

01. Books

1.6

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

Different Editions

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model
Chissick, M. & Kelman, A. 1999, Electronic commerce: law and practice, Sweet & Maxwell, London.
Chissick, M. & Kelman, A. 2000, Electronic commerce: law and practice, 2nd edn, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

See rules in Section 1.1 One Author and Section 1.2 More Than One Author

The edition statement should appear after the title and be preceded by and end with a comma.

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

Explanation

(Chissick & Kelman 1999)

(Chissick & Kelman 2000)

In Use

You don’t need to mention the edition for a first edition.
Edition should be abbreviated to edn
The rest of the reference should follow as in Section 1.1 One Author and Section 1.2 More Than One Author

009

01. Books

1.7

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

Translation From The Original

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(Marquez 1998)

Marquez, G.G. 1998, One hundred years of solitude, trans. G. Rabassa, Perennial Classics, New York.

(Tolstoy 1905, p. 70)

In Use

Tolstoy, L. 1905, Miscellaneous letters and essays, trans. L. Wiener, J.M.Dent & Co., London.

The year of the reference is the year of publication of the translation, not of the original.

The key elements for this book reference are:
> Author
> Year
>
Book title (in italics)
> Translator
> Edition
> Publisher
>
Place of publication.

See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

010

The translator’s name should be initial first and followed by the surname, and translator should be abbreviated to trans.

01. Books

1.8

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

Edited Book With Only One Editor

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(Hamilton 2005)

Hamilton, P. (ed.) 2005, Visual research methods, vol. 4, Sage, London.

(Inness 2004)

In Use

Inness, S.A. (ed.) 2004, Action chicks: new images of tough women in popular culture, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations

The key elements for this book reference are:
>
Editor followed by (ed.)
> Year
>
Book title (in italics)
> Edition
> Publisher
>
Place of publication

See Section 1.9 Chapter Within An Edited Print Book
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

011

01. Books

1.9

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

More Than One Editor

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model
Turner, S.P. & Roth, P.A. (eds) 2003, Blackwell guide to the philosophy of the social sciences, Blackwell, Oxford.
Ahmed, K. & Sánchez Triana, E. (eds) 2008, Strategic environmental assessment for policies: an instrument for good governance, World Bank, Washington, DC.

(Phelps et al. 2010)

Explanation

(Turner & Roth 2003)

(Ahmed & Sanchez Triana 2008)

In Use

Phelps, S.J., Hak, E.B., Crill, C.M. & American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (eds) 2010, Pediatric injectable drugs: teddy bear book, 9th edn, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda, Md.

See rules in Section 1.2 More Than One Author
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

012

List all editors’ family names followed by their initials, followed by (eds)
The rest of the reference should follow as in : Section 1.7 Edited Book With
Only One Editor

01. Books

1.10

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

Chapter Within An Edited Print Book

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

Reference List Model

(Coleman 2003)

Coleman, S. 2003, ‘Democracy in an e-connected world’, in R. Davidson (ed.), The e-connected world: risks and opportunities, McGill Queens University Press, Montreal, pp. 125-32.

(White 2009) and (Robbins, Shaw & Lewis 2012)

White, J. 2009, ‘Nursing today’, in J. Crisp & C. Taylor (eds), Potter & Perry’s fundamentals of nursing, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Chatswood, NSW, pp. 1-15.
Robbins, N.C., Shaw, C.A. & Lewis, S.L. 2012, ‘Nursing management: diabetes mellitus’, adapted by B. Davis, in D. Brown & H. Edwards (eds), Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing: assessment and management of clinical problems, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Chatswood, NSW, pp. 1357-92.

Explanation

Use this format where each chapter of the book has its own author and its own title.
The in-text author is the author of the chapter and not the book editor.
Where a textbook (such as Potter and Perry above) has unit editors, and chapters within each unit may or may not have chapter authors: use chapter authors if given; if not use unit editors in place of chapter authors.

013

See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations or Section 1.10 Online Book referencing an online chapter or Section 1.11 Book On An eReader

The key elements for a book chapter reference are:
>
Author(s) of the chapter
>
Year of publication
>
Chapter title (‘in single quotes’)
>
Editor(s) of the book (Use (ed.) for one editor, (eds) for more than one editor.)
>
Title of the book (in italics)
> Edition
> Publisher
>
Place of publication
>
Page numbers of the chapter.

01. Books

1.11

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

Online or Electronic Book

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Kim 2000)

Reference List Model
Kim, A.J. 2000, Community building on the web, Safari Books Online, Boston, viewed 1 June 2009, .

(Kim 2000, chapter 1, para. 5)

Explanation

Second example above is referencing a quote in an online book where there are no page numbers, using chapter and paragraph numbers. In an online graphic novel with no page numbers use chapter and panel numbers.
See Section 1.11 Book On An eReader

014

If an online book has the same structure and page numbering as the equivalent print version, reference it as the print version.
Otherwise, use the online book format above.
The publisher and place of publication now refer to the producer or host of the online version, and the city where they are based. You must also include the date you viewed the book online, followed by the full URL within angle brackets. 01. Books

1.12

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

Book On An eReader

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Martin 2003)

Reference List Model
Martin, G.R.R. 2003, Game of thrones, electronic book, Harper Voyager, London.

(Martin 2003, p. 83/10893)

Explanation

015

Most eReaders can resize pages, which changes the numbering and makes quoting from a book on an eReader tricky. However, the bottom of each page should show both the page number and the total number of pages (sometimes called locations). Use the ratio of these two numbers e.g.
(Martin 2003, p. 83/10893) for quotes. Use p. even if the reader uses locations.

When an electronic book is on an eReader, such as Kindle, reference it similarly to a print book (see the Martin example above) with the words
‘electronic book’ directly after the title. Get the book’s citation details from the page after the title page, or by using the ‘Copyright’ link in the table of contents, or from the site from which you downloaded the book. You don’t need to put the place of publication if this is not clear. Do not put a URL or the type of reader.

01. Books

1.13

Books with a foreword written by a different author

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

Price said ‘times were tough’ (Spencer 2012, p.45)

Reference List Model
Spencer, T. 2012, The neon jockey, Alabaster Press, Windhoek.

Price in her foreword to The neon jockey said ‘times were tough’ (Spencer 2012, p.45)

Explanation

016

For your reference list, you can write
Spencer, T. 2012, The neon jockey, Alabaster Press,
Windhoek. Foreword by A. Price.
But this is only recommend if you are referencing the text once, with that one reference including a quote from the forward, otherwise the mention of the foreword becomes extraneous. See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

02 Journals & Newspapers
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

2.4
2.5
2.6

017

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers

2.1

Journal Article

One Author

03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Vixie 2011)

Vixie, P. 2011, ‘Arrogance in business planning’, Communications of the ACM, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 38-41.

Explanation

Print or online
Almost all online journals have a printed equivalent and are available in PDF format. When this is the case, it makes more sense to reference it as the print version.

The key elements of a journal article are:
> Author(s)
>
Year of publication
>
Title of the article (‘in single quotes’)
>
Journal name (in italics)
>
Volume and issue numbers
>
Page numbers

See Section 5.3 Referencing Quotations or Section 2.5 Online Journal Article
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author
018

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers

2.2

Journal Article

More Than One Author

03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

Reference List Model
O’Toole, J. & Vogel, D. 2011, ‘Two and a half cheers for conscious capitalism’, California Management Review, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 60-76.

(Koussouris et al. 2010)

Koussouris, S., Gionis, G., Lampathaki, F., Charalabidis, Y. & Askounis, D. 2010, ‘Transforming traditional production system transactions to interoperable eBusiness-aware systems with the use of generic process models’, International Journal of Production Research, vol. 48, no. 19, pp. 5711-27.

Use the ampersand symbol before the last author surname. The reference list entry should have all author family names followed by their initials. If there are 4 or more authors, list the first author and abbreviate with et al.

Explanation

(O’Toole & Vogel 2011)

Otherwise, follow same format as in Section 2.1 Journal Article (One Author)

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

019

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers

2.3

Journal Article

No Author

03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(‘Schuth wins Leibniz prize’ 2003)

‘Schuth wins Leibniz prize’ 2003 , Materials Today, vol. 6, no. 6, p. 61.

Explanation

With anonymous works, the title (in single quotes) replaces author as the main entry.

Follow same format as in Section 2.1 Journal Article (One Author) but replace Author with title of the article, in single quotes.

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

The journal name now comes directly after the year.

020

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers

2.4

Online Journal Article

03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Clark et al. 2003)

Clark, J., Diefenderfer, C., Hammer, S. & Hammer, T. 2003, ‘Estimating the area of Virginia’, Journal of Online Mathematics and its Applications, vol. 3, viewed 6 October 2009, .

Explanation

If there are 4 or more authors, list the first author followed by et al.

The reference list entry should have all author names.

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

If an online article is an online version of a print article (i.e. if the online version has a pdf with page numbers), then reference it as the print version.
Only use this format if there is no printed version, or if the online version is significantly different from the printed one, or there are no page numbers.
You must include the date you viewed the article, followed by the full URL within angle brackets.

021

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers

2.5

Newspaper & Magazine Articles

03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(Gutner 2003)

Gutner, T. 2003, ‘Fashion futures’, Business Week (Fashion Industry Supplement), August, pp. 9-10.

(‘Foreign cyber-spies’ 2009)

In Use

‘Foreign cyber-spies’ 2009, Sydney Morning Herald, 24 November, p. 7.

The second example above is for no author.

If the newspaper or magazine article comes from a special section with its own page numbering, you need to specify the section (in parentheses) after the name of the newspaper or magazine.

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

022

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers

2.6

Online Newspaper or Magazine Article

03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Darby 2004)

Darby, A. 2004, ‘Furious Butler quits as governor’, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 August, viewed 10 November 2009, .

Explanation

Most online newspapers and magazines have a printed equivalent with page numbers displayed. When this is the case, reference as a print version.

Must include viewed date & URL

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

023

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

03 Websites or Online
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

024

Websites

Blog or Tweet
Podcast

YouTube
Facebook

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

3.1

Websites

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Australian Electoral Commission 2012)

Reference List Model
Australian Electoral Commission 2012, 2010 Federal election, AEC, Canberra, viewed 28 June 2012, .

(Rio Tinto 2012)

(Sydney Festival 2012)

Explanation

Rio Tinto 2012, History, viewed 13 June 2012, .
Sydney Festival 2012, Sydney festival, viewed 13 June 2012, .

(Author Date)
If no author, replace with title.
If year is not found, replace year with n.d.
The author can be a government body or a company name
GOVERNMENT WEBSITE: (Australian Electoral Commission
2012)
COMPANY WEBSITE: (Rio Tinto 2012)
GENERAL WEBSITE: (Sydney Festival 2012)

025

The key elements of a website reference are:
> The person or organisation who wrote or created the webpage (if known)
> The year the webpage was created or last updated. If the year is not found, use n.d.
> The title of the webpage (in italics)
> The type of website (if necessary, e.g. weblog, podcast)
> The organisation responsible for ‘publishing’ the website. If this is the same as the author, it can be left out.
> The place where the publisher is located (can be left out if it is unclear)
> The day, month and year you last accessed the website
> The full URL .
The year and information about the website host can often be found at the bottom of the webpage.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

3.2

Blog or Tweet

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(Green 2009)

Green, A. 2009, ‘Fremantle by-election: should the Liberals run?’, Antony Green’s election blog, weblog, ABC, Sydney, viewed 10 April 2009, .

(Obama 2009)

In Use

Obama, B. 2009, ‘Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020’, Twitter post, 28 January, viewed 24 February 2012, .

The first example above is for a blog.

If your website is a blog, you can (if you wish) reference a particular posting
(‘in single quotes’) as well as the blog’s main title. Type the word ‘weblog’
(which blog is short for) after the main title.

The second example above is for a tweet.
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

026

To reference a tweet, use the handle if the author name is not clear. Enclose the full text of the tweet in single quotes. Type the words ‘Twitter post’ after the tweet, and the day and month of the post.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

3.3

Podcast

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

027

(Crawford 2009)

Crawford, M. 2009, Shop class as soulcraft, audio podcast, Future Tense Radio National, ABC Radio, Sydney, 5 November, viewed 18 November 2009, .

(Small town salvation 2009)

In Use

Small town salvation 2009, video podcast, Compass Television Program, ABC TV, Sydney, 1 November, viewed 18 November 2009, .

(Author year) or (Title year) if no author.

If you downloaded a podcast from a website, it may be an audio file or a video file. Details of the radio or television program (program name, station name, station location, and broadcast date) should be provided.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

3.4

YouTube

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(UTS Library 2009)

Reference List Model
UTS Library 2009, It’s the UTS Library with Mr Hank, videorecording, Youtube, viewed 21 September 2009, .

(UTS Library 2009, 0:54)

Explanation

028

To reference a quote from a YouTube video, use the start time of the quote within the video as in the second example above. If your video is hosted on YouTube, the author (the person who uploaded it – this might be a username) and the date it was posted can be found underneath the video. Type the words ‘video recording’ after the main title.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

3.5

Facebook Posts

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

Explanation

029

(UTS Library 2014)

Reference List Model
UTS Library 2014, ‘Welcome back to uni! In the spirit of returning to student life […]’, Facebook post, 25 February, viewed 25 February 2014, .

Author of the post, Year, First few words of the post (up to about 15 words) in single quotes, Day and Month of post, viewed date, URL of Facebook page containing the post.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

04 Other Sources
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

030

Legal Material
Sound, Film and Image
Unpublished Sources
Written Academic Sources

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

04 Other Sources
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

4.1
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4

031

Legal Material

Case Law
Legislation (Act)
Legislation (Bill)
Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)
Treaty

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.1

Case Law

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship
Co Ltd 1920).

Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1920) 28 CLR 129.

Explanation

Cases should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically. The key elements of a case are:
>
Case name in full (in italics)
>
Year of the judgment
>
Volume no.
>
Abbreviated name of the law reports series
>
First page number

Normally case law references are listed in a separate section, titled Case Law, after the main reference list.

032

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.2

Legislation

Act

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

(Crimes Act 1900)

Crimes Act 1900 (NSW).

(Copyright Act 1968)

In Use

Copyright Act 1968 (Cth).

You can specify particular sections of an Act if you wish, using s. for one section or ss. for several sections.
For example:
(Crimes Act 1900, s. 41A) and (Copyright Act 1968, ss. 40-42)

Explanation

Legislation should be referenced as if in print, even if viewed electronically Normally legislation is listed in a separate section, titled
Legislation, after the main reference list.

The key elements for an Act are:
>
Name of the Act (in italics)
>
Year (in italics)
> Jurisdiction.
In Australia, this should be one of Cth, NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA, Tas, ACT or NT.

033

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.2

Legislation

Bill

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Anti-terrorism Bill 2004)

Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (House of Representatives).

Explanation

Legislation should be referenced as if in print, even if viewed electronically The key elements for a Bill are:
>
Name of Bill (in plain text)
>
Year (in plain text)
>
House of Parliament where introduced.

Normally legislation is listed in a separate section, titled
Legislation, after the main reference list.

034

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.3

Parliamentary Debates

Hansard

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

Reference List Model

035

Australia, House of Representatives 2000, Debates, vol. HR103, pp. 2-9.

(New South Wales, Legislative Assembly 2012)

Explanation

(Australia, House of Representatives 2000)

New South Wales, Legislative Assembly 2012, Debates, 3 May, pp. 11095-11100.

Traditionally you should include the volume number of the
Debates, as in the first example above, but many online versions of Hansard do not mention the volume number. In such cases it is acceptable to put the day and month of the debate instead, as in the second example above. You do not need to put the URL even if you viewed the Hansard online.
Page numbers of online Hansard can be found on the pdf version. Jurisdiction, House of Parliament, Year, Date or volume number, Pages

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.4

Treaty

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands 1921)

Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands 1921, 9 LNTS 211, opened for signature 20 October 1921, entered into force 6 April 1922.

Explanation

(Treaty Name year the treaty was signed or opened for signature) Treaty Title Year of opening/Year of signing, Volume Abbreviated Treaty Series name first page, signed /opened for signature full date, entered into force full date. You only need reference the treaty if you are quoting from it. If another document mentions the treaty, reference that document instead.
Only include the entered into force date if this date is different to the date the treaty was made open for signature

036

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

04 Other Sources
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

4.6
4.7
4.7.1

Sound, Film and Image
Film, Video Or Audiovisual
Image or Artwork (Viewed Online or Print)

Image or Artwork (Viewed Original Artwork)
4.8
TV or Radio Program
4.9
Scripts

037

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.6

Film, Video or Audiovisual

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

038

(Muriel’s wedding 1994)

Muriel’s wedding 1994, motion picture, Roadshow Entertainment, Sydney.

(The edge of the possible 1998)

In Use

The edge of the possible 1998, DVD, Ronin Films, Canberra.

Rules for scripts, see

The key elements of a film or audiovisual reference are:
>
Title (in italics)
>
Year of publication or release
>
Format (use motion picture for films; use video recording, CD-ROM, DVD, audio cassette, slide, or microform etc. for other audiovisual material)
>
Distributor (for films) or publisher
>
Place of recording or publication (for audiovisual material)

Section 4.13 Scripts

Although you are likely to view most feature films (i.e. movies) as DVDs, you should still reference feature films with the format ‘motion picture’ rather than
‘DVD’.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.7

Image or Artwork

Continued

Viewed Online or in Print

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Van Gogh 1890)

Reference List Model
Van Gogh, V. 1890, Undergrowth with two figures, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 4 March 2014, .

(Rodin 1884-89)
Rodin, A. 1884-89, Burghers of Calais, photographed by J. Howe, Boston College Fine Arts Department, viewed 3 March 2014, .

Explanation

Image referencing from a publicly accessible website

Artist name, Year of original work, Title of original work in italics, Hosting organisation of website where found, viewed date, URL of the image.
>

> >

039

Where the artist name is not known, use the title (keeping the italics) instead. If the work is an illustration on a commercial product, use the product producer’s company name as the author (see the examples on the next two pages).
Where the image is a photograph of an artwork, and the photographer has been specifically credited, note this after the title (see the Rodin example above).
Use n.d. (for ‘no date’) when the year is unknown; use c. (for circa) in front of the year to indicate an approximation. Use a range of years if appropriate.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.7

Image or Artwork

Viewed Online or in Print

Continued

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(Brodhead Public Library c.1900)

Brodhead Public Library c.1900, Wisconsin Historical Images, Flickr, viewed 8 March 2014, .

(Sculpture by the sea – Elephant 2009)

In Use

Sculpture by the sea – Elephant 2009, photographed by A. Wain, Flickr, viewed 4 February 2014, .

Image referencing from Flickr or similar image hosting site

Where the image is on a hosted site such as Flickr, note the organisation or individual who posted or photographed the image between the title and the host site name. If the full name is not given, use the username instead.

Both the examples above show the format where the creator of the original artwork is not known

040

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.7

Image or Artwork

Continued

Viewed Online or in Print

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

041

Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928, Yardley’s old English lavender soap, viewed 8 December 2010, .
Degas, E. c.1874, The rehearsal of the ballet onstage, viewed 4 March 2014, .

(Emperor Claudius 40-50)

Explanation

(Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928)

(Degas c.1874)

In Use

Emperor Claudius 40-50, photographed by I. Geske, viewed 5 March 2014, .

Image referencing from a database

The key elements in a reference for an image found in a database are:
>>
The name of the image
>>
The date it was last viewed/accessed
>>
The name of the database in which it is located
>>
The identification/accession number of the image in angle brackets

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.7

Image or Artwork

Viewed Online or in Print

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Gaunt 1970, p. 17)

Gaunt, W. 1970, The impressionists, Thames & Hudson, London.

Explanation

Image referencing from a printed source

If you are citing an image from a printed source, reference the printed source as normal and use a page number in your in-text citation to indicate which page the image comes from.

042

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.7

Image Or Artwork

1 Viewed Original Artwork

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(Rodin 1886)

Rodin, A. 1886, The lovers, sculpture, Rodin Museum, Paris.

(Olley 2000)

In Use

Olley, M. 2000, Proteas in the kitchen, painting, private collection.

Note that this applies only to an original artwork. Normally you will be referencing a reproduction, in which case see the previous page.

Reference List Format:
> Artist
>
Year [In this example, Year is the year the artwork was created. If you have no date for

If the image is your own work, you do not need to reference it, just make it clear in your text that it is yours. If the image is yours but is an image of another person’s work, you should reference that work.

043

the work, use n.d. for ‘no date’ instead of the year. If you only have an approximate date, put c. for ‘circa’, meaning around) in front of the year: e.g. (Michelangelo n.d.)

and (Picasso c. 1893)].

>
>

Title (in italics)
Type of Work (Type of Work is ‘artwork’, although you can be more specific if you

wish, e.g. oil painting, watercolour, sculpture or photograph).

>
Museum or Gallery
> City (City is the city where the museum or gallery is located. If in a private collection,

you do not need to have a City.)

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.8

TV or Radio Program

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Canberra firestorm 2003)

(PM 2004)

Explanation

044

Rules for scripts, see
Section 4.13 Scripts

Reference List Model
Canberra firestorm 2003, television program, Catalyst, ABC TV, Sydney, 3 March.
PM 2004, radio program, ABC Radio 702AM, Sydney, 2 June.

Key elements of a television or radio broadcast are:
>
Title of the broadcast (in italics)
>
Year of broadcast
>
Format (use television program or radio program)
>
Series title (if appropriate)
>
Television or radio station name
>
Location of the station
>
Broadcast date (day month)

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.9

Scripts

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model
Beaufoy, S. 2008, Slumdog millionaire: the shooting script, Newmarket Press, New York.
Adams, D. 2003, The hitchhiker’s guide to the galaxy: the original radio scripts, Pan, London.

(Rossen 1943)

Explanation

(Beaufoy 2008)

(Adams 2003)

In Use

Rossen R. 1943, Edge of darkness, shooting script, viewed 6 April 2014, .

(Beaufoy 2008) and (Adams 2003) Scripts published in book format (i.e. referenced same way as you reference a book).
The examples are for a movie, and for a radio show.
(Rossen 1943) Online via a database such as American Film
Scripts Online. The authors are the script writers.

Continued
045

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.9

Scripts

Continued

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Cameron 2007)

(Siodmak & Ardel 1943)

(Koenig 1980)
(Kogen & Wolodarsky 1991)

Explanation

(Cameron 2007) Online via a website.
A copy of the actual script itself normally counts as
‘unpublished’, hence the single quotes rather than italics for the title in the last three examples above.
The authors are the script writers. Put in copyright details if noted on the script, otherwise leave out.
For television series, the name of the series comes before the name of the episode, as shown in (Koenig 1980) and
(Kogen & Wolodarsky 1991)

046

Reference List Model
Cameron, J. 2007, Avatar, shooting script, Twentieth Century Fox, viewed 20 June 2012, .
Siodmak, C. & Ardel, W. 1943, ‘I walked with a zombie’, shooting script, RKO Radio Pictures.
Koenig, D. 1980, ’M*A*S*H: April Fools’, television script.
Kogen, J. & Wolodarsky, W. 1991, ‘The Simpsons: Bart’s friend falls in love’, television script, Twentieth Century Fox.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

04 Other Sources
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14

047

Unpublished Sources
Lecture Notes, PowerPoint®, UTS Online
Previous assignment
Personal Communication
Unpublished Works
Pamphlets or Zines

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.10

Lecture Notes / PowerPoints / UTS Online

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

Reference List Model

Madden, X.V. 2012, ‘Lecture 6: The life cycle of a plastic bottle’, UTS Online Subject 77709, PowerPoint presentation, UTS, Sydney, viewed 22 March 2012, .

Please note that it is recommended that you avoid (if possible) referring to lecture notes. Instead try to locate a published source, i.e. a book or journal article.

Referencing a PowerPoint slide, lecture notes or subject documents found on the web (e.g. UTS Online) is similar to referencing a website. So you need to include the date you viewed it, and the URL.

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

048

Allen, B. 2012, ‘Things you need to know about groceries’, UTS Online Subject 95206, lecture notes, UTS, Sydney, viewed 28 March 2012, .

(Madden 2012)

Explanation

(Allen 2012)

If you are referencing an article or book chapter contained within course material, reference it as the original hard copy article or book chapter, even if the course material is online.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.11

Previous assignment

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

Previous assignments should not be referenced, as they have not been published and are therefore impossible for the reader to trace. If you are referring to facts, quotes or data that you have used in a previous assignment, you can simply reuse the appropriate references.

049

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.12

Personal Communication

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

Examples of in text references:
Jones (1989, pers. comm., 6 May) believed that this was not relevant.
This was confirmed by email (Brown 2008, pers. comm., 3
July).

Explanation

050

Reference List Model
Personal communications can take a number of forms and are not normally available for consultation except under special circumstances. For this reason it is not normally necessary to refer to personal communications in your reference list.
In the text of your document you should specify the year and the date (day and month) when the personal communication took place.

Personal communications include emails, letters, phone and in-person conversations, where you personally are the one being communicated with.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.13

Unpublished works

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Babayan 1993)
(Bowden & Fairley 1996)

(Hudson 1909-18)
(Adams 1917)

Explanation

051

Reference List Model
Babayan, K. 1993, ‘The waning of the Qizilbash: the spiritual and temporal in seventeenth century Iran’, PhD thesis, Princeton University, NJ.
Bowden, F.J. & Fairley, C.K. 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange’, paper presented to the Scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.
Hudson, D.E. 1909-18, ‘Diary’, Hudson papers, Fisher Library, University of Sydney.
Adams, D.E. 1917, ‘My journey to Khartoum’, in possession of M.A. Adams, Adelaide.

A work is unpublished if it was produced in a very limited number of copies and has never been available commercially. The most common examples are theses and unpublished conference papers. Manuscripts and diaries are unpublished works. With these, add details about where the works are located.
The main difference with referencing unpublished works is that the main title is not in italics but instead is enclosed in single quotes.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.14

Pamphlets and Zines

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(University of Technology, Sydney 2009)

(Jones 2012)

Explanation

Note the word “pamphlet” or “zine” is required after the title. See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

052

Reference List Model
University of Technology, Sydney 2009, UTS: Staff safety & wellbeing at work: computer comfort, pamphlet, UTS, Sydney.
Jones, A. 2012, Paper mountain, zine, no. 1, Sydney.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

04 Other Sources
Please Click On What You Would Like To Reference:

4.15
4.16
4.16.1
4.16.2
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22

053

Written Academic Sources
Cochrane Systematic Reviews
Conference Paper (Published)
Unpublished
Viewed Online
Reports (Including ABS)
Reports from a Database
Thesis (Printed & Online)
Standards & Patents
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
Media Release or Press Release

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.15

Cochrane Systematic Reviews

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Bellemare et al. 2006)

Bellemare, S., Wiebe, N., Russell, K.F., Klassen, T.P. & Craig, W.R. 2006,
‘Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration to gastroenteritis in children’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, viewed 31 August 2011, .

Explanation

Cochrane systematic reviews are usually sourced from the library’s Wiley online databases or can be sourced from
Cochrane Library online.

The key elements for Cochrane systematic reviews are:
> Author(s)
>
Year (assessed as up to date)
> Title
>
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (in italics)
>
Issue number (located after opening How to Cite link within the Wiley online database)
>
Date you viewed the report
> URL

For referencing purposes, we recommend you use Wiley online database to view the key reference elements.

054

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.16

Conference Paper

Published

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Smith, Thomas & Piekarski 2008)

Smith, R.T., Thomas, B.H. & Piekarski, W. 2008, ‘Tech note: digital foam’, IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2008, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, pp. 35-8.

Explanation

Use the ampersand symbol before the last author surname.
If there are 4 or more authors, list the first author and abbreviate with et al.

The key elements of a conference paper reference are:

(Include single quotations marks and page numbers if using a direct quote.)
See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

055

>
>

>
>
>
>

>

Author(s) of the paper
Year of publication of the proceedings
If you have no date, use n.d. (for ‘no date’) instead of the year
Title of paper (‘in single quotes’),
Conference name (in italics)
Publisher of the proceedings (normally the organisation responsible for the conference)
Place of publication. Include the state or country if there is a chance of confusion (e.g.
Perth, WA) or if the place is not well known
Page numbers of the paper in the proceedings.

Use this format for a single paper from a conference proceedings. To reference the whole conference proceedings as one work, treat it as an edited book instead. If an online conference paper has an equivalent printed version, reference it as if it was the print version.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.16

Conference Paper

1 Unpublished

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Bowden & Fairley 1996)

Bowden, F.J. & Fairley, C.K. 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange’, paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Explanation

See Section 4.3 Conference Paper (Published)

Sometimes a paper presented at a conference does not get published and so has a slightly different format. There is no publisher, or page numbers, and the year now refers to the year the conference was held. You must now also include the conference location, and the days and month the conference was held. See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

056

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.16

Conference Paper

2 Viewed Online

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

In Use

(Jakubowicz 2002)

Jakubowicz, A. 2002, ‘Race vilification and communal leadership’, Beyond tolerance: national conference on racism, Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission, Sydney, viewed 2 September 2009, .

Explanation

See Section 4.3 Conference Paper (Published)

If there is no printed version, or if the online version is different from the printed one, or there are no page numbers then use the format above.
Publisher now refers to the producer of the online version. You must include the date you viewed the online paper, followed by the full URL within angle brackets. See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

057

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.17

Reports (Including ABS)

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999, p. 8)

Reference List Model
Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999, Annual report 1998-99, DFAT, Canberra.
Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996, Report on public fundraising by charitable institutions, Report Number 75, Government Printer, Hobart.

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009)

Explanation

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Education and work, Australia, May 2009, cat. no. 6227.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 24 November 2009, .

Include single quotation marks and page numbers if using a direct quote.

Reports are often in-house publications, usually have very focused subject matter, and may be only a few pages in length. They often have a report number. Report authors are often organisations.

See Section 5.4 Quote From A Work Citing Another Author
Examples of reports would be company annual reports, heritage reports, departmental reports, research group reports, and some ABS publications.
Reports are referenced in a very similar way to books.

058

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.18

Reports from a Database

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model
Passport 2014, Snack bars in Argentina, category briefing, viewed 6 April 2014, .
MarketLine 2013, Childrenswear in Australia, industry profile, viewed 31 March 2014, .

(DatAnalysis Premium 2014)

Explanation

(Passport 2014)

(MarketLine 2013)

In Use

DatAnalysis Premium 2014, Qantas Airways Limited, company report, viewed 9 April 2014, .

Use the name of the database as the author if no author is given.
Key elements are:
Name of Database, Year, Title of report (in italics), Type of report (if any),
Viewed date, Name of Database (in ).

059

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.19

Thesis

Printed & Online

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Babayan 1993)

(Nassif 1984)

Explanation

060

Include single quotation marks and page numbers if using a direct quote.

Reference List Model
Example of a print thesis:
Babayan, K. 1993, ‘The waning of the Qizilbash: the spiritual and temporal in seventeenth century Iran’, PhD thesis, Princeton University, NJ.
Example of an online thesis:
If you accessed the thesis online you can, if you wish, add in the date you viewed it and the full URL:
Nassif, N.M. 1984, ‘Theoretical aspects of the continuously varying schedule process for timber drying’, M Eng. thesis, University of Technology, Sydney, viewed 23 November 2009, .

The Key elements of a thesis reference are:
>
The author of the thesis
>
Year of publication
>
Title of the thesis (‘in single quotes’)
>
Type of thesis (e.g. PhD, MSc)
>
University where the thesis was undertaken
>
The city where the university is located. If the university name includes the city name (e.g. University of Technology, Sydney), you do not need to list the city separately. Include the state or country if there is a chance of confusion (e.g. University of Newcastle, NSW) or if the place is not well known.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.20

Standards & Patents

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

061

(Cookson 1985)

Cookson, A.H. 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulation transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

(Standards Australia 2008)

In Use

Standards Australia 2008, Personal flotation devices - general requirements, AS 4658.1-2008, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.21

Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Paper dictionary: Macquarie dictionary defines spruik as ‘to harangue or address a meeting’ (Macquarie Dictionary 2012).

[First example does not appear in the reference list because it’s a print dictionary]. Online dictionary: Collins dictionary defines the action to wimple as ‘to cover with or put a wimple on’ (Collins Dictionary 2012).

Collins Dictionary 2012, HarperCollins, London, viewed 15 November 2012, .

Paper Encyclopedia: Lemons are described as ‘yellowy soury things that grow on trees’ (Wiseman’s Encyclopedia 2010, p. 767).

In Use

Wiseman’s Encyclopedia 2010, 2nd edn, Wiseman Publishing, Captain’s Flat, NSW.

Online Encyclopedia: Oranges are described as ‘round tangy things that grow on trees’ (Acumen Encyclopedia 2007).

Explanation

062

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias are referenced like a book with no author. If in print (or if online but the same as the print) you only need an in-text reference for a dictionary reference. You don’t need to put print dictionaries in your reference list.
If quoting from an encyclopedia, use page numbers if in print; if online use the method for quoting from an online book. You don’t need to put page numbers if quoting from a dictionary (because it’s obvious where the quote comes from). Acumen Encyclopedia 2007, Acumen Publishing, viewed 15 November 2012, .
For an online-only dictionary or encyclopedia, because you need to include information about the web address, reference like an online book with no author, and include in your reference list. The web address should be the main website address, not the address of the particular entry you looked up
(see examples above). As with an online book, if the place of publication is not given you can leave it out.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources

4.22

Media Release or Press Release

05. Ref Lists & General Rules

In-text Referencing
In Use

(Watersmith 2000)

Reference List Model
Watersmith, C. 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, 1 March, BHP Limited, Melbourne.
Watersmith, C. 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, 1 March, BHP Limited, Melbourne, viewed 18 February 2010, .

Explanation

063

The second example is for a media release when viewed online.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

05 Reference Lists & General Rules
Please Click On What You Would Like To Know:

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

064

An Example Of A Reference List
In Text References & The Reference List
Referencing Quotations
Quote From A Work Citing Another Author
Multiple Works By The Same Author & In The Same Year
Multiple Works by the Same Author from Different Years
Corporate authors with very long names

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

The reference list is sorted alphabetically by author (or title

5.1

An Example of a Reference List

Barbas-Rhoden, L. 2003, Writing women in Central America: gender and the fictionalization of history, Ohio University Press, viewed 17 June 2010, .

when no author is found).
In order of appearance the first is a website, then a book chapter

Furnham, A. 1990, ‘Work and leisure satisfaction’, in M. Strack (ed.), Subjective well-being: an interdisciplinary perspective, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 235-60.

in an edited book, followed by a book and a journal article.

Tooth, A.S., Spence, J. & University of Strathclyde 1986, Applied solid mechanics, 2nd edn, Elsevier Applied Science, London.
Wagner, C.S., Shehata, S., Henzler, K., Yuan, J. & Wittemann, A. 2011, ‘Towards nanoscale composite particles of dual complexity’, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 366, no. 1, pp. 115-23.

065

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

When you cite a reference in the text of your document, use the author surname and the year of publication. This is called an intext reference. For example:

5.2

In Text References & The Reference List

>
The theory was first propounded in 1970 (Larsen 1971).
>

If there are 4 or more authors, list the first author and abbreviate with et al.

>
If the author name is already in the text immediately in front of the in-text reference, you can use just the year. e.g.: Larsen (1971) was the first to propound the theory.

>
All in-text references must be included in a single list of full references at the end of your document. The exception to this rule is personal communication
(See Personal Communication Section) >

This list must be arranged alphabetically by author surname or by title in the absence of an author. It should begin on a new page, and can be either single or double spaced. If single spaced, when a reference is more than one line long the extra lines are indented by a tab space (this is called a ‘hanging indent’). The preference for single or double spacing varies across faculties so you should consult your lecturer or faculty assignment writing guide about this.

>

>

066

If you have a group of references cited together in the text, they should be ordered alphabetically by first author surname: e.g. (Hawking & Weinberg 2009;
Larsen 1971; Smith 1997).

If you have no date for a reference, use n.d. (for ‘no >  your author’s name has ‘Junior’ or ‘Senior’, eg W. Strunk
If
date’) instead of the year. If you only have an
Jr, cite with just the surname in the text, eg: (Strunk & approximate date, put c. (for ‘circa’, meaning around) in
White 1979). In your reference list place Jr or Sr after the front of the year: e.g. (White n.d.) and (Beethoven c. 1813). final initial of the author’s first names, eg: Strunk W. Jr &
White E.B. 1979, The elements of style, 3rd edn, Macmillan,
New York.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

5.3

If you are using a short quote

Referencing Quotations

It has been suggested that ‘the taxation advantage enjoyed by superannuation funds, relative to private investment in shares, was somewhat neutralised in 1988’ (McGrath & Viney 1997, p. 137).

use single quotation marks and your in-text reference must give the page number(s) where the quote comes from. Use p. for a single page or pp. for several pages. For example:

When making a direct quote

We see evidence of this in Ulysses:

of more than about thirty words

do not use quotation marks but include the quote as a separate paragraph, indented from the text margin and set in smaller type. 067

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. I’m thirteen. No.
The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen. (Joyce 1992, p. 139)

If you are merely summarising or paraphrasing, rather than directly quoting, then you do not need to give page numbers. However you can if you wish, and it is strongly recommended that you do so if the work you are referencing has a large number of pages.

Continued

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

If you are sourcing a quotation from a website, you will not be

5.3

Referencing Quotations

‘A number of revenue initiatives have been released since the Government came to office, with an estimated impact of $8.9 billion over the forward estimates period’ (Department of Finance 2009, para. 5).

able to quote a page number, so instead use the paragraph number, abbreviated with the term ‘para.’

If the webpage is particularly long and unwieldy, describe the section of the website that contains your quotation in the body of your writing, and then mention the paragraph number in the intext citation.

068

In the Summer Collections section of the Fashion Report for 2013, it was predicted that ‘red would be the colour for 2014’ (Style Daily 2013, para. 16).

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

5.4

A Quote From A Work Citing Another Author

Einstein stated in 1906 that ‘time is relative’ (Thorne 2003,
p. 17).
OR
OR

According to Thorne (2003, p. 17) it was Einstein who stated that ‘time is relative’ in 1906.

OR

Einstein (1906, cited in Thorne 2003, p.17) stated that ‘time is relative’.

OR

‘Time is relative’ according to Einstein (Thorne 2003, p.
17).

OR

069

Thorne (2003, p. 17) notes that in 1906 Einstein stated that
‘time is relative’.

‘Time is relative’ (Einstein, cited in Thorn 2003, p. 17).

Sometimes a work you are using discusses a work from another author. Citing work from another author may occur in PowerPoint slides, lecture notes, books or journal articles. For example, in a book by Thorne, written in 1994, on page 78 you find a reference to a 1906 paper by Albert Einstein. To cite the work by Einstein you should mention Einstein’s paper in the text and use Thorne as your in-text reference, with page number.
In your reference list you must have the full reference for Thorne.
If you wish, you may also include the reference for Einstein (you can get this from Thorne’s bibliography), but this isn’t necessary because you haven’t actually consulted the Einstein paper directly.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

5.5

Multiple Works By Same Author

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

(Dickinson 2009a)

Dickson, A. 2009a, German pop culture: how ‘American’ is it?, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich.

(Dickinson 2009b).

In Use

Dickson, A. 2009b, New membranes and advanced materials for wastewater treatment, American Chemical Society, Washington. DC.

Distinguish two or more works in the same year by the same author by adding a, b, c after the year.

The order in the reference list is determined by the alphabetical order of the Titles.

The a, b, c is determined by the alphabetical order of the
Titles in the reference list.

070

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

5.6

Multiple Works by the Same Author from Different Years

In-text Referencing

Reference List Model

Explanation

071

(Smith 2003)

Smith, A. 2003, To truly know a dingo, Canine Group, Sydney.

(Smith 2006)

In Use

Smith, A. 2006, First impressions of the two fingered sloth, Canine Group, Sydney.

If you have two references by the same author, but the references were printed in different years, list the references in chronological order in your reference list.

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

5.7

Corporate authors with very long names

Sometimes the author of a reference can be an organisation with a long name. This makes in-text referencing difficult if you need to reference it often. To deal with this, you may use an abbreviation of the organisation’s name, if you wish, as follows.
• When you first mention the organisation in your document you need to make clear what its abbreviation is. For example (there are many ways of doing this, you can use any way that makes it clear): According to the Department of Foreign Affairs and
Trade (DFAT 2006) ...
• Thereafter in your document text you can refer to the author using its abbreviated name (in this case, as DFAT), including in any in-text references, eg (DFAT 2007).
• In your reference list, you must list all the references as normal using the full organisational name.
• You also need to put one extra entry into your reference list for the abbreviation, in the appropriate place alphabetically, indicating what the full name is. This entry is of the form: Abbreviation
- see Full name.
• Note that the abbreviation’s entry does not have a date. Note also that there might be one or more references in your list that come between the full names and the abbreviation.
072

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2006, Policy guidelines, DFAT, Canberra.
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2007, Policy amendments, DFAT, Canberra.
Derwin, J.K. 1999, ‘Referencing challenges for university students’,
Journal of Higher Education, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 34-40. Dexter, A.J. & Smith, B. 2011, Fresh water availability in New Zealand, Victoria University Press, Wellington.
DFAT - see Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Interactive Harvard UTS Referencing Guide

01. Books

02: Journals & Newspapers
03: Websites or Online

04. Other Sources
05. Ref Lists & General Rules

For more reference assistance, please visit: lib.uts.edu.au > Help > Ask a Librarian
© UTS Library 2015

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