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IT项目管理

1

项目 VS 日常运营
项 目
唯一的 临时性的 多方干系人 发起人 资源需求可变的 不确定的 所需技能多样的

日常运营
重复的 持续的 职能部门 监管者 稳定的 稳定的 专门的技能

项目生命周期
启动 计划

执行

监控

收尾

PMBOK体系
知识 领域
整合管理 范围管理 时间管理

项目管理过程组
启动 1制定项目 章程 规划 2制定项目管理计划 1收集需求 2定义范围 3工作分解结构 1定义活动 2活动排序 3估算活动资源 4估算活动 持续时间 5制定进度计划 1估算成本 2制定预算 1规划质量 1制定人力资源计划 1规划风险管理 2识别风险 3实施定性风险分析 4实施定量风险分析 5规划风险应对 2规划沟通 1规划采购 3发布信息 4管理干系人期望 2实施采购 2实施质量保证 2组建团队 3建设团队 4管理团队 6监控风险 执行 3指导与管理项目执行 监控 4监控项目工作 5整体变更控制 4核实范围 5控制范围 6控制进度 收尾 6结束项目或 阶段

成本管理 质量管理 人力资源 风险管理

九大 知识 领域 、五 大过 程组 、42 个过 程
1识别干系 人

项目 管理 矩阵 图解

3控制成本 3实施质量控制

沟通管理 采购管理

5报告绩效 3管理采购 4结束采购

三要素及其平衡
范围

质量

成本

时间

需求工程

接收 使命

使命 目标

执行 目标

检验 标准

设计 因素

NASA 需求分解

工作分解结构(WBS)
工作包 负责人 所需代价 所需资源 预估成本 前驱工作

工作分解结构词典
 账户编码标志号  工作描述  负责的组织  进度里程碑清单  相关的进度活动  所需的资源  成本估算  质量要求  验收标准  技术参考文献  合同信息

分解流程

ilities: responsibilities, capabilities, facilities, probabilities, vulnerabilities, utilities, ... ConOps: Concept of Operations

职责分配
 直接责任人Responsible  负责人Accountable

be notified  可以被告知人May be notified  参与人Participant  文档审阅人Document reviewer  输入请求人Input requested  批准人Approval required  支援人Support  把关人Gate reviewer
 必须被告知人Must

职责分配矩阵(RAM)

活动时间的三点估算法
(O

+ 4M + P) / 6

 O =最乐观时间  M =最可能时间  P =最悲观时间

紧前关系绘图法(PDM)

关键路径
 关键活动:

即在开始时间与结束时间中一个没 有可浮动时间的活动。换句话说, 如果关键活 动没有按规定的时间内完成,那么整个项目时 间链就会推迟  关键路径: 就是一条贯穿网络图表最长的路径, 所有在关键路径上的进度活动都是关键活动

路径

关键路径推算

关键路径

时间计划的粒度
 一般在40-80

工作小时左右  4%的项目总工期左右  80/20 法则: 80% 的成果可能来自 20%的工作

成本分类
 直接成本
 人工  材料  设备和物资供应  设施费用  培训费  旅差及其它费用

 间接成本
 附加福利  设施费用  管理费用

成本估算的工作分解结构(WBS)

成本术语表


EV (Earned Value)挣值


项目活动或工作分解结构组成部分的已完成工作的价值,用 分配给该工作的预算来表示。挣值应该与已完成的工作内容 相对应,是该部分已完成工作的经批准的预算 为某活动或工作分解结构组成部分的预定工作进度而分配且 经批准的预算。计划价值应该与经批准的特定工作内容相对 应,是项目生命周期中按时段分配的这部分工作的预算。 是为完成活动或工作分解结构组成部分的工作,而实际发生 并记录在案的总成本。 完工预算。项目工作、工作分解结构组成部分或进度活动的 所有预算之和,即项目的总计划价值 根据项目进展情况估计完工时项目的总成本是多少



PV (Planned Value)计划预算




AC (ActualCost)实际成本




BAC完工预算




完工估算EAC


成本术语表


CV成本偏差




SV进度偏差


成本偏差是项目成本绩效的一种指标。它等于挣值减去实际 成本 CV=EV-AC。项目结束时的成本偏差,就是完工预算( BAC)与实际总成本之间的差值 进度偏差是项目进度绩效的一种指标。它等于挣值减去计划 价值SV=EV-PV 从现在开始,到项目完成还需要花费多少的成本 ETC=BAC-AC 全部工作的预算价值与完工估算的差。VAC=BAC-EAC

 

剩余工作估算 ETC
 

完工偏差VAC

举例


某土方工程总挖方量为 4000立方米,计划用10天完成,每天400 立方米,预算单价为45元/立方米,该挖方工程预算总费用为 180000元。 开工后第7天早晨刚上班时业主项目管理人员前去测 量,取得了两个数据:已完成挖方2000立方米,支付给承包单位 的工程进度款累计已达120000元
EV=45元/立方米×2000立方米=90000元。与项目进度无直接关系, 只关系实际完成的工作量  开工后第6天结束时,承包单位应得到的工程进度款累计额为 PV=6×400×45=108000元  AC=120000  CV = CV=EV-AC=90000-120000=-30000元,表明承包单位已经超支  SV = EV-PV=90000-108000=-18000元,表明承包单位进度已经拖延  CPI= EV/AC=90000/120000=0.75;SPI=EV/PV=90000/108000=0.83 CPI和SPI都小于1,给该项目亮了黄牌


绩效指数
成本绩效指数 (CPI)
考核已完成工作的成本效率

CPI =

EV/AC

进度绩效指数 (SPI)
测量进度效率

SPI =

EV/PV

成本进度图

完工绩效指数(TCPI)


PCIB : how much of the work accomplished represents of the total budgeted (BAC) and actual (AC) dollars to date PCIB = EV/BAC TCPI = BAC – EV (working remaining) BAC – AC (funds remaining)



TCPI = 使用预算内未花完的资金,平均每分钱要完成的 工作量

软件成本估算
 自顶相下  自底向上  差别估算  专家估算  类推估算  算法估算

业界经验
Planning 15% Analysis 20% Design 35% Implementation 30%

Industry Standard For Web Applications

Time Required in Person Months

4

5.33

9.33

8

Function Point Estimation
Step One – System Size

System Elements and their Complexity
Description Inputs Outputs Queries Files Low __x 3 __x 4 __x 3 __x 7 Medium __x 4 __x 5 __x 4 __x 10 __x 7 High __x 6 __x 7 __x 6 __x 15 __x 10 Total ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Program Interface __x 5

TOTAL UNADJUSTED FUNCTION POINTS____

Function Point Estimation

Adjustments for Overall System Complexity
Scale of 1 to 5 Data Communications Heavy Use Configuration Transaction Rate End-User efficiency Complex Processing Installation Ease Multiple sites Performance Distributed functions On-line data entry On-line update Reusability Operational Ease Extensibility Project Complexity (PC) _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

Function Point Estimation
Adjusting the Function Points

Processing Complexity (PC): ________ (From Step 2) Adjusted Processing Complexity (PCA) = 0.65 + (0.01 * ____ ) Total Adjusted Function Points: _____ * ____ = (TUFP -- From Step 1)

Converting Function Points to Lines of Code
Language LOC/Function Code Point
130 110 55 50 50 30 15 15 10-40

C COBOL JAVA C++ Turbo Pascal Visual Basic PowerBuilder HTML Packages (e.g., Access, Excel)

Source: Capers Jones, Software Productivity Research

Function Point Estimation
Step Two - Effort
 Function

of size and production rate  COCOMO model Effort (in PersonMonths) = 1.4 * thousands-oflines-of-code

Example: If LOC = 10000 Then... Effort = (1.4 * 10) = 14 Person Months

Function Point Estimation
Step Three - Schedule Time
 Rule

of thumb for estimation

Schedule Time (months) = 3.0 * person-months1/3

COCOMO2
E ( person − months) =
Project Organic Semi-detached Embedded 3.2 3.0 2.8 ai ai × ( KLoC ) × EAF bi ai
1.05 1.12 1.20 bi bi

LoC: lines of code Organic - "small" teams with "good" experience working with "less than rigid" requirements Semi-detached - "medium" teams with mixed experience working with a mix of rigid and less than rigid requirements Embedded - developed within a set of "tight" constraints. It is also combination of organic and semidetached projects

EAF
×

  

Product attributes 产品特性



Hardware attributes 硬件特性
   

Required software reliability (0.75 – 1.4) Size of application database (0.94 – 1.16) Complexity of the product (0.7 – 1.65)



Personnel attributes 人员素质
    

Run-time performance constraints (1.0 – 1.66) Memory constraints (1.0 – 1.56) Volatility of the virtual machine environment (0.87 – 1.3) Required turnabout time (0.87 – 1.15) Analyst capability (1.46 – 0.71) Software engineering capability (1.42 – 0.7) Applications experience (1.29 – 0.82) Virtual machine experience (1.21 – 0.9) Programming language experience (1.14 – 0.95) Use of software tools (1.24 – 0.82) Application of software engineering methods (1.24 – 0.83) Required development schedule (1.23 – 1.1)



Project attributes 项目特性
  

质量标准
 国际
 ISO、CMM

 国家
 GB、ANSI、JIS

 行业
 FDA、IEEE、DOD

ISO 9000
 ISO 9000:《质量管理体系-基础和术语》  ISO 9001:《质量管理体系-要求》  ISO 9002:《质量管理体系-生产、安装和服务的质

量保证模式》(已被 ISO 9001 取代)  ISO 9003:《质量管理体系-最终检验和试验的质量 保证模式》(已被 ISO 9001 取代)  ISO 9004:《质量管理体系-业绩改进指南》  ISO19011:《质量和环境管理体系审核指南》

ISO 质量管理要求
 a)确定质量管理体系所需的过程及其在组织中的

应用  b)确定这些过程的顺序和相互作用  c)确定为确保这些过程有效运作和控制所需的准 则和方法  d)确保可以获得必要的资源和信息,以支持这些 过程的运作和监视  e)监视、测量和分析这些过程  f)实施必要的措施,以实现对这些过程所策划的结 果和对这些过程的持续改进

ISO 要求文档
 a)形成文件的质量方针和质量目标  b)质量手册  c)本标准所要求的形成文件的程序和记录  d)组织为确保其过程有效策划、运作和控制所

确定的必要文件和记录  e)本标准所要求的质量记录

能力成熟度模型(Capability Maturity Model)

CMM

软件质量程度

CMM关键领域

ISO VS. CMM
 ISO:  CMM:
 IT为主  持续改进过程,质量的量

 产品或服务的全过程  质量起码要求,相当

于 CMM的第3级  包括交互与安装

化  无交互与安装

项目沟通计划
 需要什么信息?  给谁信息?  使用什么沟通方法?  有无敏感限制信息?  信息何时被传达?  信息将怎么样被传达?

沟通计划表
信息内容 沟通对象 沟通时间 沟通方式 沟通者

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...- BTEC FIRST DIPLOMA BUSINESS - Unit 16: Business Enterprise Assignment [pic] [pic] • The due date for the whole assignment is Friday 25th May 2012 • You will have time allocated to complete the MERIT and DISTINCTION criteria only when the PASS criteria is completed • You will be able to gather evidence for Level 2 Key Skills in Communication, Application of Number and Information Technology from completing the assignment You will also be able to gather evidence for Key Skills Level 2 Improving Own Learning and Performance (LP2.1, Lp2.2 and LP2.3) as you plan, review and complete the assignment ASSIGNMENT TASKS The scenario You and some friends have always been interested in working for yourself rather than being an employee. You now feel it is the right time to start up a new business and so you begin to consider the idea and investigate the possibilities further with your friends. There are many ideas you have but before you can start the business you have decided to investigate what things you need to know about starting up a business. You and your friends are considering asking your bank manager to provide you with the finance for starting up the business and so it is important that you know exactly what is involved. You and your friends will have to present your business idea to the bank manager so it is important that you know what you have to......

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...to this issue. The latest issue can be found on the Edexcel website: www.edexcel.com References to third-party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.) Authorised by Roger Beard Prepared by Susan Hoxley Publications Code BH029073 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Limited 2011 Edexcel BTEC Level 4 HNC Diploma in Business Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Accounting) Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Management) Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Marketing) Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (Human...

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...ingredients of start-up right. People who are lending money look at the person first and foremost, so motivation is the most critical. You need to convince your bank manger you can make your business work because you’ve researched your market, you’ve costed out the business and you know where you want the business to be in 5 or 10 years time. A means of showing your commitment to the business would be to save and invest money. Abilities & skill: The second element is one of ability and skills. The individual has to have skills appropriate to the kind of business they’re proposing to run. And if they don’t have them, they should have a reliable person who can. It could be that one person knows how to run a business from an operational and management perspective, whereas another person has the technical skills to develop the product or service. Resources: The third element is resources. That’s not purely about money and equipment; it’s also about intellectual capability. (The ability to persuade others is important. Many entrepreneurs have been able to negotiate very favourable deals against the odds, when establishing their business). Strategy & vision: The fourth element is strategy and vision in terms of thinking four or five years ahead and having some idea of where that business might be in the future and putting in place a plan to achieve that goal. Planning & organisation: The fifth element is planning and organisation. Without planning, organisation,......

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...established a few ventures in U.S. He is the owner of Kaplan Auto Sales and Service in Indianapolis. He is into service industry. I admire him as he achieved a lot in his young age. He possesses the capability of a successful business entrepreneur. This interview help us to understand the path that the entrepreneur picks to travel. Mr. Selim Duran the owner of Kaplan Auto Sales decided to start his business in the year 2010. He has degree of Finance for four years. He also has an International business degree from his country. He has 10 years auto sales experiences various companies in U.S. He also worked private sector for 2 to 3 years in management and selling. His father is also an entrepreneur and his mom a housewife. He has a young sister is studying for accounting in United States. His interests are reading and improve his business. Selim’s father was into business so trying hands on business was much obvious. His experiences prompted him to start business. Selim was confident enough that he will flourish. He was confident that he could come up with good approaches to help clients. He selects this business as it was a service sector which was very close to his internal ambition. I would say challenges as an entrepreneur is a part of business which never ends. There is three of challenges. First of challenge, there is an unexpected over cost. For instance, some cars need unexpected parts or service. Then car cost would be over cost which means getting less......

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...A business undertaking is an organisation which is engaged in some industrial or commercial activity. It represents an institutional arrangement for carrying on any kind of business activity. It may be owned and controlled by a single individual or by a group of individuals who have entered into a formal or informal agreement to jointly conduct the business. Every business undertaking is a separate and distinct business unit. It has its own identity and separate ownership. It can be distinguished from other undertakings on the basis of its ownership, management and control. According to Wheeler, a business undertaking is a concern, company or enterprise which buys and sells, is owned by one person or a group of persons and is managed under a specific set of operating policies". Thus, a business undertaking may be defined as an organisation operating under separate ownership, management and control and carrying on any business activity with independent risk- bearing. All business undertakings are directly or indirectly engaged in the transfer or exchange of goods and services for value. They deal in goods and services on a regular basis. Their main motive is to earn profits and they are exposed to various types of risks. Characteristics of a Business Undertaking The basic features of a business undertaking are as follows: 1. Separate identity: Every business undertaking has a separate identity. It has a distinct name and separate existence. Its assets and liabilities......

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...Hotdog Franchisee Business Growth Our business plan to create and grow a large, international hotdog restaurant chain to be offered and consumed around the world, using a Franchisor licence. We aim to follow the guidance of the food chain system of McDonald’s, due to seeing them attract many customers due to their superb business system all around the world, providing their services and products consistently with no fail as well retaining a great level of customer service. Put simply we want to franchise a worldwide business providing a special ingredient of hotdogs with the franchise business system of McDonald’s. To insure the right growth in our business, we will have to keep insuring that all company based objectives are being met, as well as improve our communication of the business as a whole, internally and externally. Internal meaning our staff grow and develop each of their skills day by day through day to day training and external meaning that they are able to gain exposure and awareness or our service to our consumers, this referring to sales and marketing of course. In ways of marketing, we will have to grow our business to appeal to young people, ranging from teenagers to young adults, by raising its awareness on social media and advertising campaigns through networks such as: Instagram, Facebook, Wongnai etc. Since we aim to start our business in Thailand then to expand it to other countries in ASEAN, it is smart that we adapt the customer demand and......

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