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C Programming

In: Computers and Technology

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Welcome to CS 241
Systems Programming at Illinois
Robin Kravets

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

1

The Team


Robin Kravets





TAs




Office: 3114 SC rhk@illinois.edu Wade Fagen, Farhana Ashraf, Hilfi Alkaff and
Mainak Ghosh

Discussion Sections



8 sessions (Thursdays 9, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4)
All sections in SC 0220

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

2

News and Email


Announcements and discussions: Piazza


http://www.piazza.com/illinois/cs241






All class questions
This is your one-stop help-line!
Will get answer < 24 hours

e-mail



cs241help-fa12@cs.illinois.edu
Personal questions not postable on the news group

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

3

The Textbook


Introduction to Systems Concepts and Systems Programming







University of Illinois Custom Edition
Copyright © 2007
Pearson Custom Publishing
ISBN 0-536-48928-9

Taken from:






Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, Fifth Edition, by
William Stallings
UNIX™ Systems Programming: Communication, Concurrency, and
Threads, by Kay A. Robbins and Steven Robbins
Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective, by Randal E. Bryant and David R. O'Hallaron

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

4

Your CS 241 “Mission”


Come to class






Read textbook





20%

7:00 – 9:00 PM October 15th

Final


3%
47%

Longer MPs are worth a little more

Midterm




Reading assignments posted on webpage

Homework (1)
Programming assignments (8)




MWF, 10-10:50am
Please participate actively…
Attend 1 discussion section per week

30%

8:00-11:00 AM, December 17
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

5

It’s all about the programming!


MPs


Goal




Components for grading


Expose you to the concepts and APIs taught in class

Correctness



All individual








You can’t learn it if you don’t do it yourself! MP Contest



Memory




Memory (malloc)



Prizes and bragging rights



valgrind

Debugging




Autograder
Once a night to help you check correctness
Does not reflect grade

gdb

Knowing your code



Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

1 page write-up (6 MPs)
Oral description (1 MP)
6

Deadlines


Homework





Deadlines are strict
Late submissions will not be considered

MPs






Please respect posted deadlines to ensure quick grading Late MPs will be penalized 2% for each late hour (rounded off to the higher hour)
No submissions past 48 hours
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

7

Regrades






Considered if you were graded incorrectly Within one week of posting of grades for a quiz, homework, MP or exam
Regrades must be submitted in writing on a separate piece of paper


Please do not write on your homework,
MP or Exam
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

8

Academic Honesty







Your work in this class must be your own.
If students are found to have cheated (e.g., by copying or sharing answers during an examination or sharing code for the project), all involved will at a minimum receive grades of 0 for the first infraction and reported to the academic office.
Further infractions will result in failure in the course and/or recommendation for dismissal from the university. Department honor code: https://wiki.engr.illinois.edu/display/undergradProg/ Honor+Code
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

9

What is cheating in a programming class?


At a minimum








Copying code
Copying pseudo-code
Copying flow charts







Consider
Did some one else tell you how to do it?

Does this mean I can’t help my friend?
No, but don’t solve their problems for them

Not cheating






Discussing high-level approaches Discussing MP requirements, C language, tools
Helping each other with debugging Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

10

Getting The Most Out Of Any
Class


Get the big picture





Why are we doing this?
Why is it important?

Understand the basic principles 



If you know how to apply them, you can work out the details

Learn why things work a certain way




Automatic vs. manual, elegant vs. ad hoc, solved problem vs. open Think about the costbenefit trade-offs


Performance vs. correctness, development time vs. benefit Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

11

Getting The Most Out Of This
Class







Attend the lectures, use videos as a back up
Pay attention to the discussions
Ask questions, and participate
Do the exercises in class
Start the assignment the day it’s handed out, not the day it’s due

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

12

What is systems programming? Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

13

What is systems programming? sys·tem Noun /’sistəm/

1. A set of connected things or parts forming a larger and more complex whole.
2. An integrated set of elements that accomplish a defined objective
 Examples: Digestive system, economic system, ecosystem, social systems


Computer systems: collections of programs



Search engines, social networks, databases, Internet
In this class, we learn how to design and implement computer systems
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

14

Challenges in programming computer systems







Sharing resources among programs
Preventing malicious/incorrect programs from interfering with other programs Coordinating operations of multiple programs Communicating information between programs Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

15

What is an operating system and why do I need one?


What do we have?


Set of common resources

My Computer
Hardware

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

16

What is an operating system and why do I need one?


What do we have?




Set of common resources

What do we need?

My Computer
Hardware

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

17

What is an operating system and why do I need one?
Application Software


What do we have?


Firefox Set



Yahoo of common resources
Second Life

What do we need?


Hardware

Chat

GMail

A clean way to allow applications to use these resources!
Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

18

Application Requirements
Application Software
Firefox

Hardware

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

19

Two Applications?
Application Software
Firefox

Hardware

Second Life

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

20

Managing More Applications?
Application Software
Firefox

Hardware

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

21

We need help!
Application Software
Firefox

Hardware

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

22

Approach: Find Common
Functions
Application Software
Firefox

Hardware

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

23

Delegate Common Functions
Application Software
Firefox

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Operating System
Read/Write

Hardware

Standard
Output

Device
Control

File
System

Communication

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

24

Export a Standard Interface
Application Software
Firefox

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Standard Operating System Interface

Operating System
Read/Write

Hardware

Standard
Output

Device
Control

File
System

Communication

Network

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

25

Goal: Increase Portability
Application Software
Firefox

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Standard Operating System Interface

Operating System
Read/Write

Standard
Output

Device
Control

File
System

Communication

Network

Hardware
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

26

Machine Independent = Portable
Application Software
Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Portable

Machine Independent

Firefox

Standard Operating System Interface

Operating System
Read/Write

Standard
Output

Device
Control

File
System

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

Communication

27

OS Runs on Multiple Platforms
Application Software

Machine Specific

Machine Independent

Firefox

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Standard Operating System Interface

Operating System
Read/Write

Standard
Output

Device
Control

File
System

Communication

Network

Hardware
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

28

OS Runs on Multiple Platforms
Application Software

Machine Specific

Machine Independent

Firefox

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

Standard Operating System Interface

Operating System
Read/Write

Standard
Output

Device
Control

File
System

Communication

Network

Hardware

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

29

POSIX
The UNIX Interface Standard
Application Software
Firefox

Second Life

Yahoo
Chat

GMail

POSIX Standard Interface

Unix
Read/Write

Standard
Output

Device
Control

File
System

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

Communication

30

Big goal: modularity




Modularity: Decomposition of a large task into smaller reusable components with well-known interfaces between them
Advantages
 Simplicity
 Portability
 Re-use common functions
 Abstraction: hide details of implementation

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

31

Course Questions





What are the right abstractions and interfaces to let pieces of a system work together smoothly?
…and how do I use them?
What goes on “behind the scenes” in interfaces I’ve been using?




Memory, files, network, …

How do we tame the complexity of a big system?
 “Systems programming” is a lot more than just programming! Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

32

Course Objectives


By the end of this course, you should be able to:






Use the system effectively





Identify the basic components of an operating system
Describe their purpose
Explain the “black box” abstract interface and how they function “inside the box”
Write, compile, debug, and execute C programs
Correctly use system interfaces provided by UNIX (or a
UNIX-like operating system)

Build your own large, multi-process, networked applications Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

33

Course Outline




Week 1-2: Nuts & bolts
 Manipulate pointers and memory
 Use UNIX system calls from within C programs
 MP1: working with C pointers & strings
Week 3-4: Memory
 Understand memory allocation and virtualization
 MP2: malloc (+contest!)

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

34

Course outline




Week 5-6: Parallelism
 Create and manage processes and threads
 Control scheduling of proc./threads
 MP3: Shell
 MP4: Multithreaded sorting
 MP5: Scheduling algorithm simulator
Week 7-11: Cooperating parallelism
 Communicating & sharing resources between proc./threads  MP6: Parallel make
 MP7: MapReduce
Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

35

Course outline




Week 12-13: Networking
 Use communication protocols (TCP/IP) and interfaces (Sockets)
 Write distributed multi-threaded apps that talk across a network
 MP8: Web server (*)
Week 14: Additional OS concepts
 I/O and file systems

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

36

Complete Schedule


See class webpage http://courses.engr.illinois.edu/cs241/  Schedule is dynamic
 Check regularly for updates



Slides will be posted by the night before class 


Bring a print out of the sides to class
Some class material may not be in slides


Examples may be worked out in class

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

37

Your to-do List


Visit the class webpage


Check out all the info





Especially schedule, grading policy, homework & MP hand-in instructions, and resources

Familiarize yourself with Piazza
Find a reference to refresh your C programming skills


http://www.lysator.liu.se/c/bwk-tutor.html

Copyright ©: University of Illinois CS 241 Staff

38

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Ledger C Programming

...printf("\n\n\n\n\n\n\n"); printf("\n\t\t\t* Mark Rude Personal Ledger *"); printf("\n\n"); while (1) { printf("\n Enter:"); printf("\n A - Add new record"); printf("\n L - List records"); printf("\n D - Delete all records"); printf("\n E - Exit\n"); scanf("%c", &choice); choice=toupper(choice); switch(choice) { case 'A': add();break; case 'L': list();break; case 'D': deleterec();break; case 'E': exit(0); default: system("cls"); } } } void add() { FILE *f; char test; f=fopen("c:/mark.txt","ab+"); if(f==0) { f=fopen("c:/mark.txt","wb+"); system("cls"); } system("cls"); printf("\n Enter phone number:"); scanf("%s",&s.phonenumber); printf("\n Enter name:"); fflush(stdin); scanf("%[^\n]",&s.name); printf("\n Enter amount:"); scanf("%f",&s.amount); fwrite(&s,sizeof(s),1,f); fflush(stdin); system("cls"); printf("1 record successfully added\n"); fclose(f); printf("Hit any key to return"); getchar(); } void list() { FILE *f; int i; if((f=fopen("c:/mark.txt","rb"))==NULL) { system("cls"); printf("No accounts available\n"); } else { system("cls"); printf("Phone Number\t\tUser Name\t\t\tAmount"); while(fread(&s,sizeof(s),1,f)==1) { printf("\n%-10s\t\t%-20s\t\t%.2f......

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